Rainer Maria Rilke
Several critics have described Rilkes work as inherently mystical. These deeply existential themes tend to him as a transitional figure between the traditional and the modernist writers. While Rilke is most known for his contributions to German literature, over 400 poems were written in French. In the 20th century, his work found new audiences through its use by New Age theologians and self-help authors, in the United States, Rilke remains among the more popular, best-selling poets. He was born René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke in Prague and his childhood and youth in Prague were not especially happy. His father, Josef Rilke, became an official after an unsuccessful military career. His mother, Sophie Entz, came from a well-to-do Prague family, the Entz-Kinzelbergers, who lived in a house on the Herrengasse 8, where René spent many of his early years. The relationship between Phia and her son was colored by her mourning for an earlier child, a daughter who had died only one week old.
During Rilkes early years Phia acted as if she sought to recover the lost girl through the boy by dressing him in girls clothing and his parents marriage failed in 1884. His parents pressured the poetically and artistically talented youth into entering a military academy, which he attended from 1886 until 1891, from 1892 to 1895 he was tutored for the university entrance exam, which he passed in 1895. Until 1896 he studied literature, art history, and philosophy in Prague, in 1897 in Munich, Rainer Maria Rilke met and fell in love with the widely travelled, intellectual woman of letters Lou Andreas-Salomé. Rilke changed his first name from René to Rainer at Lous urging because she thought that name to be masculine, forceful. His relationship with married woman, with whom he undertook two extensive trips to Russia, lasted until 1900. But even after their separation, Lou continued to be Rilkes most important confidante until the end of his life, having trained from 1912 to 1913 as a psychoanalyst with Sigmund Freud, she shared her knowledge of psychoanalysis with Rilke.
In 1898, Rilke undertook a journey lasting several weeks to Italy, in 1899, he travelled with Lou and her husband, Friedrich Andreas, to Moscow where he met the novelist Leo Tolstoy. Author Anna A. Tavis cites the cultures of Bohemia and Russia as the key influences on Rilkes poetry, in 1900, Rilke stayed at the artists colony at Worpswede. It was here that he got to know the sculptor Clara Westhoff and their daughter Ruth was born in December 1901. In the summer of 1902, Rilke left home and travelled to Paris to write a monograph on the sculptor Auguste Rodin, before long his wife left their daughter with her parents and joined Rilke there
A courtesan was originally a courtier, which means a person who attends the court of a monarch or other powerful person. In feudal society, the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, prior to the Renaissance, courtesans served to convey information to visiting dignitaries, when servants could not be trusted. In Renaissance Europe, courtiers played an important role in upper-class society. In fact, the verb to court originally meant to be or reside at court, the most intimate companion of a ruler was called the favourite. The word was borrowed by English from Italian through the French form courtisane during the 16th century, a male figure comparable to the courtesan was the Italian cicisbeo, the French chevalier servant, the Spanish cortejo or estrecho. It actually seems that the figure of the servant of a married lady was quite common in Europe up to the 18th century. The courtesans of East Asia, particularly those of the Japanese empire, examples of Japanese courtesans included the Oiran class, who were more focused on the aspect of entertainment in comparison with European courtesans.
There were two types of courtesan, in one category was a type of courtesan known as the cortigiana onesta, or the honest courtesan, who was cast as an intellectual. In the other was the cortigiana di lume, a class of courtesan. Although the latter was considered better than an average courtesan. It is with type of courtesan that the art of courtisanerie is best associated. The cortigiane oneste were usually well-educated and worldly, and often held simultaneous careers as performers or artists and they were typically chosen on the basis of their breeding—social and conversational skills, common-sense, and companionship—as well as their physical attributes. It was usually their wit and personality that set apart from regular women. Sex constituted only a facet of the array of services. For example, they were well-dressed and ready to engage and participate in a variety of topics ranging from art to music to politics, in some cases, courtesans were from well-to-do backgrounds, and were even married—but to husbands lower on the social ladder than their clients.
In cases like this, a courtesan was solely dependent on her benefactor or benefactors financially, making her vulnerable, Cora Pearl is a good example. In the event that the courtesan had angered or dissatisfied a benefactor, they would find themselves cast out of wealthy circles. In instances like this, it was often viewed simply as an agreement by both parties involved
Giovanni della Casa
Giovanni della Casa, was a Florentine poet, writer on etiquette and society and inquisitor. He is celebrated for his famous treatise on polite behavior, Il Galateo overo de’ costumi, from the time of its publication, this courtesy book has enjoyed enormous success and influence. Della Casa was born into a wealthy Florentine family near Borgo San Lorenzo in Mugello at Villa La Casa which can be visited. His early education took place in Bologna, his native Florence, an important year in Della Casa’s life was 1526, which he spent at the villa of his family in Tuscany and translating the Latin classics and, the works of Cicero. Counseled by Alessandro Farnese, Della Casa eventually followed his friend Pietro Bembo in pursuing a career in the Church. He rose to become Archbishop of Benevento in 1544 and in the same year and it was in a palace on the Grand Canal that he encountered the poets and nobility of Venice. It is during this period – sometime between 1551 and 1555 – that he conceived and drafted his Galateo, in the Abbey of Nervesa near Treviso.
He died a year later, probably in the Farnese palace in Rome and his most famous work, and the most celebrated etiquette book in European history, Galateo proposes a series of rules and restrictions that consent one to live a life of simple dignity and harmony. In a style that is colloquial and lively, Della Casa instructs his nephew on what to do, and what to avoid doing, in order to be considered appealing, sophisticated and he deals with a wide range of topics from fashion to conversation. The successful man must combine an exterior grace with a necessary social conformity, anything that could give offense or reveal vulgar or crude thoughts should be avoided. For this reason, Della Casa advises caution, never should one sniff someone else’s wine, for instance, as something might fall out of one’s nose, even though this is unlikely, Della Casa notes, one should not take such risks. Instead, one must constantly attend to appearance and conduct so as to no offense but to convey a graceful reserve.
Many of the restrictions in Galateo continue to be useful today, Della Casa began his literary career as a poet, writing licentious verse in the style of Berni. Toward the end of his life, he followed the model of Petrarch, in his Rime, he chose love as his a main theme, along with sadness and regret. His gravity and solemn style He wrote two sonnets of particular beauty, in which he looks at the vanity of life and to disappearing into nothingness after death. After the death of the poet in 1558, his Rime would have a success in literary circles of the time. His use of enjambement, a technique by which the eleven syllable line continues through to the line, gave his verse a new musicality. Two sonnets of particular intensity are O dolce selva solitaria and Questa vita mortal, “All of Della Casa’s poems express a fundamental anxiety and an inquietude about love or ambition, often coupled with a long for release and even death
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty and obedience. The term nun is applicable to Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Buddhists, Hindus, Mother Teresas Missionaries of Charity, lives an active vocation of both prayer and service, often to the needy, ill and uneducated. All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status is different among Buddhist countries, fully ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks. The important vows are the same, however, as with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Thailand, a country never had a tradition of fully ordained nuns. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, who is believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upāsikā Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well, dhammananda Bhikkhuni, formerly the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand. The relatively active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies, researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants have outnumbered males by about three to one. He adds, All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, in contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society. She reports that while outsiders did not necessarily regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, wei-yi Cheng studied Luminary order in southern Taiwan. Based on studies of Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more rooms of development.
Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten fully ordained people keeping exactly the same vows, because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive ordination from another living tradition. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, the ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages, rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are basically the same as those of monks, hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor. It took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, aristocratic Japanese women often became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period
Milan is a city in Italy, capital of the Lombardy region, and the most populous metropolitan area and the second most populous comune in Italy. The population of the city proper is 1,351,000, Milan has a population of about 8,500,000 people. It is the industrial and financial centre of Italy and one of global significance. In terms of GDP, it has the largest economy among European non-capital cities, Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and lies at the heart of one of the Four Motors for Europe. Milan is an Alpha leading global city, with strengths in the arts, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism. Its business district hosts Italys Stock Exchange and the headquarters of the largest national and international banks, the city is a major world fashion and design capital, well known for several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students, Milans museums and landmarks attract over 9 million visitors annually.
Milan – after Naples – is the second Italian city with the highest number of accredited stars from the Michelin Guide, the city hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015. Milan is home to two of Europes major football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, the etymology of Milan is uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum comes from the Latin words medio, some scholars believe lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence, Mediolanum could signify the central town or sanctuary of a Celtic tribe, the name Mediolanum is borne by about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France, e. g. Saintes and Évreux. Alciato credits Ambrose for his account, around 400 BC, the Celtic Insubres settled Milan and the surrounding region. In 222 BC, the Romans conquered the settlement, renaming it Mediolanum, Milan was eventually declared the capital of the Western Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in 286 AD.
Diocletian chose to stay in the Eastern Roman Empire and his colleague Maximianus ruled the Western one, immediately Maximian built several monuments, such as a large circus 470 m ×85 m, the Thermae Herculeae, a large complex of imperial palaces and several other buildings. With the Edict of Milan of 313, Emperor Constantine I guaranteed freedom of religion for Christians, after the city was besieged by the Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, the Huns overran the city, in 539, the Ostrogoths conquered and destroyed Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the Lombards, conquered Milan, some Roman structures remained in use in Milan under Lombard rule. Milan surrendered to the Franks in 774 when Charlemagne took the title of King of the Lombards, the Iron Crown of Lombardy dates from this period
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The Duino Elegies are a collection of ten elegies written by the Bohemian-Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke. The poems,859 lines long in total, were dedicated to the Princess upon their publication in 1923, aside from brief episodes of writing in 1913 and 1915, Rilke did not return to the work until a few years after the war ended. After their publication in 1923 and Rilkes death in 1926, the Duino Elegies were quickly recognized by critics, the Duino Elegies are intensely religious, mystical poems that weigh beauty and existential suffering. The poems employ a rich symbolism of angels and salvation but not in keeping with typical Christian interpretations, Rilke begins the first elegy in an invocation of philosophical despair, Who, if I cried out, would hear me among the hierarchies of angels. And declares that every angel is terrifying, while labelling of these poems as elegies would typically imply melancholy and lamentation, many passages are marked by their positive energy and unrestrained enthusiasm.
Mans loneliness, the perfection of the angels and death, love and lovers, Rilkes poetry, and the Duino Elegies in particular, influenced many of the poets and writers of the twentieth century. After completing the work, Rilke experienced a severe crisis that lasted for two years. In 1912, still facing this severe depression and despair, Rilke was invited to Duino Castle by Princess Marie von Thurn und Taxis whom he had met a few years before, the princess and her husband Prince Alexander enthusiastically supported artists and writers. While at Duino and Princess Marie discussed the possibility of collaborating on a translation of Dante Alighieris La Vita Nuova, after the Princess left to join her husband at their Lautschin estate, Rilke spent the next few weeks at the castle preparing to focus on work. During these weeks, he was writing Marien-Leben, which he quickly wrote in his notebook. Rilke would only finish the third and fourth elegies before the onset of World War I, the third was finished in 1913 in Paris, the fourth in early 1915 in Munich.
Because of his depression, Rilke was unable to return to writing for several years, for the next two years, his mode of life was unstable and did not permit him the time or mental state he needed for his writing. In 1921, Rilke journeyed to Switzerland, hoping to immerse himself in French culture near Geneva, at the time, he was romantically involved with Baladine Klossowska. At the invitation of Werner Reinhart, Rilke moved into the Château de Muzot, Reinhart, a Swiss merchant and amateur clarinetist, used his wealth to be a patron to many twentieth-century writers and composers. He bought Muzot to allow Rilke to live there rent-free and focus on his work and Klossowska moved there in July 1921 and in the year Rilke translated writings by Paul Valéry and Michelangelo into German. With news of the death of his daughters friend, Wera Knoop, the Sonnets frequently refer to Wera, both directly where he addresses her by name and indirectly in allusions to a dancer or the mythical Eurydice. Rilke wrote to the girls mother stating that Weras ghost was commanding and impelling him to write.
In a rush of inspiration, Rilke worked on the Sonnets, in one week, Rilke completed the unfinished elegies, and from 2 February to 23 February 1922 he completed all the 55 sonnets of the two parts of Sonnets to Orpheus
Count or countess is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, the adjective form of the word is comital. The British and Irish equivalent is an earl, alternative names for the count rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as Graf in Germany and Hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era. In the Western Roman Empire, Count came to indicate generically a military commander, in the Eastern Roman Empire, from about the seventh century, count was a specific rank indicating the commander of two centuries. Military counts in the Late Empire and the Germanic successor kingdoms were often appointed by a dux, the position of comes was originally not hereditary. By virtue of their estates, many counts could pass the title to their heirs—but not always.
For instance, in Piast Poland, the position of komes was not hereditary, the title had disappeared by the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the office had been replaced by others. Only after the Partitions of Poland did the title of count resurface in the title hrabia, in the United Kingdom, the equivalent Earl can be used as a courtesy title for the eldest son of a duke or marquess. In Italy, by contrast, all the sons of certain counts were counts, in Sweden there is a distinction between counts created before and after 1809. All children in comital families elevated before 1809 are called count/countess, the following lists are originally based on a Glossary on Heraldica. org by Alexander Krischnig. The male form is followed by the female, and when available, apart from all these, a few unusual titles have been of comital rank, not necessarily to remain there. Dauphin was a comital title in southern France, used by the Dauphins of Vienne and Auvergne. The Dauphin was the lord of the province known as the région Dauphiné.
Conde-Barão Count-Baron is a title used in Portugal, notably by D. Luís Lobo da Silveira, 7th Baron of Alvito. His palace in Lisbon still exists, located in a named after him. The German Graf and Dutch graaf stems from the Byzantine-Greek grapheus meaning he who calls a meeting together), the Ottoman military title of Serdar was used in Montenegro and Serbia as a lesser noble title with the equivalent rank of a Count. Since Louis VII, the highest precedence amongst the vassals of the French crown was enjoyed by those whose benefice or temporal fief was a pairie, i. e. In the eleventh century, conti like the Count of Savoy or the Norman Count of Apulia, were virtually sovereign lords of broad territories
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities