Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in Asia and the smallest state located entirely within the Himalaya mountain range. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by China in the north, Bhutan lacks a border with nearby Nepal due to the Indian state of Sikkim and with Bangladesh due to the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center, the independence of Bhutan has endured for centuries and the territory was never colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country, Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with the Peoples Republic of China.
The King of Bhutan is known as the Dragon King, Bhutan is notable for pioneering the concept of gross national happiness. The countrys landscape ranges from subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north. The highest mountain in Bhutan is the Gangkhar Puensum, which is a candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. There is diverse wildlife in Bhutan, in South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom, ease of doing business and peace, second in per capita income and is the least corrupt country, as of 2016. However, Bhutan continues to be a least developed country, hydroelectricity accounts for the major share of its exports. The government is a parliamentary democracy, Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the United Nations, SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Royal Bhutan Army maintains extensive military relations with the Indian Armed Forces.
The precise etymology of Bhutan is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the Tibetan endonym Bod used for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta end of Tibet, since the 17th century the official name of Bhutan has been Druk yul and Bhutan only appears in English-language official correspondence. Names similar to Bhutan — including Bohtan, Bottanthis, jean-Baptiste Taverniers 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
The takin, called cattle chamois or gnu goat, is a goat-antelope found in the eastern Himalayas. The four subspecies are, B. t. taxicolor, the Mishmi takin, B. t. bedfordi, the Shaanxi takin or golden takin, B. t. tibetana, the Tibetan or Sichuan takin, and B. t. whitei, the Bhutan takin. Whilst the takin has in the past been placed together with the muskox in the tribe Ovibovini and its physical similarity to the muskox is therefore an example of convergent evolution. The takin is the animal of Bhutan. The takin rivals the muskox as the largest and stockiest of the subfamily Caprinae, which includes all goats, short legs are supported on large, two-toed hooves, which have a highly developed spur. The body is stocky and the chest is deep, the large head is made more distinctive by the long, arched nose, and stout horns that are ridged at the base and can reach 64 cm in length. Both sexes have small horns which run parallel to the skull and turn upwards in a short point, the long, shaggy coat is light in color, with a dark stripe along the back, and males have dark faces.
Four subspecies of takin are currently recognised, and these tend to show a variation in coat color and their thick wool often turns black in color on their undersides and legs. The legend of the fleece, searched for by Jason. The hairs of the species can range from 3 cm, on the flanks of the body in summer, up to 24 cm, Takin stand 97 to 140 cm at the shoulder and measure a relatively short 160–220 cm in head-and-body length. The tail adds only a further 12 to 21.6 cm, weights reported are somewhat variable, but the species is quite heavy. According to most reports, the males are larger, reportedly weighing 300–350 kg against 250–300 kg in females. However, per Betham, females are larger, with the largest captive takin known to the author, at 322 kg, other sources report that takin can weigh up to 400 kg or 600 kg in some cases. Rather than localised scent glands, the takin has an oily and this is likely the reason for the swollen appearance of the face. Due to this feature, biologist George Schaller likened the takin to a bee-stung moose and their combination of features has earned them the nicknames cattle chamois and gnu goat.
Takin are found from forested valleys to rocky, grass-covered alpine zones, the Mishmi takin occurs in eastern Arunachal Pradesh, while the Bhutan takin is in western Arunachal Pradesh and Bhutan. Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh is a stronghold of both Mishmi, Upper Siang and Bhutan takins, the largest actively breeding herd of Takin in North America can be found at the Wilds in Cumberland, Ohio. They are part of a Species Survival Plan through the Association of Zoos, a captive population exists at Minnesota Zoo in the United States
The domestic yak is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalaya region of southern Central Asia, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia. It is descended from the wild yak, the English word yak is a loan originating from Tibetan, གཡག་, Wylie, g. yag. In Tibetan, it only to the male of the species. In English, as in most other languages that have borrowed the word, Yaks belong to the genus Bos and are therefore related to cattle. Mitochondrial DNA analyses to determine the history of yaks have been inconclusive. Except where the wild yak is considered as a subspecies of Bos grunniens, Yaks are heavily built animals with a bulky frame, sturdy legs, and rounded cloven hooves, and extremely dense, long fur that hangs down lower than the belly. While wild yaks are generally dark, blackish to brown, in colouration, domestic yaks can be variable in colour, often having patches of rusty brown. They have small ears and a forehead, with smooth horns that are generally dark in colour.
In males, the horns sweep out from the sides of the head, the horns of females are smaller, only 27 to 64 cm in length, and have a more upright shape. Both sexes have a neck with a pronounced hump over the shoulders, although this is larger. Males weigh 350 to 580 kg, females weigh 225 to 255 kg, wild yaks can be substantially heavier, males reaching weights of up to 1,000 kilograms. Both sexes have long hair with a dense woolly undercoat over the chest, flanks. Especially in males, this may form a skirt that can reach the ground. The tail is long and horselike rather than tufted like the tails of cattle or bison, domesticated yaks have a wide range of coat colours, with some individuals being white, brown, roan or piebald. The udder in females and the scrotum in males are small and hairy, Yaks grunt and, unlike cattle, are not known to produce the characteristic bovine lowing sound, which inspired the scientific names of both yak variants, Bos grunniens and Bos mutus. Conversely, yaks do not thrive at lower altitudes, and begin to suffer from heat exhaustion above about 15 °C, further adaptations to the cold include a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, and an almost complete lack of functional sweat glands.
Compared with domestic cattle, the rumen of yaks is unusually large and this likely allows them to consume greater quantities of low-quality food at a time, and to ferment it longer so as to extract more nutrients. Yak consume the equivalent of 1% of their body weight daily while cattle require 3% to maintain condition, contrary to popular belief and their manure have little to no detectable odour when maintained appropriately in pastures or paddocks with adequate access to forage and water
Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found mainly in Bhutan and the former Tibet. The architecture is massive in style with towering exterior walls surrounding a complex of courtyards, administrative offices, use of unique style flared roofs atop interior temples. Massive entry doors made of wood and iron Interior courtyards and temples brightly colored in Buddhist-themed art motifs such as the ashtamangala or swastika, dzongs serve as the religious, military and social centers of their district. They are often the site of an annual tsechu or religious festival, the rooms inside the dzong are typically allocated half to administrative function, and half to religious function, primarily the temple and housing for monks. This division between administrative and religious functions reflects the duality of power between the religious and administrative branches of government. Tibet used to be divided into 53 prefecture districts called dzongs, there were two dzongpöns for each dzong, a lama and a layman.
Today,71 counties in the Tibet Autonomous Region are called dzongs in the Tibetic languages, bhutanese dzong architecture reached its zenith in the 17th century under the leadership of Ngawang Namgyal, the 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche. The Zhabdrung relied on visions and omens to site each of the dzongs, modern military strategists would observe that the dzongs are well-sited with regard to their function as defensive fortresses. Drukgyel Dzong at the head of the Paro valley guards the traditional Tibetan invasion path over the passes of the high Himalayas, dzongs were frequently built on a hilltop or mountain spur. Punakha Dzong is distinctive in that it is sited on a relatively flat spit of land at the confluence of the Mo, the rivers surround the dzong on three sides, providing protection from attack. By tradition, dzongs are constructed without the use of architectural plans, instead construction proceeds under the direction of a high lama who establishes each dimension by means of spiritual inspiration.
In previous times the dzongs were built using corvée labor which was applied as a tax against each household in the district. Under this obligation each family was to provide or hire a number of workers to work for several months at a time in the construction of the dzong. Dzongs comprise heavy masonry walls surrounding one or more courtyards. The main functional spaces are arranged in two separate areas, the administrative offices, and the religious functions - including temples and monks accommodation. The main internal structures are built with stone, and whitewashed inside and out. The larger spaces such as the temple have massive internal timber columns, smaller structures are of elaborately carved and painted timber construction. The roofs are constructed in hardwood and bamboo, highly decorated at the eaves
Laya is a Tibetic variety spoken by indigenous Layaps inhabiting the high mountains of northwest Bhutan in the village of Laya, Gasa District. Speakers inhabit the regions of Thimphu and Punakha Districts. Its speakers are ethnically related to the Tibetans, most speakers live at an altitude of 3,850 metres, just below the Tsendagang peak. Laya speakers are called Bjop by the Bhutanese, sometimes considered a condescending term, there were 1,100 speakers of Laya in 2003. Laya is a variety of Dzongkha, the language of Bhutan. There is a limited mutual intelligibility with Dzongkha, mostly in basic vocabulary, layap Laya Gewog Laya village Languages of Bhutan
Tibet Autonomous Region
The Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. Within China, Tibet is identified as an autonomous region, the current borders of Tibet were generally established in the eighteenth century and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. In 1950, the Peoples Liberation Army defeated the Tibetan army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo, in 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Chinese Central Peoples Government affirming Chinas sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later, the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet an administrative division that is equivalent in status to a Chinese province. The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on earth, in northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres.
Mount Everest is located on Tibets border with Nepal, Chinas provincial-level areas of Xinjiang and Sichuan lie to the north and east, respectively, of the Tibet AR. There is a border with Yunnan province to the southeast. The PRC has border disputes with the Republic of India over the McMahon Line of Arunachal Pradesh, the disputed territory of Aksai Chin is to the west, and its boundary with that region is not defined. The other countries to the south are Myanmar and Nepal. Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the region in the west and north-west, and the river region. On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, the system at no point narrows to a single range, generally there are three or four across its breadth. Other lakes include Dagze Co, and Pagsum Co, the lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang or Northern Plateau by the people of Tibet and it is some 1,100 km broad, and covers an area about equal to that of France.
Due to its distance from the ocean it is extremely arid. The mountain ranges are spread out, disconnected, separated by flat valleys. The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled, the lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent
Dzongkha, or Bhutanese, is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan, it is the sole official and national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. The Tibetan alphabet is used to write Dzongkha, the word dzongkha means the language of the district, kha is language, and dzong is district. District-like dzong architecture characterises monasteries, established throughout Bhutan by its unifier, Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche, as of 2013, Dzongkha had 171,080 native speakers and about 640,000 total speakers. Dzongkha and its dialects are the native tongue of eight districts of Bhutan. There are some speakers found near the Indian town of Kalimpong, once part of Bhutan, Dzongkha was declared as the national language of Bhutan in 1971. Dzongkha study is mandatory in all schools in Bhutan, and the language is the lingua franca in the districts to the south, the 2003 Bhutanese film Travellers and Magicians is entirely in Dzongkha. The Tibetan alphabet used to write Dzongkha has thirty basic letters, sometimes known as radicals, Dzongkha is usually written in Bhutanese forms of the Uchen script, forms of the Tibetan alphabet known as Jôyi cursive longhand and Jôtshum formal longhand.
The print form is simply as Tshûm. There are various ways of Romanization and transliteration systems for Dzongkha, the phonetic transliteration was developed by the linguist George van Driem. Dzongkha is usually described as having three tones, high and low, however, in monosyllabic words, each tone can occur with two distinct contours. The unaspirated stops /p/, /t/, /c/, and /k/ typically become voiced in the low tone and are pronounced, the sounds are regarded as allophones. Similarly, the stops, and are typically lightly aspirated in the low tone. The dialect of the social strata in Lhasa does not use voiced stops in the low tone. The alveolar trill is in distribution of the alveolar approximant, therefore. The voiceless alveolar lateral approximant resembles the voiceless lateral fricative found in languages such as Welsh. The consonants /m/, /ŋ/, /p/, /r/, /l/, the Classical Tibetan final /n/ is still present, but its modern pronunciation is normally realized as a nasalisation of the preceding vowel, rather than as a discrete consonant.
However, /k/ is not pronounced in the position of a word except in very formal speech. Also, syllable-final /r/ and /l/ are often not clearly pronounced but realized as a lengthening of the preceding vowel
Glaciers of Bhutan
The glaciers of Bhutan, which covered about 10 percent of the total surface area in the 1980s, are an important renewable source of water for Bhutans rivers. Fed by fresh snow each winter and slow melting in the summer, Glacial melt adds to monsoon-swollen rivers which may be a contributing factor to flooding. Where glacial movement temporary blocks riverflows, downstream areas may be threatened by glacial lake outburst flood, although GLOFs are not a new phenomenon in Bhutan, their frequency has risen in the past three decades. Significant GLOFs occurred in 1957,1960,1968 and 1994, devastating lives, bhutanese territory contains some 677 glaciers and 2,674 glacial lakes and subsidiary lakes, out of which 25 pose a risk of GLOFs. The vast number of glaciers in Bhutan are classed as valley and mountain glaciers, although significant numbers of ice apron, some glacial lakes, such as Thorthormi Lake in Lunana Gewog, are not a single bodies of water but collections supraglacial ponds. Most glacial lakes identified as potentially dangerous feed into the Manas River, for public safety, these glaciers and glacial lakes are maintained by the Ministry of Economic Affairs Department of Geology and Mines, an executive agency of the government of Bhutan.
The Department, as part of its mitigation projects, aims to lower the levels of glacial lakes. In 2001, for example, scientists identified Lake Thorthormi as one that threatened imminent, the situation was eventually relieved by carving a water channel from the lip of the lake to relieve water pressure. The Department uses silent explosives and other means it considers environmentally friendly in order to minimize the impact of its mitigation projects. These projects, remain difficult to conduct because of the weather, terrain, as of September 2010, GLOF early warning systems were slated for installation by mid-2011 in Punakha and Wangdue Phodrang Districts at a cost of USD4.2 million. Because the state of glaciers in Bhutan involves questions of climate change, the member nations of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation adopted bilateral agreements including measures on climate change and glaciers at its summit in April 2010. Further studies in 2009 indicated the rate of melt in Bhutan was three times the world average, and that over the previous three decades regional temperatures had risen by 2.7 °C.
Satellite imaging confirmed changes in glaciers and snow peaks, indicating increased runoff, opinions varied on the effect of global warming in the Himalaya. According to US geological survey report,66 glaciers in Bhutan have decreased by 8.1 percent in the last 30 years. Debris cover, such as rocks and mud, set apart the relatively stable glaciers of the Himalaya from the glaciers of the Tibetan Plateau. Lunana glacier group and Lunana Gewogs, Gasa District Thorthormi Glacier, Thorthormi Lake, which appeared sometime after 1967, is the largest lake in Lunana, with a width of 30 metres. It is just over 2 square kilometres and 107 metres deep, luggye Glaciers 1,2, and Lake. Luggye Lake first appeared in 1967, has a depth of 142 metres, and it produced a significant GLOF in 1994
Punakha District is one of the 20 dzongkhags comprising Bhutan. It is bordered by Thimphu and Wangdue Phodrang Districts, the dominant language in the district is Dzongkha, the national language. Pungtang Dechen Photrang Dzong at Punakha, the administrative and religious center of the district, is the home of Bhutans Dratshang Lhentshog. Since the 1680s the dzong has been the site of a vigil over the earthly body of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, the founder of the country. Punakha dzong was the capital of Bhutan during the time of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, the Punakha Dzong is one of the most historic dzongs in the whole country. Built by Shabdrung Ngwang Namgyal in the 17th century, it is located between the confluence of two rivers, Pho Chhu and Mo Chhu. Khamsum Yulley Namgyal Choeten Punakha District is divided into eleven blocks, Over half of Punakha District lies within Jigme Dorji National Park. The dzongkhag contains biological corridors along the Thimphu District border
A dzo is a hybrid between the yak and domestic cattle. The word dzo technically refers to a hybrid, while a female is known as a dzomo or zhom. In Mongolian it is called khainag, there is the English language portmanteau term of yattle, a combination of the words yak and cattle, as well as yakow, a combination of the words yak and cow. Dzomo are fertile while dzo are sterile, as they are a product of the hybrid genetic phenomenon of heterosis, they are larger and stronger than yak or cattle from the region. In Mongolia and Tibet, khainags are thought to be more productive than cattle or yaks in terms of milk and meat production. As a result, many supposedly pure yak or pure cattle probably carry each others genetic material. In Mongolia and Tibet, the result of a khainag crossed with either a bull or yak bull is called ortoom. Bovid hybrid Yakalo The Dzo, hybrid of Bull and Yak