Committees of correspondence
The committees of correspondence were shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the Thirteen Colonies on the eve of the American Revolution. They shared their plans; the Maryland Committee of Correspondence was instrumental in setting up the First Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia. These served an important role in the Revolution, by disseminating the colonial interpretation of British actions between the colonies and to foreign governments; the committees of correspondence rallied opposition on common causes and established plans for collective action, so the group of committees was the beginning of what became a formal political union among the colonies. A total of about 7,000 to 8,000 Patriots served on these committees at the colonial and local levels, comprising most of the leadership in their communities—the Loyalists were excluded; the committees became the leaders of the American resistance to British actions, determined the war effort at the state and local level.
When Congress decided to boycott British products, the colonial and local committees took charge, examining merchant records and publishing the names of merchants who attempted to defy the boycott by importing British goods. The committees promoted patriotism and home manufacturing, advising Americans to avoid luxuries, lead a more simple life; the committees extended their power over many aspects of American public life. They set up espionage networks to identify disloyal elements, displaced the royal officials, helped topple the entire Imperial system in each colony. In late 1774 and early 1775, they supervised the elections of provincial conventions, which took over the actual operation of colonial government; the function of the committees in each colony was to inform the voters of the common threat faced by all the colonies, to disseminate information from the main cities to the rural hinterlands where most of the colonists lived. As news was spread in hand-written letters or printed pamphlets to be carried by couriers on horseback or aboard ships, the committees were responsible for ensuring that this news reflected the views of their parent governmental body on a particular issue and was dispatched to the proper groups.
Many correspondents were members of the colonial legislative assemblies, were active in the secret Sons of Liberty or the Stamp Act Congress of the 1760s. The earliest committees of correspondence were formed temporarily to address a particular problem. Once a resolution was achieved, they were disbanded; the first formal committee was established in Boston in 1764 to rally opposition to the Currency Act and unpopular reforms imposed on the customs service. During the Stamp Act Crisis the following year, New York formed a committee to urge common resistance among its neighbors to the new taxes; the Province of Massachusetts Bay correspondents responded by urging other colonies to send delegates to the Stamp Act Congress that fall. The resulting committees disbanded after the crisis was over. Boston, whose radical leaders thought it was under hostile threats by the royal government, set up the first long-standing committee with the approval of a town meeting in late 1772. By spring 1773, Patriots decided to follow the Massachusetts system and began to set up their own committees in each colony.
Virginia appointed an eleven-member committee in March followed by Rhode Island, New Hampshire, South Carolina. By February 1774, eleven colonies had set up their own committees. In Massachusetts, in November 1772, Samuel Adams and Dr. Joseph Warren formed a committee in response to the Gaspée Affair and in relation to the recent British decision to have the salaries of the royal governor and judges be paid by the Crown rather than the colonial assembly, which removed the colony of its means of holding public officials accountable to their constituents. In the following months, more than one hundred other committees were formed in the towns and villages of Massachusetts; the Massachusetts committee had its headquarters in Boston and under the leadership of Adams became a model for other Patriot groups. The meeting when establishing the committee gave it the task of stating "the rights of the colonists, of this province in particular, as men, as Christians, as subjects. In March 1773, Dabney Carr proposed the formation of a permanent Committee of Correspondence before the Virginia House of Burgesses.
Virginia's own committee was formed on March 12, 1773. Its members were Peyton Randolph, Robert Carter Nicholas, Richard Bland, Richard Henry Lee, Benjamin Harrison, Edmund Pendleton, Patrick Henry, Dudley Digges, Dabney Carr, Archibald Cary, Thomas Jefferson. Among the last to form a committee of correspondence, Pennsylvania did so at a meeting in Philadelphia on May 20, 1774. In a compromise between the more radical and more conservative factions of political activists the committee was formed by combining the lists each proposed; that committee of 19 diversified and grew to 43 to 66 and to two different groups of 100 between May 1774 and its dissolution in September 1776. One hundred sixty men participated in one or more of the committees, but only four were elected to all of them: Thomas Barclay, John Cox, Jr. John Dickinson, Joseph Reed. According to Hancock, a committee of correspondence was established by Thomas McKean after ten years of agitation centered in New
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
Narragansett Bay is a bay and estuary on the north side of Rhode Island Sound covering 147 mi2, 120.5 mi2 of, in Rhode Island. The Bay forms New England's largest estuary, which functions as an expansive natural harbor and includes a small archipelago. Small parts of it extend into Massachusetts. There are more than 30 islands in the Bay. Bodies of water that are part of Narragansett Bay include the Sakonnet River, Mount Hope Bay, the southern, tidal part of the Taunton River; the bay opens on the Atlantic Ocean. Narragansett Bay can be seen on NOAA Chart 13221. "Narragansett" is derived from the southern New England Algonquian word Naiaganset " of the small point of land". Narragansett Bay comprises an area of about 147 miles; the watershed has seven river sub-drainage basins, including the Taunton and Blackstone Rivers, they provide freshwater input at 2.1 billion gallons per day. River water inflow has a seasonal variability, with the highest flow in the spring and the minimum flow in early fall.
The bay is a ria estuary, composed of the Sakonnet River valley, the East Passage river valley, the West Passage river valley. The bathymetry varies among the three passages, with the average depths of the East and Sakonnet River passages being 121 feet, 33 feet, 25 feet respectively. Narragansett Bay is a ria that consists of a series of flooded river valleys formed of dropped crustal blocks in a horst and graben system, subsiding between a shifting fault system. Providence sits at the northernmost arm of the bay. Many of Providence's suburbs are on the bay, including Warwick and Cranston. Newport is located at the south end of Aquidneck Island on the ocean, is the home of the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, a major United States Navy training center; the city of Fall River, Massachusetts is located at the confluence of the Taunton River and Mount Hope Bay, which form the northeasternmost part of Narragansett Bay. The southwest side of the bay includes the seaside tourist towns of Wickford.
Quonset Point, south of Warwick, gives its name to the Quonset hut. Roger Williams University is located in Rhode Island overlooking the Bay. Tides in the watershed are measured at six stations: Providence, Fall River, Quonset Point, Conimicut Light, Prudence Island, Newport. In shallow water, sound waves are used to measure water height by measuring the travel time of the waves. In deeper water, tides are measured with pressure-sensing tide gauges that are placed on the ocean floor to measure water height; the bay's tides are semi-diurnal, meaning that the region experiences two low tides daily. The tides range in height from 3.6 feet at the bay's mouth, 4.6 feet at its head. The difference in water depth between high and low tide averages to about 4 feet; the lunar, semi-diurnal M2 tide occurs at a period of 12.42 hours, with two tides occurring in the watershed every 24 hours and 50 minutes. The watershed's neap and spring tides occur every 14.8 days. In Narragansett bay, the tides show a distinct double-peak flood during high tide and single peak ebb during low tide.
The movement of water within a system is its circulation. Estuaries are given a classification depending on the pattern of their circulations; the circulation classification can be well-mixed mixed, salt wedge, or Fjord-type. For Narragansett, the circulation is well-mixed. Narragansett Bay circulation is made up of forces provided by the winds and changes in water density within the watershed, its circulation is the result of the flow of fresh water at the head interacting with salt water at the point where the bay meets the open ocean. Residence time of water due to the circulation of Narragansett Bay is 10–40 days, with an average of 26 days. Tidal mixing is the dominant driver of circulation patterns in the bay, where currents can reach up to 2.5 feet per second. Non-tidal currents such as the flow of low salinity water at the surface out of the bay and high salinity deep water into the bay contribute to a current of about 0.33 feet per second. Winds drive circulation patterns in the bay. In the winter, winds come from the northwest.
Wind-driven waves of over 4.25 feet help mix surface waters. Density-driven forces are the third factor affecting circulation. Fresh water inflow comes from natural sources such as atmospheric precipitation and inflow from the many rivers that feed into the watershed, man-made sources such as water treatment plants. Fresh and saltwater mixing results in a salinity range in the bay of 24 ppt in the upper Providence River area to 32 ppt at the mouth of the bay; the bay's currents and circulation patterns influence the sediment deposits within the region. The majority of the sediments within the bay are fine-grained material such as detritus, clay-silt, sand-silt-clay. Scientists have been able to identify 11 types of sediment that range from course gravels to fine silts; the bay's currents deposit fine materials through the harbors of the lower and middle sections of the bay, the coarse, heavy materials are deposited in the lower areas of the bay where the water velocities are higher. The first visit by Europeans to the bay
Packet boats were medium-sized boats designed for domestic mail and freight transportation in European countries and their colonies, including North American rivers and canals. They were used extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries and featured scheduled service; when such ships were put into use in the 18th century on the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain and its colonies, the services were called the packet trade. Packet craft were used extensively in European coastal mail services since the 17th century, added cramped passenger accommodation; as early as 1629, the Dutch East India Company was carrying some passengers on the ill-fated Batavia from Texel in Holland to Java. Scheduled services were offered, but the time journeys took depended much on the weather, they are found to be a subject of Daniel Defoe's 1724 novel Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress. In England the King maintained a weekly packet service with the continent and Ireland using 15 packet vessels, their importance is evident from the fact that the first craft built in the colony of New South Wales was the Rose Hill Packet.
Over the two centuries of the sailing packet craft development, they came in various rig configurations which included: schooners, schooners-brigs, cutters, brigantines, feluccas, xebecs and their ultimate development in the clipper ships. Earlier they were known as dispatch boats, but the service was provided by privateers during time of war, on occasion chartered private yachts. News of "record passages" was eagerly awaited by the public, the craft's captain and crew were celebrated in the press. Behind this search for sailing faster than the wind however lay the foundations for a development in naval architecture and its science which would serve until the appearance of the steam vessels. In 1863, during the Civil War, the packet boat Marshall carried the body of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson from Lynchburg to his home in Lexington, Virginia for burial; the American canal packet boats were narrow to accommodate canals, but might be 70–90 feet long. When the Erie Canal opened in New York state in 1825 along the Mohawk River, demand rose for travelers to be accommodated.
Canal packet boats included cabin space for up to 60 passengers. Unlike European and American sailing vessels, that sought to attain greater speed under sail, the canal packet boats were drawn through the Erie Canal by teams of two or three horses or mules. Compared to overland travel, the boats were much more comfortable. Travelers could get from New York City to Buffalo in ten days, with a combination of sailing and packet boats; some passengers took the boats to see both the natural landscapes. Thousands of others used packet boats to emigrate to Ohio and other parts of the Midwest; these boats were instrumental in the settling of and travel within Upstate New York through the branch canals such as the Chenango Canal. Packet boats were popular along the James River and Kanawha Canal in Virginia, allowing travel beyond the falls upriver. Mail steamers were steamships which carried the mail across waterways, such as across an ocean or between islands during the 19th century and early 20th century, when the cost of sending a letter was declining to the point an ordinary person could afford the cost of sending a letter across great distances.
In addition to carrying mail, most mail steamers carried passengers or cargo since the revenue from the mail service, if any, was insufficient by itself to pay for the cost of its travel. However, the advantage for a steamship carrying mail was that its arrival would be advertised in advance in the newspapers, thus giving it "free advertising" as a travel option for passengers or cargo. In most cases, mail carried by mail steamers was delivered to the post office to which it was addressed. In some cases, the incoming mail would be advertised in the local newspaper for pickup at the post office or at the steamship's office for a fee, if not fee-paid; because of political instability when a post office could not provide normal services, incoming mail from a mail steamer would be delivered to a local delivery service, which would deliver the mail and charge the addressee an extra fee for the service. When this occurred, the local delivery service would place its own local service stamp or mark on the envelope when the extra fee was paid.
Mail carried by these steamers – sometimes known as paquebot mail – was subject to various regulations by the governments involved as well as the Universal Postal Union's regulations stated at the UPU Vienna Conference of 1891. The C-82 Packet twin-engined, twin-boom cargo aircraft designed and built by Fairchild Aircraft was named as a tribute to the packet boat, it was used by the United States Army Air Forces and the successor United States Air Force following World War II. Allan Line Royal Mail Steamers Postal history Royal Mail Ship Pony Express TPO and Seapost Society for all collectors of Rail and Ship Mail worldwide Service Steamer Service Postal Matters Arrival of the Mail! Paquebot mail begins at sea, postmarked on land Glossary of Stamp Collecting Terms Alaska Mail Service: the Mail Steamer Elsie By the 1930s a method of signalling the impending arrival of a mail steamer at Aden was still needed Woodcut print 1875 photo of Olive, canal freighter Driver and team
Goat Island (Rhode Island)
Goat Island is a small island in Narragansett Bay and is part of the city of Newport, Rhode Island, U. S; the island is connected to the Easton's Point neighborhood via a causeway bridge. It is home to the Newport Harbor Light, residences, a restaurant, event space, hotel, it was home to several military forts and to the U. S. Naval Torpedo Station, was the site of the attacks on HMS St John and HMS Liberty. Narragansett Indians called the island "Nante Sinunk" and sold it in 1658. Early Newport colonists used the island as a goat pasture. An earthen fort was built on Goat Island in 1703 during the War of Spanish Succession, it was named "Fort Anne" after the reigning Queen Anne. On Friday, 19 July 1723, twenty-six pirates were buried on the north end of Goat Island, on the shore, between high and low water mark; the significance of this placement is that, to Christians of this era, this inter-tidal land was considered "unhallowed ground," like burials placed outside of a consecrated cemetery. The men had been hanged at nearby Bull's Point.
They were: Charles Harris, Thomas Linicar, Daniel Hyde, Stephen Mundon, Abraham Lacy, Edward Lawson, John Tomkins, Francis Laughton, John Fisgerald, William Studfield, Owen Rice, William Read, John Bright, Thomas Hazel, William Blades, Thomas Hagget, Peter Cues, William Jones, Edward Eaton, John Brown, James Sprinkly, Joseph Sound, Charles Church, John Waters, Thomas Powell, Joseph Libbey. "The pirates were all young men, most of them natives of England." The following is taken from The Salem Observer, November 11, 1843: "...this was the most extensive execution of pirates that took place at one time in the Colonies, it was attended by a vast multitude from every part of New England."In 1738, a stone fort was built and renamed Fort George after King George II. In 1764, Newporters took over Fort George and fired shots at HMS St. John, a British ship with a crew that had stolen from local merchants. In 1769, Rhode Islanders burned the customs ship HMS Liberty when it drifted to the north end of Goat Island in another early act of rebellion against British rule.
In September 2018 maritime archaeologists reported that they had discovered the resting place of Captain Cook's HMS Endeavour just off the coast of Goat Island, where it had been used to blockade the British during the US Revolutionary War. The ship and its crew had been made famous as the first European explorers to visit Australia's east coast. In 1775, the Fort was renamed Fort Liberty; the British army occupied Newport from 1776 through 1779 and renamed it Fort George during that time. In 1784 it was renamed Fort Washington after George Washington. In 1794, Newport sold Goat Island to the federal government for $1,500 to maintain a military fort to defend Newport Harbor; the fort was named Fort Wolcott in commemoration the services of Oliver Wolcott, a General of the Militia and a member of the Continental Congress from Connecticut. In 1824, the first Newport Harbor Lighthouse was constructed at the north end of the island. Fort Wolcott was active until 1835 when the garrison was transferred to Florida to fight the Seminole Indians.
In 1851 the original lighthouse moved to Prudence Island to become Prudence Island Light, the current Newport Harbor Light was constructed on a dike near the former lighthouse site. The area surrounding the dike was filled in when the hotel was constructed much later. In 1869 the U. S. Naval Torpedo Station was founded on the site of the former Army fort; the Station was expanded over the next 100 years and produced many of the Navy's torpedoes through World War I and World War II at the island's Navy Torpedo Factory. The torpedo station was closed in 1951 and Naval Undersea Warfare Center was created with a facility nearby. In addition to the Goat Island lighthouse, the Coast Guard has maintained a cutter at Goat Island since at least the late 1960s; the Point-class cutter USCGC Point Turner served her entire 31-year career at Goat Island from when she was commissioned on 14 April 1967 until she was decommissioned on 3 April 1998. The tradition of having a Coast Guard cutter stationed at Goat Island resumed when the Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boat USCGC Tiger Shark was commissioned on 16 July 2005.
In the 1960s, Goat Island was sold to Globe Manufacturing. Over the next several decades, Globe constructed the Colonial Hilton Hotel and Goat Island South Condominiums, converted the only former navy building remaining on the island into the Goat Island Marina and Marina Bar & Grille. In the 1990s Island Development Corp. constructed the "Regatta Club", an event venue. After two Rhode Island Supreme Court decisions regarding the development, Goat Island South Condominiums took possession of the Regatta Club, leasing it to a third party. In 2006, Longwood Venues and Destinations opened Belle Mer, an event space for private functions, spanning 7.5 acres. Rhode Island portal Denison, Frederic; the Past and the Present: Narragansett Sea and Shore, an Illustrated Guide to Providence, Narragansett Pier, Block Island, Watch Hill, Rocky Point, Silver Spring, All the Famous Sea-Side Resorts of Rhode Island, with a Map of Narragansett Bay. Providence: J. A. & R. A. Reid. OCLC 191326002. Seavey, George L..
Rhode Island's Coastal Natural Areas: Priorities for Protection and Management. Marine Technical Report 43. Kingston, RI: Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island. OCLC 853036255. Prologue: July 19, 1723 from gregflemming.com Goat Islan
Index of Rhode Island-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U. 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