Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel is controversial due to its impact on global warming and ocean acidification. Fossil fuels, including petroleum, need to be phased out by the end of 21st century to avoid "severe and irreversable impacts for people and ecosystems", according to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal, refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology.
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides. More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to use petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Arabic chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.
The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan; these fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes.
Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century. Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by sl
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Age is a daily newspaper, published in Melbourne, since 1854. Owned and published by Nine, The Age serves Victoria but is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales, it is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats. The newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald; as at February 2017, The Age had an average weekday circulation of 88,000, increasing to 152,000 on Saturdays. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000; these represented year-on-year declines of somewhere from 8% to 9%. The Age's website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month; the Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, Walter Powell.
The first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The venture was not a success, in June 1856 the Cookes sold the paper to Ebenezer Syme, a Scottish-born businessman, James McEwan, an ironmonger and founder of McEwans & Co, for 2,000 pounds at auction; the first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856. From its foundation the paper was self-consciously liberal in its politics: "aiming at a wide extension of the rights of free citizenship and a full development of representative institutions," and supporting "the removal of all restrictions upon freedom of commerce, freedom of religion and—to the utmost extent, compatible with public morality—upon freedom of personal action."Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, although a succession of editors did the day-to-day editorial work.
In 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezer's heirs and McEwan's and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victoria's leading newspaper. In circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the world's most successful newspapers. Under Syme's control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, it supported liberal politicians such as Graham Berry, George Higinbotham and George Turner, other leading liberals such as Alfred Deakin and Charles Pearson furthered their careers as The Age journalists. Syme was a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers. In the 1890s, The Age was a leading supporter of Australian federation and of the White Australia policy. After Syme's death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939.
Syme's will prevented the sale of any equity in the paper during his sons' lifetimes, an arrangement designed to protect family control but which had the effect of starving the paper of investment capital for 40 years. Under the management of Sir Geoffrey Syme, his chosen editors Gottlieb Schuler and Harold Campbell, The Age failed to modernise, lost market share to The Argus and to the tabloid The Sun News-Pictorial, although its classified advertisement sections kept the paper profitable. By the 1940s, the paper's circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the conservative Argus, it lost much of its distinct political identity; the historian Sybil Nolan writes: "Accounts of The Age in these years suggest that the paper was second-rate, outdated in both its outlook and appearance. Walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, it is criticised not only for its increasing conservatism, but for its failure to keep pace with innovations in layout and editorial technique so demonstrated in papers like The Sun News-Pictorial and The Herald."
In 1942, David Syme's last surviving son, Oswald Syme, took over the paper. He modernised the paper's appearance and standards of news coverage. In 1948, convinced the paper needed outside capital, he persuaded the courts to overturn his father's will and floated David Syme and Co. as a public company, selling 400,000 pounds worth of shares, enabling a badly needed technical modernisation of the newspaper's production. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off; this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication. Oswald Syme retired in 1964, his grandson Ranald Macdonald became chairman of the company, he was the first chairman to hand over full control of the paper to a professional editor from outside the Syme family. This was Graham Perkin, appointed in 1966, who radically changed the paper's format and shifted its editorial line from the rather conservative liberalism of the Symes to a new "left liberalism" characterised by attention to issues such as race and the environment, opposition to White Australia and the death penalty.
It became more s
Liquefied petroleum gas
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas referred to as propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, vehicles. It is used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer; when used as a vehicle fuel it is referred to as autogas. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are propane butane, most mixes including both propane and butane. In the northern hemisphere winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane. In the United States two grades of LPG are sold: commercial propane and HD-5; these specifications are published by the Gas Processors Association and the American Society of Testing and Materials. Propane/butane blends are listed in these specifications. Propylene and various other hydrocarbons are also present in small concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5%, is utilized as an autogas specification.
A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added. The internationally recognized European Standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene or amyl mercaptan are approved odorants, although neither is being utilized. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, is entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum, or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground, it was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, the first commercial products appeared in 1912, it provides about 3% of all energy consumed, burns cleanly with no soot and few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water pollution hazards. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium grade petrol. However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than either that of petrol or fuel oil, as its relative density is lower; as its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will evaporate at normal temperatures and pressures and is supplied in pressurised steel vessels.
They are filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition and temperature, but is around 250:1; the pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure varies depending on composition and temperature. LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. There are two main dangers from this; the first is a possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is within the explosive limits and there is an ignition source. The second is suffocation causing a decrease in oxygen concentration. A "full" LPG cylinder contains 85% liquid, the ullage volume will contain vapour at a pressure that varies with temperature. LPG has a wide variety of uses used for cylinders across many different markets as an efficient fuel container in the agricultural, hospitality, construction and fishing sectors.
It can serve as fuel for cooking, central heating and to water heating and is a cost-effective and efficient way to heat off-grid homes. LPG is used for cooking in many countries for economic reasons, for convenience or because it is the preferred fuel source. In India, nearly 8.9 million tons of LPG was consumed in the six months between April and September 2016 in the domestic sector for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 215 million with a circulation of more than 350 million LPG cylinders. Most of the LPG requirement is imported. Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale. LPG is subsidised by the Indian government for domestic users. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in India as it affects the middle class voting pattern. LPG was once a standard cooking fuel in Hong Kong. However, other than electric, induction, or infrared stoves, LPG-fueled stoves are the only type available in most suburban villages and many public housing estates.
LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in all households, with the exception of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, which have a natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Since 2001, poor families receive a government grant used for the acquisition of LPG. Since 2003, this grant is part of the government main social welfare program. Since 2005 the national oil company Petrobras differentiates between LPG destined for cooking and LPG destined for other uses, practicing a lower price for the former; this is a result of a directive from Brazilian federal government, but its demise is being debated. LPG is used in North America for domestic cooking and outdoor grilling. Predominantly in Europe and rural parts of many co
Gasoline, gas or petrol is a colorless petroleum-derived flammable liquid, used as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines. It consists of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. On average, a 42-U. S.-gallon barrel of crude oil yields about 19 U. S. gallons of gasoline after processing in an oil refinery, though this varies based on the crude oil assay. The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating. Tetraethyl lead and other lead compounds are no longer used in most areas to increase octane rating. Other chemicals are added to gasoline to improve chemical stability and performance characteristics, control corrosiveness and provide fuel system cleaning. Gasoline may contain oxygen-containing chemicals such as ethanol, MTBE or ETBE to improve combustion. Gasoline used in internal combustion engines can have significant effects on the local environment, is a contributor to global human carbon dioxide emissions.
Gasoline can enter the environment uncombusted, both as liquid and as vapor, from leakage and handling during production and delivery. As an example of efforts to control such leakage, many underground storage tanks are required to have extensive measures in place to detect and prevent such leaks. Gasoline contains other known carcinogens. "Gasoline" is a North American word. The Oxford English Dictionary dates its first recorded use to 1863 when it was spelled "gasolene"; the term "gasoline" was first used in North America in 1864. The word is a derivation from the word "gas" and the chemical suffixes "-ol" and "-ine" or "-ene". However, the term may have been influenced by the trademark "Cazeline" or "Gazeline". On 27 November 1862, the British publisher, coffee merchant and social campaigner John Cassell placed an advertisement in The Times of London: The Patent Cazeline Oil, safe and brilliant … possesses all the requisites which have so long been desired as a means of powerful artificial light.
This is the earliest occurrence of the word to have been found. Cassell discovered that a shopkeeper in Dublin named Samuel Boyd was selling counterfeit cazeline and wrote to him to ask him to stop. Boyd did not reply and changed every ‘C’ into a ‘G’, thus coining the word "gazeline"; the name "petrol" is used in place of "gasoline" in most Commonwealth countries. "Petrol" was first used as the name of a refined petroleum product around 1870 by British wholesaler Carless, Capel & Leonard, who marketed it as a solvent. When the product found a new use as a motor fuel, Frederick Simms, an associate of Gottlieb Daimler, suggested to Carless that they register the trademark "petrol", but by this time the word was in general use inspired by the French pétrole, the registration was not allowed. Carless registered a number of alternative names for the product, but "petrol" nonetheless became the common term for the fuel in the British Commonwealth. British refiners used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline.
When Carless was denied a trademark on "petrol" in the 1930s, its competitors switched to the more popular name "petrol". However, "motor spirit" had made its way into laws and regulations, so the term remains in use as a formal name for petrol; the term is used most in Nigeria, where the largest petroleum companies call their product "premium motor spirit". Although "petrol" has made inroads into Nigerian English, "premium motor spirit" remains the formal name, used in scientific publications, government reports, newspapers; the use of the word gasoline instead of petrol outside North America can be confusing. Shortening gasoline to gas, which happens causes confusion with various forms of gaseous products used as automotive fuel like compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas ). In many languages, the name is derived from benzene, such as Benzin in benzina in Italian. Argentina and Paraguay use the colloquial name nafta derived from that of the chemical naphtha.
The first internal combustion engines suitable for use in transportation applications, so-called Otto engines, were developed in Germany during the last quarter of the 19th century. The fuel for these early engines was a volatile hydrocarbon obtained from coal gas. With a boiling point near 85 °C, it was well-suited for early carburetors; the development of a "spray nozzle" carburetor enabled the use of less volatile fuels. Further improvements in engine efficiency were attempted at higher compression ratios, but early attempts were blocked by the premature explosion of fuel, known as knocking. In 1891, the Shukhov cracking process became the world's first commercial method to break down heavier hydrocarbons in crude oil to increase the percentage of lighter products compared to simple distillation; the evolution of gasoline followed the evolution of oil as the dominant source of energy in the industrializing world. Prior to World War One, Britain was the world's greatest industrial power and depended on its navy to protect the shipping of raw materials from its colonies.
Germany was industrializing and, like Britain, lacked many natural resources which had to be shipped to the home country. By the 1890s, Germany
Gasoline and diesel usage and pricing
The usage and pricing of gasoline results from factors such as crude oil prices and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, the availability of local sources of gasoline. Since fuels are traded worldwide, the trade prices are similar; the price paid by consumers reflects national pricing policy. Some regions, such as Europe and Japan, impose high taxes on gasoline. Western countries have among the highest usage rates per person; the largest consumer is the United States, which used an average of 368 million US gallons each day in 2011. In 2008 a report by Cambridge Energy Research Associates stated that 2007 had been the year of peak gasoline usage in the United States, that record energy prices would cause an "enduring shift" in energy consumption practices. According to the report, in April fuel consumption had been lower than a year before for the sixth straight month, suggesting 2008 would be the first year US usage declined in 17 years; the total annual distance driven in the US began declining in 2006.
The average price per US gallon in 2012 was $3.618, the highest yearly average as of 31 December 2012. As of 31 December 2012, the average price of gasoline was $3.298/gal, with New York at $3.70/gal for the highest in the US, Colorado at $2.987/gal for the lowest. Finished motor gasoline amounts to 44% of the total US consumption of petroleum products; this corresponds to 18.5 exajoules per year. As of 2012, the cost of crude oil accounted for 62% of the cost of a gallon of gasoline in the United State while refining accounted for just 12%. Taxes and distribution/marketing accounted for 14 % respectively. After Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, gas prices started rising, they became record high levels. In terms of the aggregate economy, increases in crude oil prices predict the growth of real gross domestic product, but increases in natural gas prices do not. After the damages from the hurricanes ran up gas prices. By 30 August, a day after Katrina’s landfall, prices in the spot market, which include a premium above the wellhead price, had surged past $11 per gigajoule, on 22 September 2005, the day before Rita’s landfall, the spot price had risen to $14/GJ.
In the fifteen years prior to the 1973 oil crisis, gasoline prices in the U. S. had lagged well behind inflation. Crude oil is the greatest contributing factor; this includes the resources it takes for exploration, to remove it from the ground, transport it. Between 2004 and 2008, there was an increase in fuel costs due in large part to a worldwide increase in demand for crude oil. Prices leapt from $35 to $140 per barrel, causing a corresponding increase in gas prices. On the supply side, OPEC has a great deal to do with the price of gasoline, both in the United States and around the world; the speculation of oil commodities can affect the gasoline market. Taxes are the next biggest contributor to gasoline prices at around 12%. In the United States, both state and federal taxes apply to gasoline. In addition, other taxes may be placed on gas including applicable state sales taxes, gross receipts taxes, oil inspection fees, underground storage tank fees and other miscellaneous environmental fees.
Distribution and marketing makes up the remaining 5%. The price of transporting crude oil to a refinery gasoline to a point of distribution is passed on to the consumer. In addition the price to market the fuel brand is passed on. Aside from this breakdown, many other factors affect gasoline prices. Extreme weather, war or natural disaster in areas where oil is produced can in turn raise the price of a gallon of gasoline. Legislation by several states for cleaner burning fuel affects certain areas' prices of gasoline. Balance between supply and demand directly affects the price of gasoline. U. S. consumption of gasoline follows a seasonal pattern, where every year it is more expensive during the summer months when more people are driving. The long-term trend of consumption has been to increase year over year since 1950, with dips around the introduction of corporate average fuel economy standards and the 1979 energy crisis, the early 1990s recession and Gulf War, the Great Depression. Most European countries have high fuel taxes.
The prices have traditionally been three to four times the price in the United States, with prices during 2000–2005 of €1.00/litre while the US had prices around $1.50/gal or $0.40/L. After a large increase until the summer of 2008, the end of 2008 experienced a strong decline linked with a sharp economic downturn, with the average price of fuel in the US at $1.613/gal. However, the price of fuel in Europe is still more than double the US price at $1.85/litre. Russia and some neighboring countries have a much smaller tax, with fuel prices similar to the US. Competitive petrol pricing in the UK is led by supermarkets with their own forecourts; each supermarket tends to match the other's prices. In recent years the AA has criticized speculators as being the prime reason for fuel fluctuations in the UK. A number of countries subsidize the cost of petrol/gasoline and other petroleum products. Subsidies discourage fuel efficiency. In some countries, the soaring cost of crude oil since 2003 has led to these subsidies being cut, moving inflation from the govern