National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is a university in France with nearly 51,000 students and over 3,200 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, founded in 1538, was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 19 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities; the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius.
The Lutheran German university still persisted after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, but turned into a French speaking university during the French Revolution. The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place. During the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created. In 1971, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University Marc Bloch University Robert Schuman University These were, reunited in 2009, were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.
The university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the "Cité Administrative", "Esplanade" and "Gallia" bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include: Escarpe, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, PEGE and others; the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the main inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects and years of establishment; the administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the "Agora" building. Karl Ferdinand Braun Paul Ehrlich Hermann Emil Fischer Jules Hoffmann Albrecht Kossel Martin Karplus Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Jean-Marie Lehn Otto Loewi Otto Fritz Meyerhof Louis Néel Wilhelm Röntgen Albert Schweitzer Hermann Staudinger Adolf von Baeyer Max von Laue Pieter Zeeman Jean-Pierre Sauvage Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg List of early modern universities in Europe Observatory of Strasbourg On the Poverty of Student Life Musée de minéralogie Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg Reichsuniversität Straßburg University of Strasbourg The Art and Science collections of the University of Strasbourg
Parliament of the World's Religions
There have been several meetings referred to as a Parliament of the World's Religions, the first being the World's Parliament of Religions of 1893, an attempt to create a global dialogue of faiths. The event was celebrated by another conference on its centenary in 1993; this led to a new series of conferences under the official title Parliament of the World's Religions. An organization was incorporated in 1988 to carry out the tradition of the Parliament of the World's Religions by marking the centennial of the first Parliament; the Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions is headquartered in Chicago. Its board of trustees are elected from various faith communities. Rev. Dr. Larry Greenfield serves as its executive director. In 1893, the city of Chicago hosted an early world's fair. So many people were coming to Chicago from all over the world that many smaller conferences, called Congresses and Parliaments, were scheduled to take advantage of this unprecedented gathering. One of these was the World's Parliament of Religions, an initiative of the Swedenborgian layman Charles Carroll Bonney.
The Parliament of Religions was by far the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the Exposition. John Henry Barrows, a clergyman, was appointed as the first chairman of the General Committee of the 1893 Parliament by Charles Bonney; the Parliament of Religions opened on 11 September 1893 at the World's Congress Auxiliary Building, now The Art Institute of Chicago, ran from 11 to 27 September, making it the first organized interfaith gathering. Today it is recognized as the occasion of the birth of formal interreligious dialogue worldwide, with representatives of a wide variety of religions and new religious movements, including: The Jain preacher Virchand Gandhi was invited as a representative of Jainism; the Buddhist preacher Anagarika Dharmapala was invited as a representative of "Southern Buddhism," the term applied at that time to the Theravada. Soyen Shaku, the "First American Ancestor" of Zen, made the trip. An essay by the Japanese Pure Land master Kiyozawa Manshi, "Skeleton of the philosophy of religion" was read in his absence.
Swami Vivekananda belongs Bengali Kayastha community represented Hinduism as a delegate, introducing Hinduism at the opening session of the Parliament on 11 September. Though nervous, he bowed to Saraswati began his speech with salutation, "Sisters and brothers of America!". To these words he got a standing ovation from a crowd of seven thousand, which lasted for two minutes; when silence was restored he began his address. He greeted the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance!" Christianity was represented by G. Bonet Maury, a protestant historian invited by Swami Vivekananda Islam was represented by Mohammed Alexander Russell Webb, an Anglo-American convert to Islam and the former US ambassador to the Philippines. Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to publicly discuss the Bahá'í Faith in the United States.
Since Bahá'ís have become active participants. Theism or the Brahmo Samaj was represented by Pratap Chandra Majumdar The Theosophical Society was represented by the Vice-President of the society, William Quan Judge and by activist Annie Besant. New religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science; the latter was represented by Septimus J. Hanna, who read an address written by its founder Mary Baker Eddy. Absent from this event were Native American religious figures and other Indigenous and Earth centered religionists. In 1993, the Parliament convened at the Palmer House hotel in Chicago. Over 8,000 people from all over the world, from many diverse religions, gathered to celebrate and explore how religious traditions can work together on the critical issues which confront the world. A document, "Towards a Global Ethic: An Initial Declaration" drafted by Hans Küng, set the tone for the subsequent ten days of discussion; this global ethic was endorsed by many of the attending religious and spiritual leaders who were part of the parliament assembly.
Created for the 1993 parliament was a book, A Sourcebook for the Community of Religions, by the late Joel Beversluis, which has become a standard textbook in religion classes. Unlike most textbooks of religion, each entry was written by members of the religion in question; the keynote address was given by the Dalai Lama on the closing day of the assembly. Cardinal Joseph Bernardin participated. More than 7,000 individuals from over 80 countries attended 1999 Parliament in Cape Town, South Africa; the Parliament began with a showing of the international AIDS Memorial Quilt to highlight the epidemic of AIDS in South Africa, of the role that religious and spiritual traditions play in facing the critical issues that face the world. The event continued with hundreds of panels and workshops, offerings of prayer and meditation and performances; the programs emphasized issues of religious and cultural identity, approaches to interreligious dialogue, the role of religion in response to the critical issues facing the world today.
The Parliament Assembly considered a document called A Call to Our Guiding Institutions, addressed to religion, business and media inviting these institutions to reflect on and transform their roles at the threshold of the next century. In addition to the Call, the Parliament staff had created a book, Gifts of Service to the World, showcasing ov
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website