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The gas constant is denoted by the symbol R or R. It is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure–volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle. The constant is a combination of the constants from Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, Gay-Lussac's law, it is a physical constant, featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, such as the ideal gas law and the Nernst equation. Physically, the gas constant is the constant of proportionality that relates the energy scale in physics to the temperature scale, when a mole of particles at the stated temperature is being considered. Thus, the value of the gas constant derives from historical decisions and accidents in the setting of the energy and temperature scales, plus similar historical setting of the value of the molar scale used for the counting of particles; the last factor is not a consideration in the value of the Boltzmann constant, which does a similar job of equating linear energy and temperature scales.

The gas constant R is defined as the Avogadro constant NA multiplied by the Boltzmann constant k: R = N A k, Since the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, which came into effect on 20 May 2019, both NA and k are defined with exact numerical values when expressed in SI units. As a consequence, the value of the gas constant is exactly defined, at 8.31446261815324 J⋅K−1⋅mol−1. Some have suggested that it might be appropriate to name the symbol R the Regnault constant in honour of the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault, whose accurate experimental data were used to calculate the early value of the constant; the gas constant occurs in the ideal gas law, as follows: P V = n R T = m R s p e c i f i c T where P is the absolute pressure, V is the volume of gas, n is the amount of gas, m is the mass contained in V, T is the thermodynamic temperature. Rspecific is the mass-specific gas constant; the gas constant is expressed in the same physical units as molar heat capacity. From the ideal gas law PV = nRT we get: R = P V n T where P is pressure, V is volume, n is number of moles of a given substance, T is temperature.

As pressure is defined as force per unit area, the gas equation can be written as: R = f o r c e a r e a × v o l u m e a m o u n t × t e m p e r a t u r e Area and volume are 2 and 3 respectively. Therefore: R = f o r c e 2 × 3 a m o u n t × t e m p e r a t u r e = f o r c e × l e n g t h a m o u n t × t e m p e r a t u r e Since force × length = work: R = w o r k a m o u n t × t e m p e

The American Journal of Nursing is a monthly peer-reviewed nursing journal. It was established in 1900; the editor-in-chief is Maureen Shawn Kennedy and it is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. In 2009 the journal was selected as one of the "100 Most Influential Journals in Biology and Medicine in the Last 100 Years" by the Biomedical and Life Sciences Division of the Special Libraries Association; the American Journal of Nursing was established in 1900 as its official journal by the Associated Alumnae of Trained Nurses of the United States which became the American Nurses Association. Isabel Hampton Robb, Lavinia Dock, Mary E. P. Davis and Sophia Palmer are credited with founding the journal, the latter serving as the first editor. Other editors have included Mary M. Roberts, Nell V. Beeby, Jeanette V. White, Edith P. Lewis, Barbara G. Schutt, Thelma M. Schorr, Mary B. Mallison, Lucille A. Joel, Diana J. Mason and Maureen S. Kennedy https://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/EditorialBoard.aspx.

The journal was published by J. B. Lippincott & Co.. In 1996 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins purchased the journal from the ANA of which it ceased to be the official journal, to the disappointment of editor Mason; the journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 1.389. Lewis, Edith Patton; the Story of the American Journal of Nursing Company 1900/1960. New York: The American Journal of Nursing Company. OCLC 456313958. Wheeler, CE. "The American Journal of Nursing and the socialization of a profession, 1900-1920". Advances in Nursing Science. 7: 20–34. Doi:10.1097/00012272-198501000-00006. PMID 3917644. Official website

Katie Trumpener is the Emily Sanford Professor of Comparative Literature and English at Yale University. She won a Rose Mary Crawshay Prize, Berlin Prize, she received a B. A. in English from the University of Alberta in 1982, an A. M. in English and American Literature from Harvard University in 1983, a Ph. D. in Comparative Literature from Stanford University in 1990. Prior to joining the faculty at Yale in 2002, Trumpener taught at the University of Chicago from 1990. At Yale, Trumpener has served as Acting Director of the Whitney Humanities Center and the Director of Graduate Studies in Comparative Literature, she serves on the Editorial Committee of Public Culture and the Editorial Boards of New German Critique and Arcade. Her work has been focused on the period of the late eighteenth century through to the present, her interests include the history of the British and European novel, other anglophone fiction, European film history, visual culture and music. She is researching and teaching on the history of children's literature, Jane Austen and British colonialism, the institutionalization of Marxist aesthetics in postwar Central Europe.

Trumpener's first book, Bardic Nationalism: The Romantic Novel and the British Empire, published by Princeton University Press in 1997 was awarded the 1998 Modern Language Association Prize for a First Book and the British Academy's 1998 Rose Mary Crawshay Prize. The book links the literary and intellectual history of England and Ireland to that of the overseas colonies of the British Empire, studying the relation of these histories to the origins and formation of British cultural nationalism, the novel, the literary history of the English-speaking world, she co-edited with Richard Maxwell The Cambridge Companion to Fiction in the Romantic Period, published in 2008. Her forthcoming The Divided Screen: The Cinemas of Postwar Germany will be published by Princeton University Press. “Goethe in Chains. West Berlin'at 750': The Politics of Commemoration”. Telos 74. New York: Telos Press. Faculty profile from Yale University Department of English

Outer Space Jitters is a 1957 short subject directed by Jules White starring American slapstick comedy team The Three Stooges. It is the 182nd entry in the series released by Columbia Pictures starring the comedians, who released 190 shorts for the studio between 1934 and 1959; the Stooges tell their infant sons a story about the time they blasted to outer space. In this story, the Stooges are assistants to Professor Jones; the planet's leader, the Grand Slitz of Sunev greets them cordially enough, but it soon becomes apparent that he has plans to bring prehistoric men to life and take over the planet Earth. No sooner does Professor Jones catch onto the Grand Slitz's plan does he end up being tied up. In the interim, the Stooges engage in some flirtatious activity with several Sunevian girls. At dinner, an alien leader, known as The High Mucky Muck tells the Stooges to eat heartily and enjoy their meal, for it will be their last; the trio make a quick dash for the spaceship, but not before encountering a prehistoric goon.

The boys manage to free Professor Jones and destroy the equipment that would have conquered the Earth. Outer Space Jitters was filmed on July 25, 1957. Outer Space Jitters features Moe and Larry's more "gentlemanly" haircuts, first suggested by Joe Besser; these had to be used sparingly, as most of the shorts with Besser were remakes of earlier films, new footage had to be matched with old. In Outer Space Jitters, Larry's frizz is combed back, while Moe retained his sugarbowl bangs; this seeming inconsistency accommodated the gag of a frightened Moe with hair standing on end. This short marks one of the few moments; as the professor and The Three Stooges are being introduced to the leader of Sunev, Larry says, "And don't forget to see Pal Joey, folks." This is a reference to the film of the same name, released two months earlier. List of American films of 1957 Outer Space Jitters on IMDb Outer Space Jitters at AllMovie Outer Space Jitters at threestooges.net

Mundaring is a suburb located 34 km east of Perth on the Great Eastern Highway. The suburb is located within the Shire of Mundaring; the Aboriginal name of the area "Mindah-lung", said to mean "a high place on a high place", was anglicised to become "Mundaring". The Mundaring area is considered to be part of the Perth Hills area; the Mundaring region is well served by weekly and monthly newspapers: Chidlow Chatter Darlington Review – locality specific The Echo – weekly – Midland based Hills Gazette – weekly Mundaring magazine – monthlyEarlier newspapers in the area included: The Darling Swan Express – although Midland based, had considerable space to "Hills" storiesIt is extracted in entries in the J S Battye Library catalogue with items about the Hills. The only railway line current in the Mundaring Shire – is the third route of the Eastern Railway which passes through Bellevue and Swan View; the railway routes mentioned below – first route and second route are no longer operational – and constitute sections of the Railway Reserve Heritage Trail.

The Eastern Railway passed through Mundaring on its first route through to Chidlow. Mundaring railway station, the branch railway leading from it – the Mundaring Weir Branch Railway were significant locations for the construction of the Mundaring Weir. Following the construction of the second route of the Eastern Railway, the Mundaring line served as an alternative to the second route at the time of accidents and derailments, until its closing to traffic in 1954; the line through Mundaring was known as the Mundaring Loop to railway administration in its years of operation, while in earlier years it was known as Smiths Mill Branch. The line served a small population but played an integral part in the development and history of Mundaring; the Mundaring Hotel opened opposite the Mundaring Railway Station in 1899 and served patrons on the route. Mundaring was the location of a Bureau of Mineral Resources Geophysical Observatory from 1959 to April 2000; the annual reports from the Observatory constituted the seismic record of the state of Western Australia for that period of time as well as reports and summaries of activity.

The town lies within the Mundaring-Kalamunda Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance as a non-breeding season roost site and foraging base for the long-billed black cockatoos. Elliot, Ian. Mundaring – A History of the Shire. Mundaring: Mundaring Shire. ISBN 978-0-9592776-0-9. Spillman, Ken. Life was meant to be here: community and local government in the Shire of Mundaring. Mundaring: Mundaring Shire. ISBN 978-0-9592776-3-0. Watson, Lindsay; the railway history of Midland Junction: commemorating the centenary of Midland Junction, 1895-1995. Swan View, WA: L & S Drafting in association with the Shire of Swan and the Western Australian Light Railway Preservation Association. ISBN 978-0-646-24461-7. Shire of Mundaring Website Mundaring Tourism Association Website Mundaring and Hills Historical Society Website Lost Mundaring and Surroundings Local History Museum Website Golden Pipeline Website

Kenmare is a city in Ward County, North Dakota, United States. The population was 1,096 at the 2010 census. Kenmare is part of the Minot Micropolitan Statistical Area. Kenmare was platted in 1897; the city most was named after Kenmare, in Ireland. Kenmare is located at 48°40′30″N 102°4′43″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.24 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,096 people, 480 households, 281 families living in the city; the population density was 883.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 558 housing units at an average density of 450.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 1.2% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 480 households of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.5% were non-families.

36.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the city was 46.7 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.5% male and 49.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,081 people, 468 households, 278 families living in the city; the population density was 872.8 people per square mile. There were 553 housing units at an average density of 446.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.33% White, 0.56% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.09% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.19% of the population. There were 468 households out of which 23.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families. 38.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 22.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 30.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was \$30,057, the median income for a family was \$40,125. Males had a median income of \$27,031 versus \$17,826 for females; the per capita income for the city was \$15,428. About 10.0% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kenmare has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Welcome to Kenmare, North Dakota: "home of the Danish Mill." from the Digital Horizons website