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Gascon language

Gascon is a dialect of Occitan, considered by some linguists to be a separate language. It is spoken in Gascony and Béarn in southwestern France and in the Aran Valley of Catalonia. Aranese, a southern Gascon variety, is spoken in Catalonia and has been influenced by Catalan and Spanish. Both these influences tend to differentiate it more and more from the dialects of Gascon spoken in France. Since the 2006 adoption of the new statute of Catalonia, Aranese is co-official with Catalan and Spanish in Catalonia; the majority of scholars think. Some authors reject this opinion and the name Occitan, thinking that there is a family of distinct lengas d'òc rather than dialects of a single language. Gascon, in particular, is distinct enough linguistically that it has been described as a language of its own; the language spoken in Gascony before Roman rule was part of the Basque dialectal continuum. There is a proven Basque substrate in the development of Gascon; this explains some of the major differences that exist between other Occitan dialects.

A Gascon feature that may arise from this substrate is the change from "f" to "h". Where a word began with in Latin, such as festa'party/feast', this sound was weakened to aspirated and in some areas, lost altogether. A similar change took place in continental Spanish. Thus, Latin facere gives Spanish hacer. Although some linguists deny the plausibility of the Basque substrate theory, it is assumed that Basque, the "Circumpyrenean" language, is the underlying language spreading around the Pyrenees onto the banks of the Garonne River, maybe as far east as the Mediterranean in Roman times. Basque eroded across Gascony in the High Middle Ages, with vulgar Latin and Basque interacting and mingling, but with the former replacing the latter north of the east and middle Pyrenees and developing into Gascon.:250, 255However, modern Basque has had lexical influence from Gascon in words like beira, polit to mention but a few. One way for the introduction of Gascon influence into Basque came about through language contact in bordering areas of the Northern Basque Country, acting as adstrate.

The other one takes place since the 11th century over the coastal fringe of Gipuzkoa extending from Hondarribia to San Sebastian, where Gascon was spoken up to the early 18th century and used in formal documents until the 16th century, with evidence of its continued occurrence in Pasaia in the 1870s. A minor focus of influence was the Way of St James and the establishment of ethnic boroughs in several towns based on the privileges bestowed on the Francs by the Kingdom of Navarre from the 12th to the early 14th centuries, but the variant spoken and used in written records is the Occitan of Toulouse. A poll conducted in Béarn in 1982 indicated that 51% of the population could speak Gascon, 70% understood it, 85% expressed a favourable opinion regarding the protection of the language. However, use of the language has declined over recent years as a result of the Francization taking place during the last centuries, as Gascon is transmitted to young generations any longer; the usual term for Gascon is "patois", a word designating in France a non-official and devaluated dialect or language, regardless of the concerned region.

It is in Béarn that the population uses concurrently the term "Béarnais" to designate its Gascon forms. This is because of the political past of Béarn, independent and part of a sovereign state from 1347 to 1620. In fact, there is no unified Béarnais dialect, as the language differs throughout the province. Many of the differences in pronunciation can be divided into east and south. For example, an'a' at the end of words is pronounced "ah" in the west, "o" in the east, "œ" in the south; because of Béarn's specific political past, Béarnais has been distinguished from Gascon since the 16th century, not for linguistic reasons. As a consequence of the linguistic continuum of occidental Romania and the French influence over the Hispanic Mark on the medieval times, shared similar and singular features are noticeable between Gascon and other Latin languages on the other side of the frontier: Aragonese and ultraoccidental Catalan Gascon is one of the Romance influences in Basque language. Occitan conjugation Languages of France Vergonha Darrigrand, Robert.

Comment écrire le gascon. Denguin: Imprimerie des Gaves. ISBN 2868660061. Leclercq, Jean-Marc. Le Gascon de poche. Assimil. ISBN 2-7005-0345-7

René Quinton

René Quinton, was a French physiologist and aviation pioneer. At the end of the 19th century, Quinton worked with Étienne-Jules Marey, Member of academy of medicine and president of the academy of sciences. Quinton worked as assistant at the Laboratoire de Pathologie Physiologique in the Collège de France, he studied temperatures and salt concentration between species. Quinton observed that ocean water is quite similar to human blood and made it drinkable and injectable, his work was significant in the development of aviation. Quinton co-founded the Aero Club de France. In 1908, he founded the first school for pilots in the world named Ligue Nationale Aérienne with Ferdinand Ferber. Quinton worked with Paul Doumer, André Michelin and Paul Painlevé. Quinton was a member of a Parisian group of literary personalities called the "Forty-five," who honoured achievements in literature and arts. In May 1908 Ferber addressed the group at Quinton's suggestion and after he received a standing ovation for his accomplishments in aviation, Quinton was inspired to establish a 10,000 francs prize for the first person to fly for 5 minutes with engine stopped and without losing more than 50 metres altitude.

Quinton Pointhttp://www.originalquinton.com/about/ https://www.shopbiocean.com/en/page/about-us Le plasma de Quinton, le sérum de la vie Book'Beber agua de mar. Teniendo en cuenta las leyes del Dr. Hamer sobre la 168p. 2012, in Spanish Book'L`Eau de Mer, Milieu Organique', 518p. 1904, only in French, in Gallica renequinton.fr website about his life and legacy created by the granddaughter of Rene Quinton

Joe Scigliano

Joe Scigliano is a Canadian former soccer player who played in the USL A-League, National Professional Soccer League, the Vancouver Metro Soccer League. Scigliano played at the youth level in England with Stoke City F. C.. In 1996, he returned to Canada to sign with the Vancouver 86ers in the USL A-League. After three seasons with Vancouver he played indoor soccer with Philadelphia KiXX in the National Professional Soccer League. In the 2001/2002 season he won the league championship. In 2004, he played with the Columbus Clan F. C. in the Vancouver Metro Soccer League, where he won the VMSL Golden Boot Award. In 2007, he won the British Columbia Provincial Soccer Championship, reached the finals of the Open Canada Cup, he made his debut for the Canada men's national under-20 soccer team on April 15, 1996 against Trinidad and Tobago at the 1996 CONCACAF U-20 Tournament