Moldavian Magnate Wars
The Moldavian Magnate Wars refer to the period at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century when the magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth intervened in the affairs of Moldavia, clashing with the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire for domination and influence over the principality. Jan Zamoyski, Polish grand crown chancellor and military commander, known for his opposition towards the Habsburgs, had been a vocal supporter of Commonwealth expansion in the southern direction. Since the early plans made by Commonwealth King Stefan Batory for the war against the Ottomans, Zamoyski supported them, viewing those plans as a good long-term strategy for the Commonwealth. Any policy, against the Ottomans was supported by the Holy See, Pope Sixtus V expressed his support for any war between the Commonwealth and the Ottomans. Three powerful magnate families from the Commonwealth, the Potockis, Koreckis and Wiśniowieckis, were related to the Moldavian Hospodar Ieremia Movilă, after his death in 1606, they supported his descendants.
Around the end of the 16th century, the relations between the Commonwealth and the Ottomans, never too cordial, further worsened with the growing number of independent actions by Cossacks. From the second part of the 16th century, Cossacks started raiding the territories under Ottoman rule; the Commonwealth could not control the fiercely independent Cossacks, but was held responsible for them, since at that time they were nominally under the Commonwealth rule. At the same time, Tatars living under the Ottoman rule were raiding the Commonwealth. However, they attacked in the south-eastern areas of the Commonwealth, which were sparsely inhabited, while the Cossacks were raiding the heart of Ottoman Empire, wealthy merchant port cities just two days away from the mouth of the Dniepr river. By 1615, Cossacks had burned the townships on the outskirts of Constantinople. Consecutive treaties between the Ottoman Empire and the Commonwealth called both parties to curb Cossack and Tatar activities, but they were never implemented on either side of the border.
In internal agreements, pushed forward by the Polish side, the Cossacks agreed to burn their boats and stop their raiding. However, Cossack boats could be built and the Cossack lifestyle required periodic hunts for glory and booty. Sometimes Cossacks just needed resources to ensure their subsistence, while on other occasions they were bribed by the Habsburgs to help ease Ottoman pressure on their borders. There was widespread animosity between Cossacks and Tatars, after decades of border clashes and reciprocal looting of estates and villages. Cossacks raided Ottomans territories and their vassals near the Black Sea yearly attracting retaliatory Tatar raids; the vicious circle of chaos and retaliations turned the entire south-eastern Commonwealth border into a low-level warzone. In 1593, war between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburgs started. In 1594 a strong Tatar raid, carried by about 20,000-30,000 men led by the Khan of Crimea, Ğazı II Giray plundered Pokucie and moved to Hungary through mountain passes, in order to plunder Habsburg lands.
Commonwealth troops gathered too late to intercept it. The Prince of Transylvania, Sigismund Báthory, nephew of former Polish king Stefan Batory, had strengthened Habsburg influence in Moldavia after setting Ștefan Răzvan on the Moldavian throne. Ștefan Răzvan was a Roma from Walachia. A pro-Polish hospodar was tolerated by the Porte when the Commonwealth was anti-Habsburg or neutral. Therefore, when Emperor Rudolf II's forces gained control of Moldavia and started supporting Mihai Viteazul, prince of Wallachia, the Ottomans didn't look too favourably at the Commonwealth's meddling. In 1595 Zamoyski, persuaded by Moldavian refugees, decided to intervene; the Commonwealth forces under hetman Jan Zamoyski crossed the Dniestr, defeated local opposition and Ottoman reinforcements, set Ieremia Movilă on the Moldavian throne as a Commonwealth vassal. This was seen by many as dangerous step because Ottomans were preparing to place their own candidate on Moldavian throne. Zamoyski contacted grand vizier Sinan Pasha and negotiated with the Ottoman governor on the Black Sea island of Tyahyn and convinced them of his peaceful intentions and that he did not want to fight with the Ottoman Empire.
However, the Khan of Crimea, Ğazı II Giray and entered Moldavia with about 20,000 men. Zamoyski fortified his camp near Cecora at Prut river, withstood a three-day siege, managed to obtain an agreement with the Ottoman Empire that recognized Movilă as hospodar. Moldavia paid tribute to Constantinople at the same time. Not satisfied with this, previous hospodar Ștefan Răzvan invaded Moldavia, but his troops were crushed by Zamoyski and Răzvan was impaled by Movilă. In 1599, Mihai Viteazul, wishing to secure his back after Sigismund Báthory's departure from the Transylvanian throne, defeated the new ruler of Transylvania, Andrew Cardinal Báthory, who lost his life fleeing after battle, took over Transylvania as governor on behalf
Hetman is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe assigned to military commanders. It was the title of the second-highest military commander in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 16th to 18th centuries. A hetman was the highest military officer in the hetmanates of Ukraine, the Zaporizhian Host, the Ukrainian State; the title was used by Ukrainian Cossacks from the 16th century. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia since the 15th century, in the modern Czech Republic the title is used for regional governors. Throughout much of the history of Romania and the Moldavia, hetmans were the second-highest army rank; the best-accepted hypothesis, as found in dictionaries, is that the term hetman means'head-man', derives from the Early Modern High German Heubtmann. The German title was common during medieval times, functionally corresponding to Modern English'captain', it has been suggested that the Czech language may have served as an intermediary, Polish has been suggested.
Alternatively, it could be a variant of the comparable Turkic title ataman. The Polish title Grand Crown Hetman dates from 1505; the title of Hetman was given to the leader of the Polish Army and until 1581 the hetman position existed only during specific campaigns and wars. After that, it became a permanent title, as were all the titles in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At any given time the Commonwealth had four hetmans – a Great Hetman and Field Hetman for each of both Poland and Lithuania. From 1585, the title could not be taken away without a proven charge of treachery, thus most hetmans served for life, as illustrated by the case of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz commanding the army from his deathbed. Hetmans were not paid for their job by the royal treasury. Hetmans were the main commanders of the military forces, second only to the monarch in the army's chain of command; the fact that they could not be removed by the monarch made them independent, thus able to pursue independent policies.
This system worked well when a hetman had great ability and the monarch was weak, but sometimes produced disastrous results in the opposite case. The security of the position notably contrasted with that of military leaders in states bordering the commonwealth, where sovereigns could dismiss their army commanders at any time. In 1648 the Zaporizhian Host elected a hetman of their own, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, igniting the Ukrainian struggle for independence; the military reform of 1776 limited the powers of the hetmans. The Hetman office was abolished after the third partition of Poland in 1795. At the end of the sixteenth century, the commanders of the Zaporizhian Cossacks were titled Koshovyi Otaman or Hetman. In 1572, a hetman was a commander of the Registered Cossack Army of the Rzeczpospolita, too. From 1648, the start of Bohdan Khmelnytsky's uprising, a hetman was the head of the whole Ukrainian State — Hetmanshchyna. Although they were elected, Ukrainian hetmans had broad powers and acted as heads of the Cossack state, their supreme military commanders, top legislators.
After the split of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the 1667 Polish–Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, Ukrainian Cossacks became known as Left-bank Cossacks and Right-bank Cossacks. In the Russian Empire, the office of Cossack Hetman was abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764; the last Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army was Kyrylo Rozumovsky, who reigned from 1751 until 1764. The title was revived in Ukraine during the revolution of 1917 to 1920. In early 1918, a conservative German-supported coup overthrew the radical socialist Ukrainian Central Rada and its Ukrainian People's Republic, establishing a hetmanate monarchy headed by Pavlo Skoropadskyi, who claimed the title Hetman of Ukraine; this regime lasted until late 1918, when it was overthrown by a new Directorate of Ukraine, of a re-established Ukrainian People's Republic. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia from the Hussite Wars onward, hejtman is today the term for the elected governor of a Czech region. For much of the history of Romania and the Principality of Moldavia, hetmans were second in rank in the army, after the ruling prince, who held the position of Voivode.
Hetman has been used figuratively to mean'commander' or simply'leader'. Examples: "They say there was a whole band of them, that this bearded man was their elder, the hetman." — Maxim Gorky, Mother "Once I was a hetman on the Zaporoska. — Robert E. Howard, A Witch Shall Be Born Appointed Hetman Ataman Bulawa Hetman's sign Media related to Hetmans at Wikimedia Commons "Hetman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. 1911
Kingdom of Naples
The Kingdom of Naples comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers, when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily. Naples continued to be known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; the name "Kingdom of Naples" was not used officially. Under the Angevins it was still the Kingdom of Sicily; the Peace of Caltabellotta that ended the War of the Vespers provided that the name of the island kingdom would be Trinacria. This usage did not become established. In the late Middle Ages, it was common to distinguish the two kingdoms named Sicily as being on this or that side of the Punta del Faro, i.e. the Strait of Messina.
Naples was citra Farum or al di qua del Faro and Sicily was ultra Farum or di la del Faro. When both kingdoms came under the rule of Alfonso the Magnanimous in 1442, this usage became official, although Ferdinand I preferred the simple title King of Sicily. In regular speech and in unofficial documents narrative histories, the Kingdom of Sicily citra Farum was called the Kingdom of Naples by the late Middle Ages, it was sometimes called the regno di Puglia, kingdom of Apulia. In the 18th century, the Neapolitan intellectual Giuseppe Maria Galanti argued that the latter was the true "national" name of the kingdom. By the time of Alfonso the Magnanimous, the two kingdoms were sufficiently distinct that they were no longer seen as divisions of a single kingdom, they remained administratively separate, despite being in personal union, until 1816. The term "Kingdom of Naples" is in near universal use among historians. Following the rebellion in 1282, King Charles I of Sicily was forced to leave the island of Sicily by Peter III of Aragon's troops.
Charles, maintained his possessions on the mainland, customarily known as the "Kingdom of Naples", after its capital city. Charles and his Angevin successors maintained a claim to Sicily, warring against the Aragonese until 1373, when Queen Joan I of Naples formally renounced the claim by the Treaty of Villeneuve. Joan's reign was contested by Louis the Great, the Angevin King of Hungary, who captured the kingdom several times. Queen Joan I played a part in the ultimate demise of the first Kingdom of Naples; as she was childless, she adopted Louis I, Duke of Anjou, as her heir, in spite of the claims of her cousin, the Prince of Durazzo setting up a junior Angevin line in competition with the senior line. This led to Joan I's murder at the hands of the Prince of Durazzo in 1382, his seizing the throne as Charles III of Naples; the two competing Angevin lines contested each other for the possession of the Kingdom of Naples over the following decades. Charles III's daughter Joan II adopted Alfonso V of Aragon and Louis III of Anjou as heirs alternately settling succession on Louis' brother René of Anjou of the junior Angevin line, he succeeded her in 1435.
René of Anjou temporarily united the claims of senior Angevin lines. In 1442, Alfonso V conquered the Kingdom of Naples and unified Sicily and Naples once again as dependencies of Aragon. At his death in 1458, the kingdom was again separated and Naples was inherited by Ferrante, Alfonso's illegitimate son; when Ferrante died in 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, using as a pretext the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples, which his father had inherited on the death of King René's nephew in 1481. This began the Italian Wars. Charles VIII expelled Alfonso II of Naples from Naples in 1495, but was soon forced to withdraw due to the support of Ferdinand II of Aragon for his cousin, Alfonso II's son Ferrantino. Ferrantino was restored to the throne, but died in 1496, was succeeded by his uncle, Frederick IV. Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII reiterated the French claim. In 1501, he occupied Naples and partitioned the kingdom with Ferdinand of Aragon, who abandoned his cousin King Frederick.
The deal soon fell through and Aragon and France resumed their war over the kingdom resulting in an Aragonese victory leaving Ferdinand in control of the kingdom by 1504. The Spanish troops occupying Calabria and Apulia, led by Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova did not respect the new agreement, expelled all Frenchmen from the area; the peace treaties that continued were never definitive, but they established at least that the title of King of Naples was reserved for Ferdinand's grandson, the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Ferdinand continued in possession of the kingdom, being considered as the legitimate heir of his uncle Alfonso I of Naples and to the former Kingdom of Sicily; the kingdom continued as a focus of dispute between France and Spain for the next several decades, but French efforts to gain control of it became feebler as the decades went on, never genuinely endangered Spanish control. The French abandoned their claims to Naples by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559. In the Treaty of London, five cities on coast of Tuscany were designated the Stato dei Presidi, part o
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman and Maghrebi pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based in the ports of Salé, Algiers and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its ethnically Berber inhabitants, their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing merchant ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages in Italy, France and Portugal, but in the British Isles, the Netherlands, as far away as Iceland; the main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Arab slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. While such raids had occurred since soon after the Muslim conquest of Iberia, the terms "Barbary pirates" and "Barbary corsairs" are applied to the raiders active from the 16th century onwards, when the frequency and range of the slavers' attacks increased.
In that period Algiers and Tripoli came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, either as directly administered provinces or as autonomous dependencies known as the Barbary States. Similar raids were undertaken from other ports in Morocco. Barbary corsairs captured thousands of merchant ships and raided coastal towns; as a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. Between 100,000 and 250,000 Iberians were enslaved by these raids; the raids were such a problem coastal settlements were undertaken until the 19th century. Between 1580 and 1680 corsairs were said to have captured about 850,000 people as slaves and from 1530 to 1780 as many as 1,250,000 people were enslaved. However, these numbers have been questioned by the historian David Earle; some of these corsairs were European converts such as John Ward and Zymen Danseker. Hayreddin Barbarossa and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were notorious corsairs.
The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean. The effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century. Long after Europeans had abandoned oar-driven vessels in favor of sailing ships carrying tons of powerful cannon, many Barbary warships were galleys carrying a hundred or more fighting men armed with cutlasses and small arms; the Barbary navies were not battle fleets. When they sighted a European frigate, they fled; the scope of corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century, as the more powerful European navies started to compel the Barbary States to make peace and cease attacking their shipping. However, the ships and coasts of Christian states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs and the threat was subdued.
Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars between the United States and the Barbary States, until terminated by the French conquest of Algiers in 1830. Piracy by Muslim populations had been known in the Mediterranean since at least the 9th century and the short-lived Emirate of Crete. Provence was plagued by Saracen slave raids in the Carolingian era. In 1198 the problem of Berber piracy and slave-taking was so great that a religious order, the Trinitarians, were founded to collect ransoms and to exchange themselves as ransom for those captured and pressed into slavery in North Africa. In the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390 known as the "Barbary Crusade". Morisco exiles of the Reconquista and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian nations.
The Barbary pirates had long attacked English and other European shipping along the North Coast of Africa. They had been attacking English merchant and passengers ships since the 1600s. Regular fundraising for ransoms was undertaken by families and local church groups, who raised the ransoms for individuals; the government did not ransom ordinary persons. The English became familiar with captivity narratives written by Barbary pirates' prisoners and ransomed captives, as so many people were taken. After English colonists began to go to North America and be taken captive by Native Americans, both the colonists and people in England had some basis for considering the meaning of captivity for a Christian in an alien society. During the American Revolution the pirates attacked American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean. But, on December 20, 1777, Sultan Mohammed III of Morocco issued a declaration recognizing America as an independent country, that American merchant ships could enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean and along the coast.
The relations were formalized with the Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship signed in 1786, which stands as the U. S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty with a foreign power. As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia was attacked
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with 200–260 million members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods, although half of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Russia; the church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognised by all as primus inter pares of the bishops. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, the Near East. Eastern Orthodox theology is based on the Nicene Creed; the church teaches that it is the One, Holy and Apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains, its patriarchates, reminiscent of the pentarchy, autocephalous and autonomous churches reflect a variety of hierarchical organisation.
Of its innumerable sacred mysteries, it recognises seven major sacraments, of which the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in synaxis. The church teaches that through consecration invoked by a priest, the sacrificial bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ; the Virgin Mary is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the God-bearer, honoured in devotions. The Eastern Orthodox Church shared communion with the Roman Catholic Church until the East–West Schism in 1054, triggered by disputes over doctrine the authority of the Pope. Before the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, the Oriental Orthodox churches shared in this communion, separating over differences in Christology; the majority of Eastern Orthodox Christians live in Southeast and Eastern Europe, Cyprus and other communities in the Caucasus region, communities in Siberia reaching the Russian Far East. There are smaller communities in the former Byzantine regions of the Eastern Mediterranean, in the Middle East where it is decreasing due to persecution.
There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity. In keeping with the church's teaching on universality and with the Nicene Creed, Orthodox authorities such as Saint Raphael of Brooklyn have insisted that the full name of the church has always included the term "Catholic", as in "Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Church"; the official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the "Orthodox Catholic Church". It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts, in official publications, in official contexts or administrative documents. Orthodox teachers refer to the church as Catholic; this name and longer variants containing "Catholic" are recognised and referenced in other books and publications by secular or non-Orthodox writers. The common name of the church, "Eastern Orthodox Church", is a shortened practicality that helps to avoid confusions in casual use. From ancient times through the first millennium, Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished, Greek, being the language in which the New Testament was written, was the primary liturgical language of the church.
For this reason, the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" before the Great Schism of 1054. After 1054, "Greek Orthodox" or "Greek Catholic" marked a church as being in communion with Constantinople, much as "Catholic" did for communion with Rome; this identification with Greek, became confusing with time. Missionaries brought Orthodoxy to many regions without ethnic Greeks, where the Greek language was not spoken. In addition, struggles between Rome and Constantinople to control parts of Southeastern Europe resulted in the conversion of some churches to Rome, which also used "Greek Catholic" to indicate their continued use of the Byzantine rites. Today, many of those same churches remain, while a large number of Orthodox are not of Greek national origin, do not use Greek as the language of worship. "Eastern" indicates the geographical element in the Church's origin and development, while "Orthodox" indicates the faith, as well as communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
There are additional Christian churches in the east that are in communion with neither Rome nor Constantinople, who tend to be distinguished by the category named "Oriental Orthodox". While the church continues to call itself "Catholic", for reasons of universality, the common title of "Eastern Orthodox Church" avoids casual confusion with the Roman Catholic Church; the first known use of the phrase "the catholic Church" occurred in a letter written about 110 AD from one Greek church to another. The letter states: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be as where Jesus may be, there is the universal Church." Thus from the beginning, Christians referred to the Church as the "One, Holy and Apostolic Church". The Eastern Orthodox Church claims that it is today the continuation and preservation of that same early Church. A number of other Christian churches make a similar claim: the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Assyrian Church and the Oriental Orthodox.
In the Eastern Orthodox v
Duchy of the Archipelago
The Duchy of the Archipelago, or Duchy of Naxos or Duchy of the Aegean, was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros. It included all the Cyclades. In 1537 it became a tributary of the Ottoman Empire, was annexed by the Ottomans in 1579; the Italian city states the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, had been interested in the islands of the Aegean long before the Fourth Crusade. There were Italian trading colonies in Constantinople and Italian pirates attacked settlements in the Aegean in the 12th century. After the collapse and partitioning of the Byzantine Empire in 1204, in which the Venetians played a major role, Venetian interests in the Aegean could be more realized; the Duchy of the Archipelago was created in 1207 by the Venetian nobleman Marco Sanudo, a participant in the Fourth Crusade and nephew of the former Doge Enrico Dandolo, who had led the Venetian fleet to Constantinople.
This was an independent venture, without the consent of the Latin emperor Henry of Flanders. Sanudo was accompanied by Andrea and Geremia Ghisi, he arranged for the loan of eight galleys from the Venetian Arsenal, set anchor in the harbor of Potamides, captured the island. The Naxiotes continued to resist and established a base inland, around the fortress of Apalyros/Apalire; the latter fell to Sanudo after a five or six weeks' siege, despite the assistance rendered to the Greeks by the Genoese, Venice's main competitors. With the entire island occupied in 1210, Sanudo and his associates soon conquered Melos and the rest of the islands of the Cyclades, he established himself as Duke of Naxia, or Duke of the Archipelago, with his headquarters on Naxos. Sanudo rebuilt a strong fortress and divided the island into 56 provinces, which he shared out as fiefs among the leaders of his men, most of whom were autonomous and paid their own expenses. Navigaojso had been granted his island domain by Henry of Flanders and was technically vassal of the Latin Empire.
The conqueror himself ruled for twenty years. He held in his personal possession Paros, Milos, Kythnos, Amorgos, Sikinos and Pholegandros. Sanudo's fellow crusaders conquered lordships of their own, sometimes as vassals of Sanudo like Dandolo for Andros. Although they are considered to have become Sanudo's vassals as well, the Ghisi brothers, who held Tinos and the Northern Sporades never recognized the suzerainty of Sanudo. Instead, like him they were directly vassals of the Latin Emperors; some families thought earlier to have settled at this time in the islands were in fact established in the 14th century. Further south, held by Marco Venier, Antikythera, held by Jacopo Viaro chose to become vassals of Venice; the institution of European feudalism caused little disruption to the local islanders who were familiar with the rights of a landowner class under the Byzantine system of the pronoia. The significant legal distinctions between the Byzantine pronoia and feudalism were of little immediate consequence to those who farmed the land or fished the waters in question.
In most cases, the local population submitted peacefully to the authority of their new Venetian lords. Sanudo and his successors prudently followed a conciliatory course with their Byzantine subjects, granting fiefs to certain among them, in an effort to bind them to the dynasty; the Venetians brought the Catholic Church with them, but, as they were a minority of habitually absentee landowners, most of the population remained Greek Orthodox. Marco Sanudo himself established a Latin archbishopric on Naxos, but in contrast to his successors, did not attempt to forcibly convert the Greek Orthodox majority; these moves consisted in imposing restrictions on Orthodox clergy and the exclusion of Orthodox Christians from positions of authority. The islands were of great importance in Venetian grand strategy, with their valuable trade routes to Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, which the Venetians could now control. Certain Latin feudal rights survived in the island of Naxos and elsewhere until they were abrogated in 1720 by the Ottomans.
The Annals of the Latin Archipelago center on the family histories of Sanudo and Dandolo, Ghisi and Sommaripa, Venier and Quirini and Gozzadini. Twenty-one dukes of the two dynasties ruled the Archipelago, successively as vassals of the Latin Emperors at Constantinople, of the Villehardouin dynasty of princes of Achaea, of the Angevins of the Kingdom of Naples, after 1418 of the Republic of Venice. In 1248, the Duchy was nominally granted to William of Prince of Achaea. Marco II Sanudo lost many of the islands, except Naxos and Paros, to the forces of the renewed Byzantine Empire under the admiral Licario in the late 13th century; the Byzantine revival was to prove short-lived though, as they relinquished control of their
Edirne known as Adrianople, is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, before Constantinople became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922; the city's estimated population in 2014 was 165,979. The city was founded as Hadrianopolis, named after the Roman emperor Hadrian; this name is still used in the modern Greek language. The Turkish name Edirne derives from the Greek name; the name Adrianople was used in English until the Turkish adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1928 made Edirne the internationally recognized name. Bulgarian: Одрин, Albanian: Edrenë, Macedonian: Одрин / Eдрене, Slovene: Odrin and Serbian: Једрене / Jedrene are adapted forms of the name Hadrianopolis or of its Turkish version; the area around Edirne has been the site of numerous major battles and sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks.
The vagaries of the border region between Asia and Europe gives rise to Edirne's historic claim to be the most contested spot on the globe. In Greek mythology, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus and the Ardiscus with the Hebrus; the city was founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskodama or Uscudama. It was the capital of the Bessi, or of the Odrysians. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, made it the capital of the Roman province of Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople. In 813, the city was temporarily seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands north of the Danube. During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople.
In 1206 Adrianople and its territory was given to the Byzantine aristocrat Theodore Branas as a hereditary fief by the Latin regime. Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, but three years was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria. In 1361, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad. Murad captured Adrianople in 1369; the city became "Edirne". Murad moved the Ottoman capital to Edirne. Mehmed the Conqueror was born in Edirne, where he fell under the influence of some Hurufis dismissed by Taş Köprü Zade in the Şakaiki Numaniye as "Certain accursed ones of no significance", who were burnt as heretics by a certain Mahmud Pasha; the city remained the Ottoman capital for 84 years until 1453, when Mehmed II took Constantinople and moved the capital there. Edirne is famed for its many mosques, domes and palaces from the Ottoman period. Under Ottoman rule, Edirne was the principal city of the administrative unit, the eponymous Eyalet of Edirne, after land reforms in 1867, the Vilayet of Edirne.
Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople and died in Edirne in 1693. During his exile in the Ottoman Empire, the Swedish king Charles XII stayed in the city during most of 1713. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868, he was exiled there by the Ottoman Empire before being banished further to the Ottoman penal colony in Akka. He referred to Edirne in his writings as the "Land of Mystery". Edirne was a sanjak centre during the Ottoman period and was bound to, the Rumeli Eyalet and Silistre Eyalet before becoming a provincial capital of the Eyalet of Edirne at the beginning of the 19th century. Edirne was occupied by imperial Russian troops in 1829 during the Greek War of Independence and in 1878 during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878; the city suffered a fire in 1905. In 1905 it had about 80,000 inhabitants, of. Edirne was a vital fortress defending Ottoman Constantinople and Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars of 1912–13, it was occupied by the Bulgarians in 1913, following the Siege of Adrianople.
The Great Powers–Britain, Italy and Russia–forced the Ottoman Empire to cede Edirne to Bulgaria at the end of First Balkan War, which created a political scandal in the Ottoman government in Istanbul, leading to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. Although it was victorious in the coup, the Committee of Union and Progress was unable to keep Edirne, but under Enver Pasha, it was retaken from the Bulgarians soon after the Second Balkan War began, it was occupied by the Greeks between the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 and their defeat at the end of the Greco-Turkish War known as the Western Front of the larger Turkish War of Independence, in 1922. According to the 2007 census, Edirne Province had a population of 382,222 inhabitants; the city is a commercial centre for woven textiles, silks and agricultural products