Antonio de Mendoza
Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco was the first Viceroy of New Spain, serving from November 14, 1535 to November 25, 1550, the third Viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1551, until his death on July 21, 1552. Mendoza was born at Alcalá la Real, the son of the 2nd Count of Tendilla, Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones, Francisca Pacheco, he was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza. Mendoza became Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and Spanish settlers, his difficult assignment was to govern in the king's name without making an enemy of Hernando Cortés. Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, since he had led the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire; the Emperor Charles V and the Council of the Indies judged Cortés too independent of crown authority to be made viceroy and had created a high court in New Spain in 1528, appointing Nuño de Guzmán, a rival of Cortés as its president to counter Cortés's power.
In 1530 the crown granted Cortés the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca with multiple encomiendas. With the arrival of Viceroy Mendoza in 1535, Cortés pursued his own economic interests from his palace in Cuernavaca. Although the Spanish had occupied and expanded explorations and settlement in the Caribbean, it was not until the conquest of central Mexico that the crown appointed a viceroy, who would be the king's living image in Mexico and envisioned to assert royal authority in the Kingdom of New Spain. To further cement his authority and establish a solid society he established marital alliances with powerful settlers commited to the development of New Spain, such as Marina de la Caballería. Mendoza's status as a noble and his family's loyalty to the Spanish crown made him a suitable candidate for appointment. Don Antonio and Bishop Juan de Zumárraga were key in the formation of two institutions of Mexico: the Colegio de Santa Cruz at Tlatelolco, where the sons of Aztec nobles studied Latin, rhetoric and music, the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, modeled on the University of Salamanca, which trained young men for the Catholic Church.
These institutions were the first and second universities to be established in the mainland of the Americas. In 1536 he began the minting of copper coins, known as macuquinas. Under his instructions, the first printing press in the New World was brought to Mexico in 1539, by printer Juan Pablos; the first book printed in Mexico: La Escala Espiritual de San Juan Clímaco. On May 18, 1541 don Antonio founded the city of Valladolid; when the Spanish crown issued the New Laws that put restrictions on the grants of elite conquerors awarded grants of labor encomenderos, the viceroy prudently refrained from implementing the most draconian aspects of the edicts, which no longer permitted an encomendero family holding the grant in perpetuity. In Peru, the implementation of the New Laws resulted in outright rebellion and the assassination of the viceroy. Mendoza's policy of obedezco pero no cumplo meant "I respect the authority of the crown, but in my judgment I do not implement particular legislation."In 1542 an insurrection of the Indians, called the Mixtón Rebellion threatened to push the Spaniards out of northwestern Mexico, bringing the area under indigenous control.
The Viceroy himself had to bring all disposable manpower. The rebellion was quashed and the surviving Indians were harshly punished. By the viceroy's order men and children were seized and executed, some by cannon fire, some torn apart by dogs, others stabbed. In 1548 he suppressed an uprising of the Zapotecs; as viceroy, Mendoza commissioned the expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to explore and establish settlements in the northern lands of New Spain in 1540-42, the expedition of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo to explore the western coastline of Alta California in 1542-43, the expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos to the Philippines in 1542-43. The Codex Mendoza is named for him, he commissioned it. During his term of office, Mendoza is credited with consolidating the sovereignty of the Crown throughout the Spanish conquests in New Spain and limiting the power and ambition of the first conquistadors. Many of the political and economic policies he established endured throughout the entire colonial period.
He promoted the construction of hospitals and schools and encouraged improvements in agriculture and mining. His administration did much to bring peace to New Spain, he died in Lima. He was succeeded as viceroy of New Spain by Don Luis de Velasco, it is reported that his advice to his successor was: "Do little and do that slowly." On July 4, 1549 in Brussels, Emperor Charles V named Mendoza viceroy of Peru. He traveled overland from Mexico to Panama, by boat to Peru, he arrived and took up his new office on November 25, 1550. However, he soon became ill, died in 1552, his tomb is in the Cathedral of Lima, along with that of the Spanish conqueror of Peru, Francisco Pizarro. Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County, California was named in his honor in 1565. From the cape, Mendocino County, the town of Mendocino, Mendocino National Forest were named in the 19th and 20th centuries. "Mendoza, Antonio de," Enciclopedia de México, v. 9. Mexico City, 1988. "Mendoza, Antonio de," Encyclopædia Britannica, v. 6. Chicago, 1983.
García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 1. Mexico Ci
Luis de Velasco, 1st Marquess of Salinas
Luis de Velasco, 1st Marquess of Salinas, was a Spanish nobleman, son of the second viceroy of New Spain, himself the eighth viceroy. He governed from January 27, 1590 to November 4, 1595, again from July 2, 1607, to June 10, 1611. In between he was viceroy of Peru for eight years. Born in Spain, Luis de Velasco remained in Spain with his mother and siblings when his father was appointed Viceroy of New Spain, his brother, don Antonio de Velasco, was a "gentilhombre de la boca" to Prince Philip. The two brothers accompanied Philip to England, they traveled on with the court to Brussels, where young don Luis was admitted to the military-religious order of Santiago. In about 1560 he joined his father in Mexico City, he married doña María de Ircio, the daughter of a conquistador, Martín de Ircio, of the step-sister of the first viceroy, doña María de Mendoza. After the death of his father, he served as alderman in the capital. However, he became disgusted with Viceroy Álvaro Manrique de Zúñiga, marqués de Villamanrique and returned to Spain.
He presented himself at the court of Philip II, the king named him ambassador to Florence. On July 19, 1589, Velasco received the appointment as the new viceroy of New Spain, replacing Manrique; because the news that had reached Spain indicated that the colony was in turmoil, he was advised not to disembark at Veracruz, the usual port of entry. Instead he arrived in the province of Pánuco. On his arrival he realized, he sailed on to Veracruz, where he disembarked in the middle of December, 1589. From Veracruz he traveled to Mexico City, taking possession of the government on January 27, 1590. There he was received with great happiness by all classes. In 1591 he obtained the pacification of the Chichimeca tribes, in constant revolt and outside of Spanish control; the chiefs had asked the Spanish to supply food. Velasco accepted, a peace treaty was signed. To introduce the Chichimecas to the customs of the colony, 400 Tlaxcalteca families were sent to live with them; the Franciscans founded four colonies among the Chichimecas, with their center at Zacatecas.
In return, Velasco reduced the taxes, levied on the Indians and charged the Real Hacienda to supply lawyers to represent the tribes and ease their entry into the society of the colony. In autumn of 1595, Valasco selected and appointed Juan de Oñate governor and head of the latter's now famous expedition into North America, he promoted industry in New Spain spinning and weaving. He inaugurated the Paseo de la Alameda in Mexico City, improved the fortifications of San Juan de Ulúa in Veracruz. In 1595, Velasco was named viceroy of Peru, he embarked from Acapulco in November of that year. However, after eight years in Peru he found himself tired and sick, asked to be relieved of the government so that he could return to New Spain. Upon his return, he devoted himself to his encomiendas Teulitlán. On February 25, 1607, Velasco hijo was again named viceroy of New Spain, this time by the new king, Philip III, he took possession of the government on July 2. He took up a project to dig the Huehuetoca canal, for flood control.
Heretofore during the rainy season, year after year, Mexico City had been flooded. The canal project was under the direction of Enrico Martínez, an engineer, Juan Sánchez, a mathematician of the Society of Jesus. Work on the canal commenced on November 28, 1607. In February 1609 a royal edict arrived in Mexico prohibiting once again the enslavement of the Indians. Velasco hijo rigorously enforced this decree against the mineowners. Like his father, this viceroy was known as a defender of the Indians. In 1609 rumors of an impending rebellion of Negroes circulated. Velasco took preventative measures, including sending an armed force under Captain Pedro González de Herrera to Puebla. Herrera was to combat the escaped slaves and rebels on the Rio Blanco, who preyed on travelers between Veracruz and Mexico City; the leader of the blacks, Gaspar Yanga, sent a letter to Captain Herrera. The letter outlined the mistreatment of the blacks. Velasco took cognizance of the letter, but not before a bloody battle was fought, with heavy losses on each side.
Velasco arranged for the escaped slaves to found their own village, San Lorenzo de los Negros, near Córdova. Luis de Velasco was involved in the establishment of trade and diplomatic relations with Japan, he received in 1610 the embassy of Luis Sotelo and Tanaka Shōsuke, which had sailed from Japan on the Japanese sailship San Buena Ventura, agreed to send an ambassador to Japan in the person of the famous explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno, with the added mission of exploring the "gold and silver islands" which were thought to be east of the Japanese isles. Luis de Velasco confiscated the Japanese ship, fearful that the Japanese would further master the technique of trans-oceanic voyages. Vizcaíno sailed from Acapulco in the San Bernardo on March 22, 1611, with the emissaries from Japan, arriving in Uraga on June 16 of that year. From there he traveled to Edo to meet the second shōgun Hidetada, thence to Sumpa to meet with ex-shōgun Ieyasu. Vizcaíno, having lost his ship, sailed from Japan October 28, 1613, on board the Japanese galleon San Juan Bautista and arrived back at Acapulco on January 25, 1614.
He was accompanied by Hasekura Tsunenaga, designated as the Japanese ambassador to Spain, about 140 other Japanese. In 1610 K
Philip III of Spain
Philip III was King of Spain. He was as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. Philip III married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Although known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been negative – an'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a'miserable monarch,' whose'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War through an successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.
After Philip III's older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos' condition had been the influence of the warring factions at the Spanish court. He believed that Carlos' education and upbringing had been badly affected by this, resulting in his lunacy and disobedience, accordingly he set out to pay much greater attention to arrangements for his sons. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga Prince Diego's governor, to continue this role for Philip, chose García de Loaysa as his tutor, they were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, ensure he avoided the same fate as Carlos. Philip's education was to follow the model for royal princes laid down by Father Juan de Mariana, focusing on the imposition of restraints and encouragement to form the personality of the individual at an early age, aiming to deliver a king, neither tyrannical nor excessively under the influence of his courtiers.
Prince Philip appears to have been liked by his contemporaries:'dynamic, good-natured and earnest,' suitably pious, having a'lively body and a peaceful disposition,' albeit with a weak constitution. The comparison with the memory of the disobedient and insane Carlos was a positive one, although some commented that Prince Philip appeared less intelligent and politically competent than his late brother. Indeed, although Philip was educated in Latin, French and astronomy, appears to have been a competent linguist, recent historians suspect that much of his tutors' focus on Philip's undeniably pleasant and respectful disposition was to avoid reporting that, languages aside, he was not in fact intelligent or academically gifted. Nonetheless, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue. Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – a gentleman of the King's chamber, in his early teens.
Lerma and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philip's tutors. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence. By now in poor health himself, King Philip II was becoming concerned over the prince's future, he attempted to establish de Moura as a future, trusted advisor to his son, reinforcing de Loaysa's position by appointing him archbishop; the prince received a conservative Dominican confessor. The following year, Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the Spanish Empire to his son, King Philip III. Philip married his cousin, Margaret of Austria, on 18 a year after becoming king. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret was considered by contemporaries to be pious – in some cases, excessively pious, too influenced by the Church –'astute and skillful' in her political dealings, although'melancholic' and unhappy over the influence of the Duke of Lerma over her husband at court.
Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an'affectionate, close relationship' with Margaret, paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Margaret, alongside Philip's grandmother/aunt, Empress Maria – the Austrian representative to the Spanish court – and Margaret of the Cross, Maria's daughter – formed a powerful, uncompromising Catholic and pro-Austrian voice within Philip's life, they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip acquired other religious advisors. Father Juan de Santa Maria – confessor to Philip's daughter, doña Maria, was felt by contemporaries to have an excessive influence over Philip at the end of his life, both he and Luis de Aliaga, Philip's own confessor, were credited with influencing the overthrow of Lerma in 1618. Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margaret's, was criticised for her influence over the King's actions.
The Spanish crown at the time ruled through a system of royal coun
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave, is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez. Veracruz is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north, San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo to the west, Puebla to the southwest and Chiapas to the south, Tabasco to the southeast. On its east, Veracruz has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico; the state is noted for its mixed indigenous populations. Its cuisine reflects the many cultural influences that have come through the state because of the importance of the port of Veracruz. In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos, Córdoba, Minatitlán, Poza Rica, Boca Del Río and Orizaba; the full name of the state is Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave. Veracruz was named after the city of Veracruz, called the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz.
The suffix is in honor of Ignacio de la Llave y Segura Zevallos, the governor of Veracruz from 1861 to 1862. The state's seal was authorized by the state legislature in 1954, adapting the one used for the port of Veracruz and created by the Spanish in the early 16th century; the state is a crescent-shaped strip of land wedged between the Sierra Madre Oriental to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east. Its total area is 78,815 km2, accounting for about 3.7% of Mexico's total territory. It stretches about 650 km north to south, but its width varies from between 212 km to 36 km, with an average of about 100 km in width. Veracruz shares common borders with the states of Tamaulipas and Chiapas, Puebla and San Luis Potosí. Veracruz has 690 km of coastline with the Gulf of Mexico; the natural geography can be categoried into nine regions: The Sierra de Zongolica, the Tecolutla Region, the Huayacocotla Region, the Metlac River area, the Tuxtlas Region, the Central Region, the Laguna del Castillo Region, the Pueblo Viejo-Tamiahua Region and the Laguna de Alvarado Region.
The topography changes drastically, rising from the narrow coastal plains to the highlands of the eastern Sierra Madre. Elevation varies from sea level to the Pico de Orizaba, Mexico's highest peak at 5,636 m above sea level; the coast consists of low sandy strips interspersed with tidewater lagoons. Most of the long coastline is narrow and sandy with unstable dunes, small shifting lagoons and points; the mountains are of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Mountain ranges include the Sierra de Topila, Sierra de Otontepec, Sierra de Huayacocotla, Sierra de Coxquihui, Sierra de Chiconquiaco, Sierra de Jalacingo, Sierra de Axocuapan, Sierra de Huatusco, Sierra de Zongolica and the Sierra de Los Tuxtla. Major peaks include Pico de Orizaba, Cofre de Perote, Cerro de Tecomates, Cerro del Vigía Alta and Cerro de 3 Tortas; the Pico de Orizaba is covered in snow year round. Major valleys include the Acultzingo, Córdoba, Maltrata and San Andrés. More than 40 rivers and tributaries provide water for irrigation and hydroelectric power.
All of the rivers and streams that cross the state begin in the Sierra Madre Oriental or in the Central Mesa, flowing east to the Gulf of Mexico. The important ones include: Actopan River, Acuatempan river, Río Blanco, Cazones River, Coatzacoalcos River, Río de La Antigua, Hueyapan River, Jamapa River, Nautla River, Pánuco River, Papaloapan River, Tecolutla River, Tonalá River, Tuxpan River and Xoloapa River; the largest in terms of water discharge are the Pánuco, Papaloapan and Uxpanapa. The Panuco, Tuxpan and Coatzacoalcos are navigable. Two of Mexico's most polluted rivers, the Coatzacoalcos and the Río Blanco are located in the state. Much of the pollution comes from industrial sources, but the discharge of sewerage and uncontrolled garbage disposal are major contributors; the state has few sewage treatment plants, with only 10% of sewage being treated before discharge. The state has ten major waterfalls and ten major coastal lagoons. There is only one significant lake, called Lake Catemaco.
Off the coast are the islands of Isla de Lobos, Isla de los Burros, Isla de Sacrificios, Isla de Salmendina, Isla del Idolo, Isladel Toro, Isla Frijoles, Isla Juan A Ramirez, Isla Pajaros and Isla Terrón and the ocean reefs called Blanquilla, Tangüillo, Gualleguilla, Anegada de Adento Anegada de Afuera and Cabezo. The large variation of altitude results in a large mixture of climates, from cold, snow-topped mountain peaks to warm wet tropical areas on the coast. 32% of the state is classified as hot and humid, 52% as hot and semi humid, 9% is warm and humid, 6% as temperate and humid and 1% is classified as cold. Hot and humid and hot and semi-humid climates dominate from sea level to about 1,000 m above sea level. Average annual temperature ranges from 22 to 26C with precipitation varying from 2,000 mm to just over 3,500 mm per year. Cooler and humid climates are found at elevations between 1,000 m and 1,600 m (5,249
Juan de Palafox y Mendoza
Blessed Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was a Spanish politician and Catholic clergyman in 17th century Spain and a viceregal of Mexico. Palafox was the Bishop of Puebla, the interim Archbishop of Mexico, he held political office, from June 10, 1642 to November 23, 1642 as the Viceroy of New Spain. He lost a high-profile struggle with the Jesuits in New Spain, resulting in a recall to Spain, to the minor Diocese of Osma in Old Castile. Although a case was opened for his beatification shortly after he died in 1659, he was not designated "Blessed" until 2011. Born in Navarre, Don Juan Palafox y Mendoza was the natural son of Jaime de Palafox, the Marquis of Ariaza, of the Aragonese nobility, his mother became a Carmelite nun. He was taken in by a family of millers who gave him the name "Juan" and raised him for ten years, after which his father recognized him, had him educated at Alcalá and Salamanca. In 1626 he was a deputy of the nobility in the Cortes de Monzón, a prosecutor at the Council of War and a member of the Council of the Indies, the chief administrative body for administration of the overseas territories of the Spanish Empire.
Palafox was ordained in 1629, became the chaplain of Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, the sister of King Philip IV of Spain. He accompanied her on her various trips around Europe. In 1639 Philip IV nominated him, Pope Urban VIII appointed him, as Bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles in viceroyal Mexico. Puebla de los Ángeles was the second largest city in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and is the present day City of Puebla, he was consecrated at Madrid on December 27, 1639. As bishop, Palafox arrived in Veracruz on June 24, 1640, he was in the company of the new Viceroy of New Spain, Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona, whom he had gotten to know during the voyage. That same ship brought an Irishman, William Lamport, known in New Spain as Don Guillén de Lombardo y Guzmán, who played a role in political turmoil during the 1640s. Palafox was named Visitador, to investigate the two previous viceroys, he served as Bishop of Puebla from 1640 to 1655, as interim archbishop of Mexico from 1642 to 1643.
He was embroiled in a major controversy with the Jesuits over ecclesiastical jurisdiction that cost him his post as Bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles. The Spanish crown was moving to displace mendicant orders from their populous and lucrative doctrinas in central Mexico, replace them with parishes staffed by secular clergy with benefices rather than mendicants, he was successful in doing so in Puebla. He targeted the Jesuits as another entity that did not respect ecclesiastical jurisdiction by paying tithes a 10% tax on agricultural production, to the Church hierarchy. In the 1640s when he took on the Jesuits, Palafox pointed out that the Jesuit order was a hugely wealthy landowner in New Spain. Jesuits claimed that the income from their haciendas went toward support of their educational institutions and their missionary work on the colonial frontiers. On principle, Palafox asserted that it was the spiritual duty of all to pay the tithe, which the Jesuits steadfastly refused to do; the tithe transferred wealth from the countryside's landed estates to cities and towns, supporting the cathedral chapter, parish priests, charitable institutions.
As a powerful bishop, Palafox would have been interested in increasing the revenue from Jesuit tithes, but in asserting episcopal authority over that order. In 1647, the diocese of Puebla ordered all Jesuits to produce licenses from the diocese to preach and hear confession, something, required under canon law and empowered bishops; the Jesuits asserted they needed no such licenses, that they could exercise such powers without special permission of a bishop. Palafox wrote that if this were true, that the bishop had no power in his own diocese and he would be separated from his own flock by "an alien authority"; the Jesuits found an ally against Palafox in the new viceroy, García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, 2nd Count of Salvatierra. Salvatierra sought to arrest Palafox. In 1647, rather than be arrested, which might have produced an uprising in Puebla against the viceroy's abuse of authority, Palafox fled to the mountains outside the city; the move was calculated to show the crown that the situation in New Spain was grave, that the viceroy and the Jesuits were challenging the rightful place of episcopal authority.
In that he failed and was humiliated by being recalled to Spain. Palafox laid formal complaints against the Jesuits at Rome; the pope, refused to approve his censures, all he could obtain was a brief from Pope Innocent X, commanding the Jesuits to respect the episcopal jurisdiction. On May 20, 1655, Palafox and the Jesuits signed an accord. In the same year the Jesuits succeeded in securing his transfer to the little see of Osma in Old Castile. Although Palafox's ecclesiastical career went into eclipse, his writings against the Jesuits were subsequently published in France and in the eighteenth century, his writings were used to strengthen the case for regalist authority resulting in the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain and Spanish territories in 1767; some of Palafox’s influential anti-Jesuit writings deals with the Chinese Rites controversy. Palafox had jurisdiction as a bishop on certain Asian missions, but - according to Costa Rican scholar Ricardo Martínez Esquivel - the main reason he declared the Jesuit’s tolerance for traditional ancestor worship practices among Chinese converts to Christianity as heretic was “his persona
Navarre. The capital city is Pamplona; the first documented use of a name resembling Navarra, Nafarroa, or Naparroa is a reference to navarros, in Eginhard's early-9th-century chronicle of the feats of the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne. Other Royal Frankish Annals feature nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name. Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolour". Basque naba: "valley", "plain" + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba to be linguistically part of a wider Vasconic or Aquitanian language substrate, rather than Basque per se. During the Roman Empire, the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe, populated the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, including the area which would become Navarre. In the mountainous north, the Vascones escaped large-scale Roman settlement, except for some coastal areas—for example Oiasso —and the flatter areas to the south, which were amenable to large-scale Roman farming—vineyards and wheat crops. There is no evidence of battles fought or general hostility between Romans and Basques, as they had the same enemies.
Neither the Visigoths nor the Franks completely subjugated the area. The Vascones assimilated neighbouring tribes as of the 7th century AD. In the year 778, the Basques defeated a Frankish army at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Following the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was elected King of Pamplona supported by the muwallad Banu Qasi of Tudela, establishing a Basque kingdom, called Navarre; that kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of Sancho III, comprising most of the Christian realms to the south of the Pyrenees, a short overlordship of Gascony. When Sancho III died in 1035, the kingdom was divided between his sons, it never recovered its political power, while its commercial importance increased as traders and pilgrims poured into the kingdom via the Way of Saint James. In 1200, Navarre lost the key western Basque districts to Alphonse VIII of Castile, leaving the kingdom landlocked. Navarre contributed with a small but symbolic force of 200 knights to the decisive Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 against the Almohads.
The native line of kings came to an end in 1234. However, the Navarrese kept most of their strong institutions; the death of Queen Blanche I inaugurated a civil war period between the Beaumont and Agramont confederacies with the intervention of the Castilian-Aragonese House of Trastámara in Navarre's internal affairs. In 1512, Navarre was invaded by Ferdinand the Catholic's troops, with Queen Catherine and King John III withdrawing to the north of the Pyrenees, establishing a Kingdom of Navarre-Béarn, led by Queen Joan III as of 1555. To the south of the Pyrenees, Navarre was annexed to the Crown of Castile, but kept a separate ambiguous status, a shaky balance up to 1610—King Henry III ready to march over Spanish Navarre. A Chartered Government was established, the kingdom managed to keep home rule. Tensions with the Spanish government came to a head as of 1794, when Spanish premier Manuel Godoy attempted to suppress Navarrese and Basque self-government altogether, with the end of the First Carlist War bringing the kingdom and its home rule to an end.
After the 1839 Convention of Bergara, a reduced version of home rule was passed in 1839. However, the 1841 Act for the Modification of Fueros made the kingdom into a province after a compromise was reached by the Spanish government with officials of the Provincial Council of Navarre; the relocation of customs from the Ebro river to the Pyrenees in 1841 prompted the collapse of Navarre’s customary cross-Pyrenean trade and the rise of smuggling. Amid instability in Spain, Carlists took over in the rest of the Basque provinces. An actual Basque state was established during the Third Carlist War with Estella as its capital, but King Alfonso XII's restoration in the throne of Spain and a counter-attack prompted the Carlist defeat; the end of the Third Carlist War saw a renewed wave of Spanish centralisation directly affecting Navarre. In 1893–1894 the Gamazada popular uprising took place centred in Pamplona against Madrid's governmental decisions breaching the 1841 chartered provisions. Except for a small faction, all parties in Navarre agreed on the need for a new political framework based on home rule within the Laurak Bat, the Basque districts in Spain.
Among these, the Carlists stood out, who politically dominated the province, resented an increased string of rulings and laws passed by Madrid, as well as left leaning influences. Unlike Biscay or Gipuzkoa, Navarre did not develop manufacturing during this period, remaining a rural economy. In 1932, a Basque Country's separate statute failed to take off over disagreements on the centrality of Catholicism, a scene of political radicalisation ensued dividing the leftist and rightist forces during the 2nd
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const