Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, butane, ethylene, or natural gas. The light is produced either directly by the flame by using special mixes of illuminating gas to increase brightness, or indirectly with other components such as the gas mantle or the limelight, with the gas functioning as a fuel source. Before electricity became sufficiently widespread and economical to allow for general public use, gas was the most popular method of outdoor and indoor lighting in cities and suburbs. Early gas lights were ignited manually, but many designs are self-igniting. Gas lighting today is used for camping, where the high energy density of a hydrocarbon fuel, combined with the modular nature of canisters allows bright and long lasting light to be produced cheaply and without complex equipment. In addition, some urban historical districts retain gas street lighting, gas lighting is used indoors or outdoors to create or preserve a nostalgic effect.
Early lighting fuels consisted of olive oil, fish oil, whale oil, sesame oil, nut oil, similar substances. These were the most used fuels until the late 18th century. Chinese records dating back 1,700 years note the use of natural gas in the home for light and heat via bamboo pipes to the dwellings; the ancient Chinese of the Spring and Autumn period made the first practical use of natural gas for lighting purposes around 500 B. C. where they used bamboo pipelines to transport and carry both brine and natural gas for many miles. Public illumination preceded the adoption of gaslight by centuries. In 1417, Sir Henry Barton, Lord Mayor of London, ordained "lanterns with lights to be hung out on the winter evenings between Hallowtide and Candlemasse." Paris was first lit by an order issued in 1524, and, in the beginning of the 16th century, the inhabitants were ordered to keep lights burning in the windows of all houses that faced the streets. In 1668, when some regulations were made for improving the streets of London, the residents were reminded to hang out their lanterns at the usual time, and, in 1690, an order was issued to hang out a light, or lamp, every night as soon as it was dark, from Michaelmas to Christmas.
By an Act of the Common Council in 1716, all housekeepers, whose houses faced any street, lane, or passage, were required to hang out, every dark night, one or more lights, to burn from six to eleven o'clock, under the penalty of one shilling as a fine for failing to do so. In coal mining and escaping gases were known for their adverse effects rather than their useful qualities. Coal miners described two types of gases, one called the choke damp and the other fire damp. In 1667, a paper detailing the effects of these gases was entitled, "A Description of a Well and Earth in Lancashire taking Fire, by a Candle approaching to it. Imparted by Thomas Shirley, Esq an eye-witness." Stephen Hales was the first person who procured a flammable fluid from the actual distillation of coal. His experiments with this object are related in the first volume of his Vegetable Statics, published in 1726. From the distillation of "one hundred and fifty-eight grains of Newcastle coal, he states that he obtained one hundred and eighty cubic inches of air, which weighed fifty-one grains, being nearly one third of the whole."
These results seemed to have passed without notice for several years. In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1733, some properties of coal-gas are detailed in a paper called, "An Account of the Damp Air in a Coal-pit of Sir James Lowther, sunk within Twenty Yards of the Sea." This paper contained some striking facts relating to the flammability and other properties of coal-gas. The principal properties of coal-gas were demonstrated to different members of the Royal Society, showed that after keeping the gas some time, it still retained its flammability; the scientists of the time still saw no useful purpose for it. John Clayton, in an extract from a letter in the Philosophical Transactions for 1735, calls gas the "spirit" of coal and discovered its flammability by an accident; this "spirit" happened to catch fire, by coming in contact with a candle as it escaped from a fracture in one of his distillatory vessels. By preserving the gas in bladders, he entertained his friends, by exhibiting its flammability.
It took many years of development and testing before gas lighting for the stage was commercially available. Gas technology was installed in just about every major theatre in the world, but gas lighting was short-lived. It took nearly 200 years for gas to become accessible for commercial use. A Flemish alchemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont, was the first person to formally recognize gas as a state of matter, he would go on to identify several types including carbon dioxide. Over one hundred years in 1733, Sir James Lowther had some of his miners working on a water pit for his mine. While digging the pit they hit a pocket of gas. Lowther took it home to do some experiments, he noted, "The said air being put into a bladder … and tied close, may be carried away, kept some days, being afterwards pressed through a small pipe into the flame of a candle, will take fire, burn at the end of the pipe as long as the bladder is pressed to feed the flame, when taken from the candle after it is so lighted, it will continue burning till there is no more air left in the bladder to supply the flame."
Lowther had discovered the principle behind gas lighting. In the 18th century William Murdoch stated: "the gas obtained by distillation fro
Gaslight (1944 film)
Gaslight is a 1944 American mystery-thriller film, adapted from Patrick Hamilton's 1938 play Gas Light, about a woman whose husband manipulates her into believing that she is going insane. The film was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor, Best Screenplay; the 1944 version was the second version to be filmed, following the British film Gaslight, directed by Thorold Dickinson and released in 1940. This 1944 version was directed by George Cukor and starred Ingrid Bergman, Charles Boyer, Joseph Cotten, 18-year-old Angela Lansbury in an Oscar-nominated screen debut. Gaslight had a larger scale and budget than the earlier film, lends a different feel to the material. To avoid confusion with the first film, this version was given the title The Murder in Thornton Square in the UK; this film features numerous deviations from the original stage play, though the central drama of a husband trying to drive his wife insane in order to distract her from his criminal activities remains.
World-famous opera singer Alice Alquist has just been murdered at No. 9 Thornton Square. The perpetrator left without the jewels he sought after being interrupted by Paula, Alice's fourteen-year-old niece. Paula was raised by her aunt following her mother's death. After Alice is murdered, Paula is sent to Italy to train to become an opera star herself. Years an adult Paula meets and marries Gregory Anton after a two-week-long whirlwind romance. Paula returns to London on his insistence, where she knows no one, to live in the long-vacant London townhouse of her deceased aunt Alice. To help calm her anxieties, Gregory suggests they store all of Alice's furnishings in the attic. Before they do, Paula discovers a letter in an old book addressed to her aunt by a man named Sergius Bauer. Gregory's reaction is violent. However, he dismisses his outburst as one of frustration at the bad memories his bride is experiencing. After Alice's belongings are locked away in the attic, events take a turn for the bizarre.
At the Tower of London, Paula loses an heirloom brooch that Gregory had given her, despite its having been stored safely in her handbag. A picture disappears from the walls of the house, but Paula has no recollection of having done so. Paula hears footsteps coming from the sealed attic, sees the gaslights dim and brighten for no apparent reason. Gregory suggests. Gregory isolates his wife from the outside world, implying that he is doing so for her own good, because her nerves have been acting up, causing her to become a kleptomaniac, he is jealous and accusatory whenever others express an interest in her. When Gregory does take her out to a friend's house, he shows Paula his watch chain, from which his watch has mysteriously disappeared; when Gregory conveniently finds it in her handbag, Paula becomes hysterical, he takes her home. Paula begins to believe. A young maid, worsens the situation, as Paula becomes convinced that Nancy loathes her. Gregory secretly flirts with the maid and tells Paula she is paranoid and is imagining the maid's disdain.
Paula does not know that her husband is in her aunt's murderer. He sought out Paula in Italy with the aim of getting back into the house for Alice's jewels, he has been secretly rummaging through Alice's belongings in the attic to find the jewels he is certain are there. The footsteps Paula hears in the attic are his; the flickering gaslights he claims she has imagined are caused by his turning the attic lights on, thus reducing the gas to the downstairs lights. The kleptomania exhibited by Paula is all sleight-of-hand by Gregory. Gregory does everything in his power to convince his wife that she is going mad, hoping to have her institutionalized, giving him power of attorney over her, allowing him to search unabated for the jewels; the plan works. Paula is saved by her trip to the Tower of London, as it leads to a chance encounter with Inspector Brian Cameron of Scotland Yard, an admirer of Alice Alquist since childhood. Seeing Paula rekindles Cameron's interest in the cold case murder of Alice and her royal jewels that were never found.
With the aid of the police, Cameron figures out that Gregory slips into a vacant house next door and enters his own attic via a skylight. Cameron gets inside the house to see Paula and confirms that the gaslights are indeed flickering, she discovers the letter from Bauer that Gregory had told her was a figment of her imagination; that same evening, Gregory at last discovers the jewels hidden in plain sight, disguised as costume jewelry. He returns to the house to discover that Paula has been visited by another man. Though he knows he has been discovered, he convinces the still confused Paula everything is in her imagination. However, Cameron arrests him with the help of police. Paula convinced of her own sanity, indulges herself in a bit of revenge, she taunts Gregory, now bound to a chair but still trying to manipulate her, suggesting that she might cut him free so he can escape justice. She muses. Encouraged by the success of the play and the British 1940 film, MGM bought the remake rights, but with a clause insisting that all existing prints of the first film be destroyed to the point of trying to destroy the negative.
Evidently that order was not honored to the letter, since the 1940 Gaslight is still safely available
A gas lighter is a device, used to ignite the gas stove. It is used in gas stoves, it uses a physical phenomenon called piezo-electric effect to generate an electric spark which ignites the combustible gas from the stove burner. The phenomenon of piezo-electric effect can be explained as follows: when pressure is applied along one axis of a crystal, a potential difference develops across the transverse axis of the crystal; the crystals which exhibit such property are called piezo-electric crystals. Tourmaline and quartz are some well known piezo-electric crystals; the gas lighter is cylindrical in shape and consists of a piezo-electric crystal over which a spring-loaded hammer is placed. The hammer and spring set up is attached to a button; when this button is pressed, the hammer is moved away from the piezo-electric crystal. When the button is pressed over a limit, the spring releases the hammer; the hammer hits the piezo-electric crystal. Due to piezo-electric effect, a high voltage is generated in the range of 800 volts.
The lighter is wired in such a way that this whole voltage is applied in a small region of air gap between two metallic points. Due to high voltage generated, the air acts as a path for the discharge; this electric discharge is the spark which when exposed to the combustible gas from the stove ignites it to produce flame. In gas lighters, piezo-electric ceramics like lead zirconate titanate known as PZT are used due to their low cost and high sensitivity. Before piezo-electric lighters became available, gas was lit with a flint spark lighter; some examples of these are shown below. Butane torch Lighter Media related to Gas lighter at Wikimedia Commons
Gaslight (1940 film)
Gaslight is a 1940 British thriller film directed by Thorold Dickinson which stars Anton Walbrook and Diana Wynyard, features Frank Pettingell. The film adheres more to the original play upon which it is based – Patrick Hamilton's Gas Light – than the 1944 MGM adaptation; the play had been shown on Broadway as Angel Street, so when the film was released in the United States it was given the same name. Alice Barlow is murdered by an unknown man, who ransacks her house, looking for her valuable and famous rubies; the house remains empty for years, until newlyweds Bella Mallen move in. Bella soon finds herself misplacing small objects. B. G. Rough, a former detective involved in the original murder investigation suspects him of Alice Barlow's murder. Paul uses the gas lamps to search the closed off upper floors, which causes the rest of the lamps in the house to dim slightly; when Bella comments on the lights' dimming, he tells her. Bella is persuaded she is hearing noises, unaware that Paul enters the upper floors from the house next door.
The sinister interpretation of the change in light levels is part of a larger pattern of deception to which Bella is subjected. It is revealed, he is the wanted Louis Bauer, who has returned to the house to search for the rubies he was unable to find after the murder. Encouraged by the success of the play and film, MGM bought the remake rights, but with a clause insisting that all existing prints of Dickinson's version be destroyed to the point of trying to destroy the negative, so that it would not compete with their more publicised 1944 remake starring Charles Boyer, Ingrid Bergman, Joseph Cotten. "Fortunately they failed, now the British film has been restored by the BFI and issued in the UK on Blu-ray in a pristine print."Rotten Tomatoes tallied a 100% score, based on 6 professional reviews. Leonard Maltin gave the film 3 1/2 stars, enthusing, "Electrifying atmosphere, delicious performances, a succinctly conveyed sense of madness and evil lurking beneath the surface of the ordinary."The Time Out critic wrote, "Nothing like as lavish as the MGM version...
But in its own small-scale way a superior film by far. Lurking menace hangs in the air like a fog, the atmosphere is electric, Wynyard suffers exquisitely as she struggles to keep dementia at bay. It's hardly surprising that MGM tried to destroy the negative of this version when they made their own five years later." The psychological term gaslighting, which describes a form of psychological abuse in which the victim is manipulated into doubting his or her own reality, originated from the play and its two film adaptations. Gaslighting, today refers to one of the methods of abuse used to manipulate others, by undermining their confidence and calling their credibility into question. Notes BibliographyVermilye, Jerry; the Great British Films Citadel Press, 1978. Pp. 52–54. ISBN 0-8065-0661-X Article "Gaslight" Gaslight on IMDb Gaslight at the TCM Movie Database Gaslight at Rotten Tomatoes
Gas Light and Coke Company
The Gas Light and Coke Company, was a company that made and supplied coal gas and coke. The headquarters of the company were located on Horseferry Road in London, it is identified as the original company. The company was founded by Frederick Albert Winsor, from Germany, incorporated by Royal Charter on 30 April 1812 under the seal of King George III, it was the first company set up to supply London with gas, operated the first gas works in the United Kingdom, the world's first public gas works. It was governed by a "Court of Directors", which met for the first time on 24 June 1812; the original capitalisation was £1 million, in 80,000 shares. Offices were established with a wharf at Cannon Row. In 1818 the company established a tar works in Poplar and expanded their works at Brick Lane and Westminster. Under the company's chief engineer, Samuel Clegg, a gas works was installed at the Royal Mint in 1817 and by 1819 nearly 290 miles of pipes had been laid in London, supplying 51,000 burners. Clegg developed a practical gas meter.
The Company absorbed numerous smaller companies, including the Wellclose undertaking, the City of London Gas Light and Coke Company, the Great Central Gas Consumer's Company, the Equitable Gas Light Company, the Victoria Docks Gas Company, Western Gas Light Company, Imperial Gas Light and Coke Company, the Cricklewood undertaking, the Independent Gas Light and Coke Company, the London Gas Light Company, the West Ham Gas Company, the Barking Gas Company, the Chigwell and Woodford Gas Company, the Ilford Gas Company, the Richmond Gas Company, the Brentford Gas Company, the Grays and Tilbury Gas Company, the Pinner Gas Company, the Brentwood Gas Company and the Southend-on-Sea and District Gas Company. The GLCC's constituent companies had themselves absorbed smaller companies, including the Aldgate Gas Light and Coke Company by the City of London Company, the Billericay undertaking by the Grays Company, Caslon's undertaking by the Imperial Company, the Great Stanmore Gas Company by the Harrow Company, the Harrow and Stanmore Company by the Brentford Company, the Ingatestone and Fryerning Gas Company by the Brentwood Company, the Laindon Gas Company by the Grays Company, the Leigh-on-Sea undertaking by the Southend Company, Mackintosh's undertaking by the Imperial Company, the North Woolwich undertaking by the Victoria Docks Gas Company, the Norwood undertaking by the Brentford Company, the Rayleigh undertaking by the Grays Company, the Richmond Gas Company by the Brentford Company, the Rochford undertaking by the Southend Company, the Staines and Egham District Gas and Coke Company by the Brentford Company, the Stanford-le-Hope Gas Company by the Grays Company, the Sunbury Gas Consumers' Company by the Brentford Company, the Whitechapel Road Gas Light and Coke Company by the Imperial Company.
With the advent of electricity the company expanded into domestic services, with "Lady Demonstrators" employed to promote gas cooking. This home service developed into a full advisory service on domestic gas use. In 1948 the GLCC supplied an area of 547 square miles from Egham in Surrey, Pinner in North West London to Southend-on-Sea in Essex, it supplied a population of 4.5 million, in 1948 had 21,250 employees and sold 276.7 million Therms of gas. On 1 May 1949 the GLCC was nationalised under the Gas Act 1948 and became the major part of the new North Thames Gas Board, one of Britain's twelve regional area gas boards; the following thirteen gasworks were in operation when the GLCC was dissolved in 1949. Beckton Gas Works were built in 1868 on East Ham Levels east of London; the site was named "Beckton" after Simon Adams Beck. The vast 550 acres not only gave the GLCC room for much more gas production than at Nine Elms, but was downriver of the Pool of London and so could be served by larger colliers.
In 1872 five men were gaoled for 12 months following a strike at the Beckton works in support of two workers sacked for requesting a pay rise. The sentence was subsequently reduced to four months. In 1889 men were laid off from Beckton, prompting the founding of the National Union of Gasworkers and General Labourers, which subsequently became part of the General, Municipal and Allied Trades Union. Engineer to the St Pancras works in 1903, the Shoreditch works in 1905, in 1906 he was appointed Resident Engineer of the Beckton works of the Gas Light and Coke Co; the Resident Engineer from 1906 was Joseph Newell Reeson who went on to undertake world first experiments with welded gas holder construction. Productive capacity: 119.12 million cubic feet per day in 1948. Bow Common gasworks was built by the Great Central Gas Consumers' Company in 1850 the works was remote from its supply area in the City and the East End. By the late 1850s the works had fallen into “ruinous disrepair”; the Great Central was absorbed by the GLCC in 1870.
The Bow Common works was rebuilt by the GLCC in the early 1930s. Productive capacity was 10.5 million cubic feet per day in 1948. The Brentford Gas Company was established in 1820, its gasworks at Brentford was therefore one of the oldest in the country, he company grew to supply Acton, Hanwell, Heston
Gas Light is a 1938 play by the British dramatist Patrick Hamilton. The play gave rise to the term "gaslighting", meaning a form of psychological abuse in which false information is presented to the victim with the intent of making them doubt their own memory and perception; the play is set in fog-bound London in 1880 at the upper middle class home of Jack Manningham and his wife Bella. It is late afternoon, a time which Hamilton notes as being the time "before the feeble dawn of gaslight and tea". At the opening of the drama Bella is on edge, the stern reproaches from her overbearing husband make matters worse. What most perturbs Bella is Jack's unexplained disappearances from the house: he will not tell her where he is going, this increases her anxiety; as the drama unfolds, it becomes clear that Jack is intent on convincing Bella that she is going insane to the point of assuring her she is "imagining" the gas light in the house is dimming. The appearance of a police detective called Rough soon leads Bella to realise that Jack is responsible for her torment.
Rough explains that the apartment above was once occupied by one Alice Barlow, a wealthy woman, murdered for her jewels but that the murderer never uncovered them. In fact, Jack goes to the flat each night to search for the jewels, lighting the gas lights in it causes the lights to dim in the rest of the building, his footsteps in what is supposed to be an empty apartment are used to make Bella believe that she is hearing things. Rough convinces Bella to assist him in exposing Jack as the murderer, which she does, but not before she takes revenge on Jack by pretending to help him escape. At the last minute she reminds him that, having gone insane, she is not accountable for her actions; the play closes with Jack Manningham being led away by the police. Gas Light premiered on 5 December 1938 at the Richmond Theatre in London, it transferred to the Apollo Theatre on 1 January 1939, to the Savoy Theatre on 22 May 1939. The cast featured Dennis Arundell, Milton Rosmer, Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies, Beatrice Rowe and Elizabeth Inglis.
The production closed 10 June 1939, after a total of 141 performances. In the spring of 1941, Vincent Price and his wife, actress Edith Barrett, saw Gas Light performed in Los Angeles as a three-hander titled Five Chelsea Lane, they were impressed with the play and set about securing the rights for a Broadway production of their own. By fall, they had found a producer to underwrite the project, but Barrett abruptly withdrew to remain in Hollywood and work in films. In November 1941, Price returned to work on the New York stage. Judith Evelyn, the Canadian actress who had played the role of Mrs. Manningham in Los Angeles, was hired for the Broadway production; the name of the play was changed, to Angel Street. Angel Street premiered on Broadway at the John Golden Theatre on 5 December 1941, Produced and directed by Shepard Traube, the cast featured Leo G. Carroll, Florence Edney, Elizabeth Eustis, Judith Evelyn and Vincent Price. Price left the play after a year, when his working relationship with Evelyn deteriorated into what she described as his "violent dislike".
In December 1942 the role of Mr. Manningham was assumed by John Emery; the play transferred to the Bijou Theatre on 2 October 1944, closed on 30 December 1944 after 1,295 performances. The play ran at New York City Center from 22 January 1948 to 1 February 1948, for 14 performances. Directed by Richard Barr, the cast featured José Ferrer, Uta Hagen, Phyllis Hill, Nan McFarland, Ralph Roberts, Victor Thorley and Richard Whorf; the play was revived on Broadway at the Lyceum Theatre, opening on 26 December 1975 and closing on 8 February 1976 after 52 performances and 4 previews. Again directed by Shepard Traube, the cast featured Michael Allinson, Dina Merrill, Christine Andreas, Bette Henritze and Robert E. Thompson; the play's Philippine premiere was produced by Dulaang UP in February 2005, with an English version and a Filipino translation. The play was produced at The Old Vic, London, in June 2007. Under the title of Gaslight. Directed by Peter Gill, the cast featured Andrew Woodall as Mr. Manningham, Rosamund Pike as Mrs. Manningham and Kenneth Cranham as Rough.
The play was produced Off-Broadway by the Irish Repertory Theatre, running from 17 May 2007 to 8 July 2007. Directed by Charlotte Moore, the cast featured David Staller, Laura Odeh, Laoisa Sexton, Patricia O'Connell, April Ann Klein and Brian Murray; the production received a Lucille Lortel Awards nomination, Outstanding Featured Actor, Drama League Award nominations for Distinguished Revival of a Play and Distinguished Performance Award. In 2014, the Sandyford Little Theatre Company produced Gaslight, a Radio Play for Stage, an onstage radio play with seven actors playing 24 roles. In 2015, Myriad Theatre & Film produced Gaslight at Ingatestone Hall in Essex. In October 2016, the Lantern Theatre in Sheffield, produced Gaslight. In 2019 Perth Theatre staged a production of "Gaslight" as part of their Winter / Spring season. Louis Kronenberger wrote in his review of the 1948 City Center production that "it remains one of the better thrillers... let's call it one of the best. All the same, though it holds up nicely for three acts, it seems to me outstandingly good for only one."
Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or in members of a targeted group, making them question their own memory and sanity. Using persistent denial, misdirection and lying, it attempts to destabilize the victim and delegitimize the victim's belief. Instances may range from the denial by an abuser that previous abusive incidents occurred up to the staging of bizarre events by the abuser with the intention of disorienting the victim; the term owes its origin to the 1938 Patrick Hamilton play Gaslight and its 1940 and 1944 film adaptations, in which a man dims the gas lights in his home and persuades his wife that she is imagining the change. The term has been used in research literature, as well as in political commentary; the term originates in the systematic psychological manipulation of a victim by her husband in the 1938 stage play Gaslight, known as Angel Street in the United States, the film adaptations released in 1940 and 1944.
In the story, a husband attempts to convince his wife and others that she is insane by manipulating small elements of their environment and insisting that she is mistaken, remembering things incorrectly, or delusional when she points out these changes. The original title stems from the dimming of the gas lights in the house that happened when the husband was using the gas lights in the sealed-off attic above while searching for the jewels belonging to a woman whom he had murdered; the wife notices the dimming lights and discusses it with her husband, but he insists that she imagined a change in the level of illumination. The term "gaslighting" has been used colloquially since the 1960s to describe efforts to manipulate someone's perception of reality; the term has been used to describe such behaviour in psychoanalytic literature since the 1970s. In a 1980 book on child sexual abuse, Florence Rush summarized George Cukor's Gaslight based on the play and wrote, "even today the word is used to describe an attempt to destroy another's perception of reality."
Sociopaths and narcissists use gaslighting tactics to abuse and undermine their victims. Sociopaths transgress social mores, break laws and exploit others, but also are convincing liars, sometimes charming ones, who deny wrongdoing. Thus, some who have been victimized by sociopaths may doubt their own perceptions; some physically abusive spouses may gaslight their partners by flatly denying that they have been violent. Gaslighting may occur in parent–child relationships, with either parent, child, or both lying to the other and attempting to undermine perceptions. An abuser's ultimate goal is to make their victim second guess their every choice and question their sanity, making them more dependent on the abuser. A tactic which further degrades a target's self-esteem is for the abuser to ignore attend to ignore the victim again, so that the victim lowers their personal bar for what constitutes affection and perceives themselves as less worthy of affection. There are two characteristics of gaslighting: The abuser wants full control of feelings, thoughts, or actions of the victim.
It is necessary to understand the warning signs of gaslighting in order to start the healing process. Signs of gaslighting include: Withholding information from victim. Three most common methods of gaslighting are: Hiding: The abuser may hide things from the victim and cover up what they have done. Instead of feeling ashamed, the abuser may convince the victim to doubt their own beliefs about the situation and turn the blame on themselves. Changing: The abuser feels the need to change something about the victim. Whether it be the way the victim dresses or acts, they want the victim to mold into their fantasy. If the victim does not comply, the abuser may convince the victim that he or she is in fact not good enough. Control: The abuser may want to control and have power over the victim. In doing so, the abuser will try to seclude them from other friends and family so only they can influence the victim's thoughts and actions; the abuser gets pleasure from knowing the victim is being controlled by them.
According to Kate Abramson, the act of gaslighting isn't tied to being sexist, although women tend to be frequent targets of gaslighting compared to men who more engage in gaslighting. Abramson explains this as a result of social conditioning, says "it’s part of the structure of sexism that women are supposed to be less confident, to doubt our views, beliefs and perceptions, more than men, and gaslighting is aimed at undermining someone’s views, beliefs and perceptions. The sexist norm of self-doubt, in all its forms, prepares us for just that." Abramson says that the final "stage" of gaslighting is severe, clinical depression. Gaslighting has been observed between patients and staff in inpatient psychiatric facilities. In a 1981 article, Some Clinical Consequences of Introjection: Gaslighting and Weinshel argue that gaslighting involves the projection and introjection of psychic conflicts from the perpetrator to the victim: "this imposition is based on a special kind of'transfer'... of painful mental conflicts."
The authors explore a variety of reasons why the victims may have "a tendency to incorporate and assimilate what others externa