Yahoo! Search Marketing
Yahoo Search Marketing is a keyword-based "Pay per click" or "Sponsored search" Internet advertising service provided by Yahoo. Yahoo began offering this service after acquiring Overture Services, Inc.. GoTo.com was an Idealab spin off and was the first company to provide a pay-for-placement search service following previous attempts that were not well received. GoTo.com was an Idealab spin off and was the first company to provide a pay-for-placement search service. It started off with the purchase of one of the oldest search engines. GoTo.com is considered to have been an influential pioneer of paid search. In February 1998, GoTo offered advertisers the option of bidding on how much they would be willing to pay to appear at the top of results in response to specific searches; the bid amount was paid by the advertiser to GoTo every time a searcher clicked on a link to the advertiser's website. By July 1998, advertisers were paying anything up to a dollar per click. In June 1999, GoTo launched a tool set direct traffic centre to enable advertisers access to keywords and real time bidding.
GoTo's business model was based on the idea that its paid listings would make it more relevant than other services for general searches, web sites that pay more are better sites. A similar service had been offered by Open Text in 1996, but this precipitated outcries and bad publicity because searchers at the time did not want the search process more commercialized. GoTo.com was the 19th most visited website by web traffic as of 1999. In contrast, GoTo's pay-for-placement model was successful. Commentors theorised that the web had matured in the intervening two years, these type of economic models were more acceptable since the web was no longer just a place for academic research, but a place for buying products. GoTo founder Bill Gross speculated at the launch that GoTo would succeed because, as a new service, it had no reputation to taint with paid listings, unlike Open Text. On October 8, 2001, GoTo.com, Inc. renamed itself Inc.. GoTo's chief operating officer Jaynie Studenmund said "We felt it was a sophisticated enough name, in case our products expand."
Through partnerships, Overture enabled portals such as MSN and Yahoo to monetize the hundreds of millions of web searches made each day on their sites. Indeed, these partnerships proved lucrative, in a period otherwise marked by dot-com failures, Overture became a substantial profit driver for portals like YahooThis success enabled Overture to acquire web sites such as AltaVista and AlltheWeb. On October 7, 2003, Overture was acquired by Yahoo!, for $1.63 billion. The old brand name of Overture was phased out as Yahoo rebranded many of its products under the Yahoo name; the exception to this was in Japan and Korea where the local businesses continued to use the Overture brand. In May 1999, GoTo.com filed a patent application titled "System and method for influencing a position on a search result list generated by a computer network search engine". The patent was granted as US 6269361 in July 2001. A related patent has been granted in Australia and other patent applications remain pending. Prior to its acquisition by Yahoo, Overture initiated infringement proceedings under this patent against FindWhat.com in January 2002 and Google in April 2002.
The lawsuit against Google related to its AdWords service. In February 2002, Google introduced a service called AdWords Select that allowed marketers to bid for higher placement in marked sections - a tactic that had some similarities to Overture's search-listing auctions. Following Yahoo's acquisition of Overture, the lawsuit was settled with Google agreeing to issue 2.7 million shares of common stock to Yahoo in exchange for a perpetual license. In 2013, the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals held in Lens.com, Inc. v. 1-800 Contacts, Inc. that online contact lens seller Lens.com did not commit trademark infringement when it purchased Yahoo and Google AdWords search advertisements using competitor 1-800 Contacts' federally registered 1800 CONTACTS trademark as a keyword. In August 2016, the Federal Trade Commission filed an administrative complaint against 1-800 Contacts alleging, among other things, that its search advertising trademark enforcement practices have unreasonably restrained competition in violation of the FTC Act.
1-800 Contacts has denied all wrongdoing and was scheduled to appear before an FTC administrative law judge in April 2017. In April 2003, Overture announced a three-year partnership with Gator Corporation, an adware company. Under the partnership, Gator's software monitored a web-user's activity on web sites and search engines and grabbed search keywords; these keywords were submitted to the Overture search engine. As a result, advertisers who paid for listings in Overture found their products advertised through Gator's Search Scout software if they wanted nothing to do with Gator. Overture faced a great deal of criticism for entering into this partnership; when Yahoo acquired Overture, the Claria software impaired the operation of Yahoo's services. For example, when a user with a Claria application installed used Yahoo Search, they received a standard set of Yahoo results with sponsored listings at the top supplied by Overture; the user would receive a full-screen pop-under window from Search Scout.
Since Search Scout uses Overture's paid listings as well, Claria's window has the same listings as the Yahoo search results. Subsequently, Yahoo came out with the Yahoo Toolbar, which allows users to remove adware and spyware from their system; the toolbar
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
TED Conferences LLC is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution under the slogan "ideas worth spreading." TED was conceived by Richard Saul Wurman in February 1984 as a conference. TED's early emphasis was on design, consistent with its Silicon Valley origins, it has since broadened its perspective to include talks on many scientific, cultural and academic topics. It is owned and curated by Chris Anderson, a British-American businessman, through the Sapling Foundation; the main TED conference is held annually in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada at the Vancouver Convention Centre. Prior to 2014, the conference was held in Long Beach, United States. TED events are held throughout North America and in Europe and Africa, offering live streaming of the talks, they address a wide range of topics within the research and practice of science and culture through storytelling. The speakers are given a maximum of 18 minutes to present their ideas in the most innovative and engaging ways they can.
Past speakers include Bill Clinton, Sean M. Carroll, Elon Musk, Ray Dalio, Cédric Villani, Stephen Hawking, Jane Goodall, Al Gore, Temple Grandin, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Billy Graham, Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Bill Gates, Dolph Lundgren, Bob Weir, Shashi Tharoor, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Leana Wen, Pope Francis, many Nobel Prize winners. TED's current curator is Chris Anderson, a British-American businessman, computer journalist and magazine publisher. Since June 2006, TED Talks have been offered for free viewing online, under an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives Creative Commons license, through TED.com. As of January 2018, over 2,600 TED Talks are available on the website. In June 2011, TED Talks' combined viewing figure stood at more than 500 million, by November 2012, TED Talks had been watched over one billion times worldwide. TED Talks given by academics tend to be watched more online while art and design videos tend to be watched less than average. TED was conceived in 1984 by architect and graphic designer Richard Saul Wurman, who observed a convergence of the fields of technology and design.
The first conference, organized by Harry Marks and Wurman in the same year, featured demos of the compact disc, co-developed by Philips and Sony and one of the first demonstrations of the Apple Macintosh computer. Presentations were given by famous mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot and influential members of the digerati community, like Nicholas Negroponte and Stewart Brand; the event was financially unsuccessful. From 1990 onward, a growing community of "TEDsters" gathered annually at the event in California State University Monterey Bay, until 2009, when it was relocated to Long Beach, California due to a substantial increase in attendees; the speakers had been drawn from the fields of expertise behind the acronym TED, but during the nineties, the roster of presenters broadened to include scientists, musicians, religious leaders and many others. In 2000, looking for a successor at age 65, met with new-media entrepreneur and TED enthusiast Chris Anderson to discuss future happenings. Anderson's UK media company Future bought TED.
In November 2001, Anderson's non-profit The Sapling Foundation acquired TED from Future for £6m. In February 2002, Anderson gave a TED Talk in which he explained his vision of the conference and his future role of curator. Wurman left after the 2002 conference. In 2006, attendance cost was by invitation only; the membership model was shifted in January 2007 to an annual membership fee of $6,000, which includes attendance of the conference, club mailings, networking tools, conference DVDs. The 2018 conference was $10,000 per attendee. In 2014, the conference was relocated to Vancouver. TED is funded by a combination of various revenue streams, including conference attendance fees, corporate sponsorships, foundation support, licensing fees, book sales. Corporate sponsorships are diverse, provided by companies such as Google, GE, AOL, Goldman Sachs, The Coca-Cola Company, among others. Sponsors do not participate in the creative direction of the event, nor are they allowed to present on the main stage, in the interests of independence.
The TED staff consists of about 180 people headquartered in New York Vancouver. The TED Prize was introduced in 2005; until 2010, it annually granted three individuals $100,000 and a "wish to change the world". Each winner unveils their wish at the main annual conference. Since 2010, in a changed selection process, a single winner is chosen to ensure that TED can maximize its efforts in achieving the winner's wish. In 2012, the prize was not awarded to an individual, but to a concept connected to the current global phenomenon of increasing urbanization. In 2013, the prize amount was increased to $1 million. TED Prize winners in previous years: TED Conference commissioned New York artist Tom Shannon to create a prize sculpture to be given to all TED Prize winners; the sculpture consists of an eight-inch diameter aluminum sphere magnetically levitated above a walnut disc. In 2005, Chris Anderson hired June Cohen as Director of TED Media. In June 2006, after Cohen's idea of a TV show based on TED lectures was rejected by several networks, a selection of talks that had received the highest audience ratings was posted on the websites of TED, YouTube, iTunes, under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0.
Only a handful of talks were posted, to test if there was an audience for them. In