Alessandro Valignano was an Italian Jesuit missionary born in Chieti, part of the Kingdom of Naples, who helped supervise the introduction of Catholicism to the Far East, to Japan. Valignano joined the Society of Jesus in 1566, was sent to East Asia in 1573; the nomination of a Neapolitan to supervise Portugal-dominated Asia was at the time quite controversial, his nationality, as well as his adaptationist and expansionist policies, led to many conflicts with mission personnel. Valignano was born in Chieti part of the Kingdom of Naples, a part of the Spanish Monarchy, he excelled as a student at the University of Padua. Valignano's insights into Christian message convinced many within the Church that he was the perfect individual to carry the spirit of the Counter-Reformation to the Far East, he was ordained in the Society of Jesus and, at the age of 34, he was appointed Visitor of Missions in the Indies. He made his profession of the fourth vow after only seven years in the Society; as Visitor, it was his responsibility to examine and whenever necessary reorganize mission structures and methods throughout India and Japan.
He was given an enormous amount of leeway and discretion for someone so young, was answerable only to the Jesuit Superior General in Rome. His commanding presence was only increased by his unusual height, enough to "turn heads in Europe and to draw crowds in Japan". Valignano formed a basic strategy for Catholic proselytism, called "adaptationism", he put the advance of Jesuits' influence above adherence to traditional Christian behavior. He attempted to avoid cultural frictions by making a compromise with local customs that other missionaries viewed as conflicting with Catholic values, his strategy was in contrast to those of mendicant orders including Franciscans and Dominicans, whom Valignano worked hard to block from entering Japan. This action contributed to the Chinese Rites controversy. Soon after Valignano arrived in Portuguese Macau in September 1578, he realized that none of the missionaries stationed in Macau had succeeded in establishing himself in mainland China. In his view, to improve the Jesuits' penetration rate into the country and their success at converting the locals, it was necessary first to learn to speak and write the Chinese language.
To this end, he wrote to the order's Superior in India, asking him to send to Macau a person who would be equal to the task, namely Bernardino de Ferraris. However, as de Ferraris was busy as the new rector of the Jesuits at Cochin, another Jesuit scholar, Michele Ruggieri, was sent to Macau. Valignano left Macau for Japan in July 1579, leaving behind instructions for Ruggieri, to arrive within days. Once Ruggieri started studying Chinese and realized the immensity of the task, he wrote to Valignano, asking him to send Matteo Ricci to Macau as well, to share the work. Forwarded by Valignano to the Order's Superior in India in 1580, Ruggieri's request was fulfilled, Ricci joined him in Macau 7 August 1582. Together, the two were to become the first European scholars of the Chinese language. Valignano made the first visit to Japan from 1579 to 1582. In 1581, he wrote Il Cerimoniale per i Missionari del Giappone to set forth guidelines for Jesuits. In the writing, he mapped Jesuit hierarchy to that of Zen Buddhists though he detested them.
He claimed that, in order not to be despised by the Japanese, every Jesuit should behave according to the class he belonged to. As a result, Jesuit fathers served daimyōs sumptuous dishes and walked around Nagasaki with armed Japanese servants; such a luxurious life and authoritarian attitudes among Jesuits in Japan were criticized not only by rival mendicant orders but by some Jesuits. In addition, his detailed instructions on customs and manners suggest that his understanding on Japanese culture was only superficial; as was ordered by the Superior General, he devoted efforts to nurturing Japanese priests. He forced Francisco Cabral to resign as Superior of the Jesuit mission in Japan since Cabral opposed his plans, but it was not only Cabral. In fact, Valignano remained in a minority within the Jesuits in Japan. Valignano was optimistic about training of native priests, but many Jesuits doubted the sincerity of Japanese converts. Valignano himself came to hold a negative view after his second visit in Japan—although he did not give up his hope.
After Valignano's death, negative reports from Japan were reflected in the policies of the headquarters of the Society of Jesus in Rome in 1610s, the society restricted admission and ordination of Japanese Catholics. Persecution by the Tokugawa shogunate forced Jesuits to rely on Japanese believers. In spite of the headquarter's policies, the Jesuit college in Macau, founded by Valignano, produced a dozen Japanese priests. On his first arrival in Japan, Valignano was horrified by what he considered to be, at the least, at the worst, abusive and un-Christian practices on the part of mission personnel. Valignano wrote that, although the mission had made some major gains during Francisco Cabral's tenure, the general methods used by the Superior were lacking. In addition to the problems of Japanese language study and racism, some of the Jesuits, Cabral were in the habit "to regard Japanese customs invariably as abnormal and to speak disparagingly of them; when I first came to Japan, showed no care to learn Japanese customs, but at recreation and on other occasions were continually carping on them, arguing against them, expressing their preferen
Porto is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million in an area of 2,395 km2, making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal. It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group, the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city. Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996; the western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale, has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto.
Its English name, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation. Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging and export of fortified wine. In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency. Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago; the history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas. During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port in the trade between Olissipona and Bracara Augusta. Porto was important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period. Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area, known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal. In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro. In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; the Portuguese-English alliance is the world's oldest recorded military alliance. In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. From the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco; this expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery.
The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days. Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos. In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between England. In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto; the production of port wine gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley, he demarcated the region for production of port. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm; the revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos. Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.
The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas, the bridge collapsed under the weight; this event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I; the French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the Fr
Osaka Castle is a Japanese castle in Chūō-ku, Japan. The castle is one of Japan's most famous landmarks and it played a major role in the unification of Japan during the sixteenth century of the Azuchi-Momoyama period; the main tower of Osaka Castle is situated on a plot of land one square kilometer. It is built on two raised platforms of landfill supported by sheer walls of cut rock, using a technique called Burdock piling, each overlooking a moat; the central castle building is five stories on the outside and eight stories on the inside, built atop a tall stone foundation to protect its occupants from attackers. The castle grounds, which cover 61,000 square meters, contain thirteen structures that have been designated as important cultural assets by the Japanese government, including: Ote-mon Gate Sakura-mon Gate Ichiban-yagura Turret Inui-yagura Turret Rokuban-yagura Turret Sengan Turret Tamon Turret Kinmeisui Well Kinzo Storehouse Enshogura Gunpowder Magazine Three sections of castle wall all located around Otemon Gate In 1583 Toyotomi Hideyoshi commenced construction on the site of the Ikkō-ikki temple of Ishiyama Hongan-ji.
The basic plan was modeled after the headquarters of Oda Nobunaga. Hideyoshi wanted to build a castle that mirrored Nobunaga's, but surpassed it in every way: the plan featured a five-story main tower, with three extra stories underground, gold leaf on the sides of the tower to impress visitors. In 1585 the Inner donjon was completed. Hideyoshi continued to extend and expand the castle, making it more and more formidable to attackers. In 1597 construction was completed and Hideyoshi died the year after. Osaka Castle passed to Toyotomi Hideyori. In 1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated his opponents at the Battle of Sekigahara, started his own bakufu in Edo. In 1614 Tokugawa attacked Hideyoshi in the winter. Although the Toyotomi forces were outnumbered two to one, they managed to fight off Tokugawa's 200,000-man army and protect the castle's outer walls. Ieyasu had the castle's outer moat negating one of the castle's main outer defenses. During the summer of 1615, Hideyori began to restore the outer moat.
Ieyasu, in outrage, sent his armies to Osaka Castle again, routed the Toyotomi men inside the outer walls on June 4. Osaka Castle fell to the Tokugawa clan, the Toyotomi clan perished, the castle buildings burned to the ground. In 1620, the new heir to the shogunate, Tokugawa Hidetada, began to reconstruct and re-arm Osaka Castle, he built a new elevated main tower, five stories on the outside and eight stories on the inside, assigned the task of constructing new walls to individual samurai clans. The walls built in the 1620s still stand today, are made out of interlocked granite boulders without mortar. Many of the stones were brought from rock quarries near the Seto Inland Sea, bear inscribed crests of the various families who contributed them. Construction of the 5 story tenshu started in 1628 and was completed 2 years about the same time the rest of the reconstruction, followed the general layout of the original Toyotomi structure. In 1660, lightning ignited the gunpowder warehouse and the resulting explosion set the castle on fire.
In 1665, lightning burnt down the tenshu. In 1843, after decades of neglect, the castle got much-needed repairs when the bakufu collected money from the people of the region to rebuild several of the turrets. In 1868, Osaka Castle was surrendered to anti-bakufu imperial loyalists. Much of the castle was burned in the civil conflicts surrounding the Meiji Restoration. Under the Meiji government, Osaka Castle became part of the Osaka Army Arsenal manufacturing guns and explosives for Japan's expanding Western-style military. In 1931, the ferroconcrete tenshu was built. During World War II, the arsenal became one of the largest military armories, employing 60,000 workers. Bombing raids targeting the arsenal damaged the reconstructed main castle tower and, on August 14, 1945, destroyed 90% of the arsenal and killed 382 people working there. In 1995, Osaka's government approved yet another restoration project, with the intent of restoring the main tower to its Edo-era splendor. In 1997, restoration was completed.
The castle is a concrete reproduction of the original and the interior is intended as a modern, functioning museum. The castle is open to the public and is accessible from Osakajōkōen Station on the JR West Osaka Loop Line, it is a popular spot during festival seasons, during the cherry blossom bloom, when the sprawling castle grounds are covered with food vendors and taiko drummers. The large indoor arena, Osaka-jō Hall is located within the grounds of the castle park; the castle was featured in The Amazing Race 20. The castle appears in the 1955 Toho tokusatsu film Godzilla Raids Again, in which it is destroyed after Godzilla pins Anguirus against the castle, causing it to collapse. In 1975, British novelist James Clavell used the castle and its environs as a major plot location for his most famous work of historical fiction, ÑÑShōgun |Shōgun]], it was used as the training grounds for a Japanese Ninja force to help James Bond in You Only Live Twice. Himeji Castle Jurakudai Fushimi Castle List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments Tourism in Japan Benesch, Oleg.
"Castles and the Militarisation of Urban Society in Imperial Japan," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol. 28, pp. 107-134. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai:Power & Beauty. USA: Kodansha. ISBN 978-1568365121. Schmorleitz, Morton
Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a preeminent daimyō, general and politician of the Sengoku period, regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, brought an end to the Warring Lords period; the period of his rule is called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Hideyoshi is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms, he financed the construction and rebuilding of many temples standing today in Kyoto. He is known for ordering the Japanese invasions of Korea. Little is known for certain about Hideyoshi before 1570 when he begins to appear in surviving documents and letters, his autobiography starts in 1577 but in it, Hideyoshi spoke little about his past. According to tradition, he was born in the home of the Oda clan, he was born of no traceable samurai lineage. He had no surname, his childhood given name was Hiyoshi-maru although variations exist.
Yaemon died in 1543, when Hideyoshi was 7, the younger of two children, his sibling being an older sister. Many legends describe Hideyoshi being sent to study at a temple as a young man, but he rejected temple life and went in search of adventure. Under the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō, he first joined the Imagawa clan as a servant to a local ruler named Matsushita Yukitsuna, he travelled all the way to the lands of Imagawa Yoshimoto, daimyō of Suruga Province, served there for a time, only to abscond with a sum of money entrusted to him by Matsushita Yukitsuna. In 1558, he joined the Oda clan, now headed by Oda Nobunaga, as an ashigaru, he became one of Nobunaga's sandal-bearers and was present at the Battle of Okehazama in 1560 when Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto to become one of the most powerful warlords in the Sengoku period. According to his biographers, he supervised the repair of Kiyosu Castle, a claim described as "apocryphal", managed the kitchen. In 1561, Hideyoshi married One, Asano Nagakatsu's adopted daughter.
He carried out repairs on Sunomata Castle with his younger brother Toyotomi Hidenaga and Hachisuka Masakatsu and Maeno Nagayasu. Hideyoshi's efforts were well received, he constructed a fort in Sunomata, according to legend overnight, discovered a secret route into Mount Inaba after which much of the garrison surrendered. Hideyoshi was successful as a negotiator. In 1564, he managed to convince with liberal bribes, a number of Mino warlords to desert the Saitō clan. Hideyoshi approached many Saitō clan samurai and convinced them to submit to Nobunaga, including the Saitō clan's strategist, Takenaka Shigeharu. Nobunaga's easy victory at Inabayama Castle in 1567 was due to Hideyoshi's efforts, despite his peasant origins, Hideyoshi became one of Nobunaga's most distinguished generals taking the name Hashiba Hideyoshi; the new surname included two characters, one each from Oda's two other right-hand men, Niwa Nagahide and Shibata Katsuie. Hideyoshi led troops in the Battle of Anegawa in 1570 in which Oda Nobunaga allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to lay siege to two fortresses of the Azai and Asakura clans.
He participated in the 1573 Siege of Nagashima. In 1573, after victorious campaigns against the Azai and Asakura, Nobunaga appointed Hideyoshi daimyō of three districts in the northern part of Ōmi Province. Based at the former Azai headquarters in Odani, Hideyoshi moved to Kunitomo and renamed the city Nagahama in tribute to Nobunaga. Hideyoshi moved to the port at Imahama on Lake Biwa. From there he began work on Imahama Castle and took control of the nearby Kunitomo firearms factory, established some years by the Azai and Asakura. Under Hideyoshi's administration, the factory's output of firearms increased dramatically, he fought in the Battle of Nagashino. Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Himeji Castle to conquer the Chūgoku region from the Mori clan in 1576, he fought in the 1577 Battle of Tedorigawa, the Siege of Miki, the Siege of Itami, the 1582 Siege of Takamatsu. After the assassinations at Honnō-ji of Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son Nobutada in 1582 at the hands of Akechi Mitsuhide, seeking vengeance for the death of his beloved lord, made peace with the Mōri clan and defeated Akechi at the Battle of Yamazaki.
At a meeting at Kiyosu to decide on a successor to Nobunaga, Hideyoshi cast aside the apparent candidate, Oda Nobutaka and his advocate, Oda clan's chief general, Shibata Katsuie, by supporting Nobutada's young son, Oda Hidenobu. Having won the support of the other two Oda elders, Niwa Nagahide and Ikeda Tsuneoki, Hideyoshi established Hidenobu's position, as well as his own influence in the Oda clan. Tension escalated between Hideyoshi and Katsuie, at the Battle of Shizugatake in the following year, Hideyoshi destroyed Katsuie's forces. Hideyoshi had thus consolidated his own power, dealt with most of the Oda clan, controlled 30 provinces. In 1582, Hideyoshi began construction of Osaka Castle. Built on the site of the temple Ishiyama Hongan-ji destroyed by Nobunaga, the castle would become the last stronghold of the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death. Nobunaga's other son, Oda Nobukatsu, remained hostile to Hideyoshi, he allied himself with Tokugawa Ieyasu, the two sides fought at the inconclusive Battle of Komaki and Nagakute.
It resulted in a stalemate, although Hideyoshi's forces were delivered a
Arima Harunobu was the second son and successor of Japanese daimyō Arima Yoshisada. Harunobu was born in Hinoe Castle, the Arima clan castle that controlled the Shimabara area of Hizen Province. After Harunobu's father's death, he began the persecution of Christians in his region. With Ryūzōji Takanobu expanding into his domain, Harunobu turned to the help of the Jesuits. Harunobu was baptized by Alessandro Valignano in 1579, he took the baptismal name Protasius, took the name John when he received Confirmation. As a result of his conversion to Christianity, Harunobu started to receive weapons from the Portuguese, which strengthened the Arima clan, he founded a seminary and training center for novices in his domain where, apart from the ordinary curriculum, students were taught European music and sculpture and the manufacture of organs and pocketwatch. In 1582 Harunobu teamed up with the Kyūshū Christian daimiyōs Ōtomo Sōrin and Ōmura Sumitada to send a Japanese embassy to the Pope in Rome, led by Valignano and represented by Mancio Itō.
In 1586, he had a vision in which there appeared to him two persons of celestial exterior, who thus spoke to him: "Know that on the lands over which you rule, the sign of Jesus is found. Six months afterwards, it happened that a fervent Christian from the neighborhood of Arima sent his son to the woods to cut firewood. On his arrival the young man noticed a tree, somewhat dried up; as soon as Harunobu heard of this, he went to the place, on seeing the cross he cried out: "Behold the sign of Jesus, that I was told was hidden in my dominions, and, not made by the hand of man." He fell on his knees, after having venerated it amidst many tears, he had it carried to Arima, where by his order it was formed in a magnificent crystal. This miraculous cross brought about the conversion of twenty thousand people; when Toyotomi Hideyoshi expelled the Catholic fathers and outlawed the teaching of Christianity in 1587, the Arima domain became a refuge for many Christian missionaries and believers. During the year 1582, Harunobu lost Shimabara Castle and was reduced to holding a thin strip of the peninsula.
Harunobu called for the help of the Shimazu clan against the forces of Ryūzōji Takanobu. The Shimazu sent Shimazu Iehisa to Shimabara. During the year 1584, the combined forces of the Arima and the Shimazu, with over 3,000 troops, defeated that of the Ryūzōji; the battle that they fought was known as the Battle of Okitanawate. During that battle, Ryūzōji Takanobu was killed. Afterwards, Shimazu Yoshihisa suggested that the Arima renounce Christianity, but this was only refused by Harunobu. After Kyūshū was invaded in 1587, Harunobu allied with Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the year 1592, the allied force led some 2,000 men to Korea under Konishi Yukinaga. During the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Harunobu supported Tokugawa Ieyasu, thus did not lose any land after the battle. During the year 1609, Harunobu was tasked to scout out a potential trade center for Japanese and Western ships; when they arrived in Taiwan, the indigenous Taiwanese attacked Harunobu's men, many were killed. That same year, a trading party Harunobu had sent to Champa was attacked by the Portuguese while stopping at Macau.
Harunobu retaliated the following year by attacking the Portuguese trading ship Madre de Deus, bound for Nagasaki from Macau. Following this incident, the Okamoto Daihachi incident resulted in Arima Harunobu's death. A certain Okamoto Daihachi, a servant of Tokugawa Ieyasu's close advisor Honda Masazumi, was sent to Harunobu to congratulate him on his triumph against the Portuguese. Okamoto was a Christian and he was entertained by Arima Harunobu with a feast. During the banquet, Okamoto told Arima that through his influence upon his master, he could help Arima recover three districts that were lost to the Ryūzōji clan over the preceding years. Arima believed him and sent him payments of gold and silver to lobby for him in the Tokugawa government. However, Okamoto never did anything about the situation; when Arima Harunobu encountered Honda Masazumi during his obligatory visit to Edo, he learned that Honda was unaware of Harunobu's dealings with Okamoto. Furious with Okamoto, Arima presented the case to Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Ieyasu imprisoned Okamoto. In the end, Okamoto was to sentenced to death by fire, while Arima was stripped of his holdings and exiled to Kai Province; when Arima was ordered by the Shogunate to commit suicide, Arima refused based upon his Christian principles and instead ordered his retainers to behead him. St. Alphonsus Liguori wrote of his death as follows: The emperor had deposed and exiled him, in consequence of an odious intrigue concocted against him by his own son, named Michael. In his exile King John led a penitent life, to repair all the bad example that he had given, he desired nothing so much as to expiate by his death his past iniquities. God soon brought about the accomplishment of his desires. Prince Michael, not content with having thus humbled his father, with seating himself on his throne, wished to deprive him of life, he had him accused to the emperor of several supposed crimes. The latter, taking counsel only of the hatred that he bore him, condemned him without trial to be beheaded, sent one hundred and fifty soldiers to carry out the sentence.
It is the custom in Japan that when it is desired that
The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China, it was initiated by the Ōnin War, which collapsed the Japanese feudal system under the Ashikaga shogunate, came to an end when the system was re-established under the Tokugawa shogunate by Tokugawa Ieyasu. During this period, although the Emperor of Japan was the ruler of his nation and every lord swore loyalty to him, he was a marginalized and religious figure who delegated power to the shōgun, a noble, equivalent to a generalissimo. In the years preceding this era the Shogunate lost influence and control over the daimyōs. Although the Ashikaga shogunate had retained the structure of the Kamakura shogunate and instituted a warrior government based on the same social economic rights and obligations established by the Hōjō with the Jōei Code in 1232, it failed to win the loyalty of many daimyōs those whose domains were far from the capital, Kyoto.
Many of these Lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with Ming China grew, the economy developed, the use of money became widespread as markets and commercial cities appeared. This, combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, led to the desire for greater local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy; as early as the beginning of the 15th century, the suffering caused by earthquakes and famines served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt and taxes. The Ōnin War, a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over shogunal succession, is regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period; the "eastern" army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the "western" army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city completely destroyed; the conflict in Kyoto spread to outlying provinces. The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, who unified Japan.
After Tokugawa Ieyasu's final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into several centuries of peace under the Tokugawa shogunate. The Ōnin War in 1467 is considered the starting point of the Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it: Nobunaga's entry to Kyoto or abolition of the Muromachi shogunate, the Siege of Odawara, the Battle of Sekigahara, the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, or the Siege of Osaka; the upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, throughout Japan regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. In the course of this power shift, well-established clans such as the Takeda and the Imagawa, who had ruled under the authority of both the Kamakura and Muromachi bakufu, were able to expand their spheres of influence. There were many, whose positions eroded and were usurped by more capable underlings; this phenomenon of social meritocracy, in which capable subordinates rejected the status quo and forcefully overthrew an emancipated aristocracy, became known as gekokujō, which means "low conquers high".
One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from humble origins and seized power in Izu Province in 1493. Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Late Hōjō clan remained a major power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Other notable examples include the supplanting of the Hosokawa clan by the Miyoshi, the Toki by the Saitō, the Shiba clan by the Oda clan, in turn replaced by its underling, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a son of a peasant with no family name. Well-organized religious groups gained political power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance and rebellion against the rule of the daimyōs; the monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki, the most successful of which, in Kaga Province, remained independent for nearly 100 years. After nearly a century of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari to dominate central Japan, when in 1582 Oda was assassinated by one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide.
This in turn provided Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who had risen through the ranks from ashigaru to become one of Oda's most trusted generals, with the opportunity to establish himself as Oda's successor. Toyotomi consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs and, although he was ineligible for the title of Sei-i Taishōgun because of his common birth, ruled as Kampaku. During his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea; the first spanning from 1592 to 1596 was successful but suffered setbacks to end in stalemate. When Toyotomi died in 1598 without leaving a capable successor, the country was once again thrust into political turmoil, this time Tokugawa Ieyasu took advantage of the opportunity. Toyotomi had on his deathbed appointed a group of the most powerful lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda Toshiie, Ukita Hideie, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Mōri Terumoto—to govern as the Council of
Tokugawa Hidetada was the second shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623. He was the third son of the first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate. Tokugawa Hidetada was born to Tokugawa Ieyasu and the Lady Saigō on May 2, 1579; this was shortly before Lady Tsukiyama, Ieyasu's official wife, their son Tokugawa Nobuyasu were executed on suspicion of plotting to assassinate Oda Nobunaga, Nobuyasu's father-in-law and Ieyasu's ally. By killing his wife and son, Ieyasu declared his loyalty to Nobunaga. In 1589, Hidetada's mother fell ill, her health deteriorated, she died at Sunpu Castle. Hidetada with his brother, Matsudaira Tadayoshi, was raised by Achaa no Tsubone, one of Ieyasu's concubines, his childhood name was Chomaru become Takechiyo. The traditional power base of the Tokugawa clan was Mikawa. In 1590, the new ruler of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi enlisted Tokugawa Ieyasu and others in attacking the domain of the Hōjō in what became known as the Siege of Odawara.
Hideyoshi enlisted Ieyasu for this campaign by promising to exchange the five provinces under Ieyasu's control for the eight Kantō provinces, including the city of Edo. In order to keep Ieyasu from defecting to the Hōjō side, Hideyoshi took the eleven-year-old Hidetada as a hostage. In 1592 Hideyoshi presided over Hidetada's coming of age ceremony, he was named the heir of the Tokugawa family, being the eldest surviving son of Ieyasu, his favorite. In 1593, Hidetada returned to his father's side. In 1590 Hidetada married O-Hime, daughter of Oda Nobukatsu and adopted daughter of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. O-Hime died in 1591, was given the posthumous Buddhist name Shunshoin. In 1595, Hidetada married Oeyo, daughter of Azai Nagamasa and adopted daughter of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, their wedding was held in Fushimi Castle. In 1595, Hidetada married Oeyo of the Oda clan and they had two sons, Tokugawa Iemitsu and Tokugawa Tadanaga, they had two daughters, one of whom, married twice. The other daughter, Kazuko hime, married Emperor Go-Mizunoo.
Knowing his death would come before his son Toyotomi Hideyori came of age, Hideyoshi named five regents—one of whom was Hidetada's father, Ieyasu—to rule in his son's place. Hideyoshi hoped that the bitter rivalry among the regents would prevent any one of them from seizing power, but after Hideyoshi died in 1598 and Hideyori became nominal ruler, the regents forgot all vows of eternal loyalty and were soon vying for control of the nation. Tokugawa Ieyasu was one of the strongest of the five regents, began to rally around himself an Eastern faction. A Western faction rallied around Ishida Mitsunari; the two factions clashed at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu won decisively. Hidetada had led 16,000 of his father's men in a campaign to contain the Western-aligned Uesugi clan in Shinano. Ieyasu ordered Hidetada to march to Sekigahara in anticipation of the decisive battle against the Western faction, but the Sanada Clan managed to tie down Hidetada's force, so he arrived too late to assist in his father's narrow but decisive victory.
Hidetada and Ieyasu's relationship never recovered. On 3 December 1601, Hidetada's first son, Chōmaru, was born to a young maiden from Kyoto named Onatsu. In September 1602, Chōmaru died. In 1603 Emperor Go-Yōzei granted Ieyasu the title of shōgun, thus Hidetada became the heir to the shogunate. To avoid his predecessor's fate, Ieyasu established a dynastic pattern soon after becoming shogun by abdicating in favor of Hidetada in 1605. Ieyasu retained significant power until his death in 1616. Much to the dismay of Ieyasu, in 1612, Hidetada engineered a marriage between Sen, Ieyasu's favorite granddaughter, Toyotomi Hideyori, living as a commoner in Osaka Castle with his mother; when this failed to quell Hideyori's intrigues, Ōgosho Ieyasu and Shogun Hidetada brought an army to Osaka. Father and son once again disagreed on how to conduct this campaign against the recalcitrant Toyotomi forces in Osaka. In the ensuing siege Hideyori and his mother were forced to commit suicide. Hideyori's infant son, that he had with a concubine, was not spared.
Only Sen was spared. After Ieyasu's death in 1616, Hidetada took control of the bakufu, he strengthened the Tokugawa hold on power by improving relations with the Imperial court. To this end he married his daughter Kazuko to Emperor Go-Mizunoo; the product of that marriage, a girl succeeded to the throne of Japan to become Empress Meishō. The city of Edo was heavily developed under his reign. In Genna 9 Hidetada resigned the government to heir, Tokugawa Iemitsu. Like his father before him, Hidetada became Ōgosho or retired shōgun, retained effective power, he enacted draconian anti-Christian measures, which Ieyasu had only considered: he banned Christian books, forced Christian daimyōs to commit suicide, ordered all other Christians to apostatize, executed the fifty-five Christians who refused to renounce Christianity or to go into hiding, in Nagasaki in 1628. Ōgosho Hidetada died in Kan'ei 9, on the 24th day of the 1st month. His Buddhist posthumous name is Daitoku-in (台徳院