The Box Tops
The Box Tops were an American rock band, formed in Memphis in 1963. They are best known for the hits The Letter, Cry Like a Baby, vocalist Alex Chilton went on to front the power pop band Big Star and to launch a career as a solo artist, during which he occasionally performed songs he had sung with the Box Tops. The Box Tops music combined elements of music and light pop. Their records are prime examples of the made popular by Moman. Many of their lesser known Top 40 hits, including Neon Rainbow, I Met Her in Church, the Box Tops began as The Devilles, who had started playing in Memphis in 1963. As the bands personnel changed from time to time, so did the name on occasion, which at one point became Ronnie. One member of the Originals was Terry Manning, who would serve as engineer for some Box Tops recordings. By January 1967 the group was composed of founding member Danny Smythe, along with newer arrivals John Evans, Alex Chilton, Bill Cunningham, Gary Talley, and Larry Spillman. They would soon change their name to Box Tops to prevent confusion with another band recording at the time with the name The Devilles, as the Box Tops, they entered the studio under the guidance of producer Dan Penn to record Wayne Carson Thompsons song The Letter.
Though under two minutes in length, it was a hit by September 1967, reaching Billboards number-one position. The record, produced by Dan Penn, sold four million copies. The band followed up The Letter with Neon Rainbow, another tune penned by Thompson, an album called The Letter/Neon Rainbow appeared in November 1967. The Box Tops would actually release three albums over a period from late 1967 to mid-1968. However, the group members performed on a number of their recordings, including The Letter. By January 1968, John Evans and Danny Smythe returned to school and they were replaced by bassist Rick Allen and drummer Thomas Boggs. Cry Like a Baby was a million-seller in 1968, peaking at #2 on the Hot 100 and it has been covered by the Hacienda Brothers and Kim Carnes. I Met Her In Church and Choo-Choo Train were smaller hits released that year, towards the end of 1968, the band switched producers, with Dan Penn being replaced by the team of Cogbill and Chips Moman. This team was responsible for producing the bands final 1968 hit Sweet Cream Ladies, Forward March and all the bands future releases through 1971
Eva Narcissus Boyd, known by the stage name of Little Eva, was an American pop singer. Born in Belhaven, North Carolina, she moved to the Brighton Beach section of Brooklyn, New York, as a teenager, she worked as a maid and earned extra money as a babysitter for songwriters Carole King and Gerry Goffin. It is often claimed that Goffin and King were amused by Boyds particular dancing style, music producer Don Kirshner of Dimension Records was impressed by the song and Boyds voice and had it released. The song reached #1 in the United States in 1962 and it sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc. After the success of The Loco-Motion, Boyd was stereotyped as a singer and was given limited material. The same year and King wrote He Hit Me after discovering that Boyd was being beaten by her boyfriend. When they inquired why she tolerated such treatment, Eva replied without batting an eyelid that her boyfriends actions were motivated by his love for her, phil Spectors arrangement of the song was ominous and ambiguous.
In more ironic hands, He Hit Me might have passed at least as satire, but Spector showed no sign of appreciating that, nor did he feel any need to. No less than the writers, he was not preaching. Boyds other single recordings were Keep Your Hands Off My Baby, Lets Turkey Trot, Boyd recorded the song Makin With the Magilla for an episode of the 1964 Hanna-Barbera cartoon series The Magilla Gorilla Show. She continued to tour and record throughout the sixties, but her commercial potential plummeted after 1964 and she retired from the music industry in 1971. She never owned the rights to her recordings, although the prevailing rumor in the 1970s was that she had received only $50 for The Loco-Motion, it seems $50 was actually her weekly salary at the time she made her records. Penniless, she returned with her three children to North Carolina, where they lived in obscurity. She returned to performing with other artists of her era on the cabaret. She occasionally recorded new songs, the only existing footage of Little Eva performing Loco-Motion is a small clip from the ABC sixties live show Shindig.
Where she sang a version of the clip along with the famous dance steps. She sang Lets Turkey Trot and the Exciters song I Want You to Be My Boy in the same episode and this TV show was one of her final performances until 1988, when she began performing in concerts with Bobby Vee and other singers. In a 1991 Richard Nader concert, she performed Loco-Motion and Keep Your Hands Off My Baby, the concert was partially documented on videotape, albeit of marginal quality
Brenda Lee is an American performer and the top-charting solo female vocalist of the 1960s. She sang rockabilly and country music, and had 47 US chart hits during the 1960s, and is ranked fourth in that decade surpassed only by Elvis Presley, the Beatles and Ray Charles. She is perhaps best known in the United States for her 1960 hit Im Sorry, and 1958s Rockin Around the Christmas Tree and she is a member of the Rock and Roll, Country Music and Rockabilly Halls of Fame. She is a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award recipient, Brenda currently lives in Nashville, Tennessee. Brenda Lee was born Brenda Mae Tarpley on December 11,1944, to parents Annie Grace, Lee was born in the charity ward of Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. She weighed 4 pounds 11 ounces at birth, Lee attended grade schools wherever her father found work, primarily between Atlanta and Augusta. Her family was poor, often living hand-to-mouth, as a child, she shared a bed with her brother and sister in a series of three-room houses without running water.
Life centered around her parents finding work, their family, and the Baptist church, Lees father was a farmers son in Georgias red-clay belt. Standing 5 ft 7 inches, he was an excellent left-handed pitcher and her mother came from an under-educated working class family in Greene County, Georgia. Though her family did not have indoor plumbing until after her fathers death, by the time she was two, she could whistle the melody of songs she heard on the radio. Both her mother and sister remembered taking her repeatedly to a candy store before she turned three, one of them would stand her on the counter and she would earn candy or coins for singing. Lees voice, pretty face and stage presence won her wider attention from the time she was five years old, at age six, she won a local singing contest sponsored by local elementary schools. The reward was an appearance on an Atlanta radio show, Starmakers Revue. Her father died in 1953, and by the time she turned ten, she was the breadwinner of her family through singing at events and on local radio.
In 1955, Grayce Tarpley was remarried to Buell Jay Rainwater, who moved the family to Cincinnati, Lee performed with Skinner at the record shop on two Saturday programs broadcast over Newport, Kentucky radio station WNOP. The family soon returned to Georgia, this time to Augusta, an Augusta disc jockey persuaded Foley to hear her sing before the show. Foley was as transfixed as everyone else who heard the voice coming from the tiny girl and immediately agreed to let her perform Jambalaya on stage that night. Foley recounted the moments following her introduction, The audience erupted in applause, on March 31,1955, the 10-year-old made her network debut on Ozark Jubilee in Springfield, Missouri
Sam the Sham
Domingo Sam Samudio, better known by his stage name Sam the Sham, is a retired American rock and roll singer. Sam the Sham was known for his robe and turban. As the front man for the Pharaohs, he sang on several Top 40 hits in the mid-1960s, notably the Billboard Hot 100 runners up Wooly Bully and Lil Red Riding Hood. Samudio, who is of Mexican American descent, made his debut in second grade. Later, he took up guitar and formed a group with friends, after graduating from high school, Samudio joined the Navy, where he was known as Big Sam. He lived in Panama for six years, until his discharge, back in the States, Samudio enrolled in college, studying voice at Arlington State College, now the University of Texas at Arlington. I was studying classical in the daytime and playing rock and roll at night and that lasted about two years, before I dropped out and became a carny. In Dallas in 1961, Sam formed The Pharaohs, the name inspired from the costumes in Yul Brynners portrayal as pharaoh in the 1956 film The Ten Commandments, the other members of The Pharaohs were Carl Miedke, Russell Fowler, Omar Big Man” Lopez and Vincent Lopez.
In 1962 the group made a record that did not sell, in May 1963, Vincent Lopez was playing for Andy and The Nightriders in Louisiana. When their organist quit, Sam joined and The Nightriders was Andy Anderson, David A. Martin, Vincent Lopez and Sam. The Nightriders became house band at The Congo Club near Leesville and it was here that Sam took the name Sam the Sham from a joke about his inability as a vocalist. In June 1963, The Nightriders headed for Memphis, Tennessee, in late summer 1963, Andy Anderson and Vincent Lopez left to return to Texas. Sam and David A. Martin replaced them with Jerry Patterson and Ray Stinnett and changed the name to Sam the Sham, shortly thereafter, the band added saxophonist Butch Gibson. After paying to record and press records to sell at gigs, Sam the Sham, they recorded their first and biggest hit, Wooly Bully, a song about Sams cat in late 1964. It was awarded a gold disc, although Wooly Bully never reached #1, it lingered on the Hot 100 for 18 weeks, the most weeks for any single within the calendar year 1965,14 of which were in the Top 40.
The Pharaohs next releases – Ju Ju Hand and Ring Dang Doo- were minor successes, in late 1965,11 months after Wooly Bully, David A. Martin, Jerry Patterson, Ray Stinnett, and Butch Gibson left over a financial dispute. Sams manager, Leonard Stogel, discovered Tony Gee & The Gypsys at the Metropole Cafe in Times Square, the band were Tony Butch Gerace Frankie Carabetta Billy Bennett and Andy Kuha. This new set of Pharaohs recorded Lil Red Riding Hood, the track did even better by Cash Box Magazines reckoning, reaching #1 the same week
Dobie Gray was an American singer and songwriter, whose musical career spanned soul, country and musical theater. His hit records included The In Crowd in 1965 and Drift Away, which was one of the biggest hits of 1973, sold one million copies. He was born near Houston and his birth name was most likely Lawrence Darrow Brown, listed in Fort Bend County birth records as being born in 1940 to Jane and Jethro C. Brown. Other sources suggest he may have been born Leonard Victor Ainsworth and he discovered gospel music through his grandfather, a Baptist minister. In the early 1960s he moved to Los Angeles, intending to pursue a career while singing to make money. He recorded for local labels under the names Leonard Ainsworth, Larry Curtis. They suggested that he record under the name Dobie Gray, an allusion to the then-popular sitcom The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. His first taste of success came in 1963 when his seventh single Look At Me, on the Cor-Dak label and recorded with bassist Carol Kaye, his first album, Look. failed to sell.
Greater success came in early 1965 when his recording of The In Crowd reached #13. Written by Billy Page and arranged by his brother and produced by Fred Darian, Grays record reached #11 on the US R&B chart, and #25 in the UK. Gray continued to record, though with little success, for labels such as Charger and White Whale. He spent several years working as an actor, including 2½ years in the Los Angeles production of Hair, in 1970, while working there, he joined a band, Pollution, as singer and percussionist. They were managed by actor Max Baer Jr. and released two albums of soul-inspired psychedelic rock, Pollution I and Pollution II, the band included singer Tata Vega and guitarist/singer James Quill Smith. He worked at A&M Records on demo recordings with songwriter Paul Williams, in 1972, he won a recording contract with Decca Records to make an album with producer Mentor Williams -- Pauls brother -- in Nashville. Among the songs recorded at the Quadrafonic Sound Studios, co-owned by session musicians Norbert Putnam and David Briggs, was Mentor Williams Drift Away.
Released as a single, the rose to #5 on the US pop chart. It placed at #17 in the Billboard Year-End Hot 100 singles of 1973, sold one million copies. The follow-up, a version of Tom Jans much-covered song Loving Arms, in the mid-1970s, he moved permanently to Nashville and signed for Capricorn Records, writing songs in collaboration with Troy Seals
Blue-eyed soul is rhythm and blues and soul music performed by white artists. The term was coined in the mid-1960s, to describe artists who performed soul and R&B that was similar to the music of the Motown. Though many rhythm and blues radio stations would play music by black musicians. The Righteous Brothers named their 1964 LP Some Blue-Eyed Soul, Blue-eyed soul was applied to such artists as Sonny & Cher, the Beatles, Tom Jones, Barry McGuire, and Roy Head. White musicians playing R&B music, began before the term blue-eyed soul was coined, lonnie Macks 1963 gospel-infused vocals earned him widespread critical acclaim as a blue-eyed soul singer. Groups such as The Rascals had soul-tinged pop songs, but it was the vocals of Felix Cavaliere that gave them the blue-eyed soul sound. By the mid-1960s, British singers Dusty Springfield, Eric Burdon, Blue-eyed soul singer, Chris Clark became the first white singer to have an R&B hit with Motown Records in 1966. In 1967, Jerry Lee Lewis, whose latter days at Sun Records had been characterized by R&B covers and Bonnie produced the blue-eyed soul album Home on Stax in 1969.
Michael Sembello, who left home at age 17 to tour with Stevie Wonder and performed on numerous blue-eyed soul hits for Wonder, Brian McKnight, David Sanborn, Bill Champlin and Bobby Caldwell. Todd Rundgren began his career in Woodys Truck Stop, a based on the model of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band. He left the band to form the rock band Nazz in 1967. Outside the Anglo-American scene, in Italy and Carmen Villani fused elements of music with the traditional Italian pop music. Carola and Doris were notable Scandinavian artists who were influenced by soul music, in February 1975, Tower of Power became the first white/mixed act to appear on Soul Train. Also in 1975, David Bowie, another early white artist to appear on Soul Train, released Young Americans and it featured the funk-inspired Fame, which became Bowies first number-one hit in the US. Hall & Oates 1975 Silver Album includes the ballad Sara Smile, shes Gone, another soulful hit, was originally released in 1973 but did better as a re-release after Sara Smile.
Boz Scaggs 1976 Lowdown, which featured Scaggs laid-back vocals and a funky groove. In April 1976, The Faragher Brothers became the first all-white ensemble to make an appearance on Soul Train. In September that year, white funk band Wild Cherry released the Billboard Hot 100 chart topping funk/rock single Play That Funky Music, the single would eventually sell 2.5 million copies
William Everett Billy Preston was an American musician whose work included R&B, soul and gospel. He went on to fame as a solo artist, with hit pop singles including Thats the Way God Planned It, Outa-Space, Will It Go Round in Circles, Space Race. Preston was the musician to be credited on a Beatles recording other than the groups four members. Preston was born on September 2,1946 in Houston, when he was three, the family moved to Los Angeles, where Preston began playing piano while sitting on his mother Robbies lap. Noted as a prodigy, Preston was entirely self-taught and never had a music lesson. By the age of ten, Preston was playing organ onstage backing several gospel singers such as Mahalia Jackson, James Cleveland, at age eleven, Preston appeared on Nat King Coles national TV show singing the Fats Domino hit, Blueberry Hill with Cole. Also at eleven, he appeared in the W. C, handy biopic starring Nat King Cole, St. Louis Blues, playing W. C. In 1962, Preston joined Little Richards band as an organist, in 1963, he played the organ on Sam Cookes Night Beat album and released his own debut album,16 Yr Old Soul, for Cookes SAR Records label.
In 1965, he released the album The Most Exciting Organ Ever and performed on the rock, in 1967, he joined Ray Charles band. Following this exposure, several musicians began asking Preston to contribute to their sessions, Preston first met the Beatles as a 16-year-old in 1962, while part of Little Richards touring band, when their manager Brian Epstein organized a Liverpool show, at which the Beatles opened. The Washington Post explained their subsequent meeting, Preston is one of people referred to as the Fifth Beatle. At one point during the Get Back sessions, John Lennon proposed the idea of having him join the band. Preston played with the Beatles for several of the Get Back sessions, some of the material from which would be culled to make the film Let it Be, Preston accompanied the band for its rooftop concert, the groups final public appearance. In April 1969, their single Get Back was credited to The Beatles with Billy Preston, the credit was bestowed by the Beatles to reflect the extent of Prestons presence on the track, his electric piano is prominent throughout and he plays an extended solo.
Preston worked, in a limited role, on the Abbey Road album, contributing to the tracks I Want You. In 1978, he appeared as Sgt, pepper in Robert Stigwoods film Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band, which was based on the Beatles album of the same name, and sang Get Back as the penultimate song. Signed to the Beatles Apple Records label, in 1969, Preston released the album Thats the Way God Planned It, produced by Harrison, Preston worked on solo releases by Lennon and Ringo Starr
Willie Hugh Nelson is an American musician, songwriter, poet and activist. He was one of the figures of outlaw country, a subgenre of country music that developed in the late 1960s as a reaction to the conservative restrictions of the Nashville sound. Nelson has acted in over 30 films, co-authored several books, and has involved in activism for the use of biofuels. Born during the Great Depression, and raised by his grandparents, Nelson wrote his first song at age seven, during high school, he toured locally with the Bohemian Polka as their lead singer and guitar player. After graduating from school in 1950, he joined the Air Force but was discharged due to back problems. After his return, Nelson attended Baylor University for two years but dropped out because he was succeeding in music, during this time, he worked as a disc jockey in Texas radio stations and a singer in Honky-tonks. Nelson moved to Vancouver, where he wrote Family Bible, in 1958, he moved to Houston, Texas after signing a contract with D Records.
He sang at the Esquire Ballroom weekly and he worked as a disk jockey, during that time, he wrote songs that would become country standards, including Funny How Time Slips Away, Hello Walls, Pretty Paper, and Crazy. In 1960 he moved to Nashville and signed a contract with Pamper Music which allowed him to join Ray Prices band as a bassist. In 1962, he recorded his first album. And Then I Wrote, due to this success, Nelson signed in 1964 with RCA Victor and joined the Grand Ole Opry the following year. After mid-chart hits in the late 1960s and the early 1970s, Nelson retired in 1972 and moved to Austin, the ongoing music scene of Austin motivated Nelson to return from retirement, performing frequently at the Armadillo World Headquarters. In 1973, after signing with Atlantic Records, Nelson turned to country, including albums such as Shotgun Willie. In 1975, he switched to Columbia Records, where he recorded the acclaimed album. The same year, he recorded another outlaw country album, the Outlaws, along with Waylon Jennings, Jessi Colter, and Tompall Glaser.
In 1990, Nelsons assets were seized by the Internal Revenue Service, the difficulty of paying his outstanding debt was aggravated by weak investments he had made during the 1980s. In 1992, Nelson released The IRS Tapes, Wholl Buy My Memories, the profits of the double album—destined to the IRS—and the auction of Nelsons assets cleared his debt. During the 1990s and 2000s, Nelson continued touring extensively, reviews ranged from positive to mixed. He explored genres such as reggae, jazz, Nelson made his first movie appearance in the 1979 film The Electric Horseman, followed by other appearances in movies and on television
Samuel David Sam Moore is an American Southern soul and R&B singer and songwriter who was the tenor vocalist for the soul vocal duo Sam & Dave from 1961 to 1981. Moore is a member of the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, the Grammy Hall of Fame, the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, and a Grammy Award, Sam & Dave were the most successful and critically acclaimed duo in soul music history. Moore has achieved a distinguished 25-year career as a performing and recording artist. In 2008, based on a poll of other musicians, Rolling Stone named Moore one of the 100 greatest singers of the rock era, Moore performed at the inaugural concert in Washington D. C. on January 19,2017. Moore is best known for his work as Sam of the music duo Sam & Dave. Moore has performed in concerts, ranging from the Atlantic Records 40th anniversary party in 1988, to the New Orleans Jazz Festival and the SXSW Music Industry conference in 2006. Music critic Dave Marsh, a friend of Moore and the editor and co-writer of Moores book. In 2006, Moore received a MOBO lifetime achievement award in the UK, Sam Moore and Dave Prater were both experienced gospel music singers, having performed individually with groups the Sensational Hummingbirds and The Melionaires.
They met in The King of Hearts Club in Miami in 1961, where they were discovered by regional producer Henry Stone, who signed them to Roulette Records. After modest success at Roulette, they were signed by Jerry Wexler to Atlantic Records in 1964, being loaned out to Stax Records to produce and release their records. The duos November 1965 single, You Dont Know Like I Know, Im Comin, You Got Me Hummin, When Something Is Wrong with My Baby, Soul Man, and I Thank You. Most of their hits were penned by Isaac Hayes and David Porter, in most recordings, they were backed by Hayes on piano with Booker T and the MGs and The Memphis Horns. The ending of their association with the Stax record label and their frequently volatile relationship contributed to their first break-up in 1970. Sam & Dave performed throughout most of the 1970s through 1981 and their last performance together was on December 31,1981, at the Old Waldorf in San Francisco. On 9 April 1988, Prater died in a car crash in Sycamore, Moore began his solo career after breaking up with Prater in June 1970, and was offered to record several singles with Atlantic Records in 1970 and 1971.
These singles, along with recordings made during that period, were to be released on an album produced by King Curtis. However, in August 1971, King Curtis was murdered, Moore got back together with Prater in August 1971 and the two performed and recorded together over the next decade. Moore toured with soul artists including Wilson Pickett in Europe in the spring of 1982
The Drifters are a long-lasting American doo-wop and R&B/soul vocal group. They were originally formed to serve as a group for Clyde McPhatter in 1953. According to Rolling Stone magazine, the Drifters were the least stable of the vocal groups, as they were low-paid musicians hired by George Treadwell. There have been 60 vocalists in the history of the Treadwell Drifters line and these groups are usually identified with a possessive credit such as Bill Pinkneys Original Drifters, Charlie Thomas Drifters, etc. There were three Golden eras of the Drifters, the early 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s, from these, the first Drifters, formed by Clyde McPhatter, was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as The Drifters. The second Drifters, featuring Ben E. King, was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as Ben E. King. In their induction, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame selected four members from the first Drifters, two from the second Drifters, and one from the post-Atlantic Drifters.
According to the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, Through turmoil and changes, matching that feat, subsequent formations of the Drifters recorded 13 Billboard Hot 100 top 30 chart hits. To many fans and historians, The Drifters means Clyde McPhatter, McPhatter was lead tenor for Billy Ward and His Dominoes for three years, starting in 1950. It was McPhatters high-pitched tenor that was responsible for the Dominoes success. In 1953, Ahmet Ertegün of Atlantic Records attended a Dominoes performance at Birdland and noticed Clyde wasnt present, as Jerry Wexler recalls, Ahmet exited Birdland like a shot and headed directly uptown. He raced from bar to bar looking for Clyde and finally found him in a furnished room and that very night, Ahmet reached an agreement with McPhatter under which Clyde would assemble a group of his own. They became known as the Drifters, wanting to blend gospel and secular sounds, Clydes first effort was to get members of his old church group, the Mount Lebanon Singers. They were William Chick Anderson, Charlie White, David Baldwin, James Wrinkle Johnson, after a single recording session of four songs on June 29,1953, Ertegün realized that this combination didnt work and had McPhatter recruit another lineup.
McPhatter was barely known during his time with the Dominoes, and he was passed off as Clyde Ward. In other instances people assumed it was Billy Ward doing the singing, money Honey was a huge success and propelled the Drifters to immediate fame. More lineup changes followed, after Ferbee was involved in an accident and left the group, Adams was replaced by Jimmy Oliver. However, Ferbee was not replaced, the parts were shifted around
Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Originally used to independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock. In the mid-1980s, the term began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels. Some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s, during the 1990s, Grunge bands broke into the mainstream, and the term alternative lost its original counter-cultural meaning. The term indie rock became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status, by the end of the 1990s indie rock developed subgenres and related styles including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock and math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands played a stripped-down.
The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands, The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives, emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the 2000s the proliferation of bands was being referred to as indie landfill. The term indie rock, which comes from independent, describes the small and relatively low-budget labels on which it is released, the influences and styles of the artists have been extremely diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes, in fact, there is an everlasting list of genres and subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed a local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, Indie rock has been identified as a reaction against the macho culture that developed in alternative rock in the aftermath of Nirvanas success.
However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels. The BBC documentary Music for Misfits, The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks, Indie pop and indie were originally synonymous. In the mid-1980s, indie began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves. The indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the rock that dominated college radio playlists. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr
Three Dog Night
Three Dog Night is an American rock band. They formed in 1967 with a line-up consisting of vocalists Danny Hutton, Cory Wells and this lineup was soon augmented by Jimmy Greenspoon, Joe Schermie, Michael Allsup, and Floyd Sneed. The band registered 21 Billboard Top 40 hits between 1969 and 1975 and it helped introduce mainstream audiences to the work of many songwriters, including Paul Williams, Hoyt Axton, Laura Nyro, Harry Nilsson, Randy Newman, and Leo Sayer. On colder nights they would sleep with two dogs and, if the night was freezing, it was a three dog night. The three vocalists, Danny Hutton, Chuck Negron and Cory Wells first came together in 1967 and made recordings with Brian Wilson. Ron Morgan left the early on and subsequently went on to join the Electric Prunes. Michael Allsup was quickly recruited to replace him on guitar, Three Dog Night earned 12 gold albums and recorded 21 consecutive Billboard Top 40 hits, seven of which went gold. Their first gold record was One, which had been written and recorded by Harry Nilsson.
The group had three US #1 songs, each of which featured a different lead singer, Mama Told Me Not to Come, which was their only Top 10 hit in the UK, Joy to the World, and Black and White. Dunhill Records claimed that 40 million record albums were sold by the band during this time, as its members wrote just a handful of songs on the albums, most songs Three Dog Night recorded were written by outside songwriters. Three Dog Night made its debut in 1968 at the Whiskey a Go Go. They were still in the process of making their first album Three Dog Night when they heard the favorable reactions from the hypercritical audience. The album Three Dog Night was a success with its hit songs One and Nobody and helped the band gain recognition, other damages were sought due to ATI taking deposits for booking Three Dog Night, whom they no longer represented. Joe Schermie was replaced by Jack Ryland in 1973, and the became an eight-piece with the inclusion of another keyboard player. In late 1974, Allsup and Sneed left to form a new band, SS Fools, with Schermie.
New members James Smitty Smith and drummer Mickey McMeel were recruited, by 1976, their run of hit records had ended and Hutton was succeeded by Jay Gruska. Hours before their first concert of their 1975 tour, Chuck Negron was arrested for the possession of narcotics but was released on $10,000 bond. After writing a couple of songs for them, and doing background vocals on one of their albums, I was asked to do a national tour of 10 to 12 thousand seat venues as the ‘3rd Dog’