Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which include the organs from mouth into anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this speciality. Physicians practicing in this field are called gastroenterologists, they have completed about eight years of pre-medical and medical education, a year-long internship, three years of an internal medicine residency, two to three years in the gastroenterology fellowship. Gastroenterologists perform a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including colonoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasound and liver biopsy; some gastroenterology trainees will complete a "fourth-year" in transplant hepatology, advanced endoscopy, inflammatory bowel disease, motility or other topics. Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver and biliary tree, while proctology encompasses the fields of anus and rectum diseases.

They are traditionally considered sub-specialties of gastroenterology. Citing from Egyptian papyri, John F. Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practicing physicians during the periods of the pharaohs. Irynakhty, of the tenth dynasty, c. 2125 B. C. was a court physician specializing in gastroenterology and proctology. Among ancient Greeks, Hippocrates attributed digestion to concoction. Galen's concept of the stomach having four faculties was accepted up to modernity in the seventeenth century. Eighteenth century: Italian Lazzaro Spallanzani was among early physicians to disregard Galen's theories, in 1780 he gave experimental proof on the action of gastric juice on foodstuffs. In 1767, German Johann von Zimmermann wrote an important work on dysentery. In 1777, Maximilian Stoll of Vienna described cancer of the gallbladder. Nineteenth century: In 1805, Philipp Bozzini made the first attempt to observe inside the living human body using a tube he named Lichtleiter to examine the urinary tract, the rectum, the pharynx.

This is the earliest description of endoscopy. Charles Emile Troisier described enlargement of lymph nodes in abdominal cancer. In 1823, William Prout discovered. In 1833, William Beaumont published Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion following years of experimenting on test subject Alexis St. Martin. In 1868, Adolf Kussmaul, a well-known German physician, developed the gastroscope, he perfected the technique on a sword swallower. In 1871, at the society of physicians in Vienna, Carl Stoerk demonstrated an esophagoscope made of two telescopic metal tubes devised by Waldenburg in 1870. In 1876, Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer described the properties of some liver cells now called Kupffer cell. In 1883, Hugo Kronecker and Samuel James Meltzer studied oesophageal manometry in humans. Twentieth century: In 1915, Jesse McClendon tested acidity of human stomach in situ. In 1921-22, Walter Alvarez did the first electrogastrography research. Rudolf Schindler described many important diseases involving the human digestive system during World War I in his illustrated textbook and is portrayed by some as the "father of gastroscopy".

He and Georg Wolf developed a semiflexible gastroscope in 1932. In 1932, Burrill Bernard Crohn described Crohn's disease. In 1957, Basil Hirschowitz introduced the first prototype of a fibreoptic gastroscope. Twenty-first century: In 2005, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren of Australia were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of Helicobacter pylori and its role in peptic ulcer disease. James Leavitt assisted in their research, but the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously so he was not included in the award. 1. International Classification of Disease /WHO classification: Chapter XI, Diseases of the digestive system,2. MeSH subject Heading: Gastroenterology Gastroenterological diseases3. National Library of Medicine Catalogue: Digestive system World Gastroenterology Organisation British Society of Gastroenterology United European Gastroenterology In the United States, gastroenterology is an internal medicine subspecialty certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine.

American College of Gastroenterology American Gastroenterological Association American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology UEG Journal Publications/Journals at Curlie


The Thaya is a river in Central Europe, the longest tributary to the river Morava. It is 224 km long and meanders from west to east in the border area between Lower Austria and South Moravia, though the frontier does not follow the river's course in most parts, its source is in two smaller rivers, namely the German Thaya and the Moravian Thaya, flowing together at Raabs. Its name means "the inert". There is a small village which bears the name Dyje, located near Znojmo. In its upper reaches, the Thaya flows through deep gorges, along which it passes many castles and chateaus. In Moravia, it has been dammed in several locations. Thaya gathers waters from the adjacent part of Lower Austria, its biggest tributaries are Svratka and Jihlava, flowing together into the middle one of the Nové Mlýny reservoirs. Important cities and towns along the Thaya: Raabs an der Thaya Drosendorf-Zissersdorf Vranov nad Dyji Hardegg Znojmo Laa an der Thaya Lednice Břeclav All the dams are situated in Czech Republic, they are used for irrigation and flood protection

Breeze Airways

Breeze Airways is a planned airline in the United States due to begin operations in 2020. The airline was founded by David Neeleman with an initial startup capital of $100 million. In June 2018, David Neeleman planned a new United States airline named Moxy as he registered a new entity with $100 million in capital from former Air Canada CEO Robert Milton, former ILFC CEO Henri Courpron and himself. Due to consolidation, all 11 major carriers are profitable and existed 20 years ago except JetBlue, which Neeleman started in 2000, leaving space for a new competitor. American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines and Southwest Airlines carried 80% of domestic US seats in 2017 and Alaska Airlines, Frontier Airlines, JetBlue, Hawaiian Airlines and Spirit Airlines made up most of the rest. Due to loss of service to smaller markets, U. S. domestic air capacity remained stagnant from 2007 to 2017 while the economy expanded by 34%. To fill this gap, Breeze plans to offer point-to-point flights from smaller secondary airports like T.

F. Green Airport, Fort Worth or Burbank Airport, bypassing hubs for shorter travel times; the airline is reportedly considering longer distance flights to South America and Europe. It would offer spacious seats and free Wi-Fi, like Azul and JetBlue, but charge fees for snacks and advance seat assignments, like ultra low-cost carriers Allegiant Air or Spirit Airlines. To begin flying operations, 60 A220-300s were ordered, soliciting Chinese lessors to finance 18 to be delivered from 2021 onward. However, in order to accelerate the airline's launch, Breeze plans to utilize used Azul Embraer E195 aircraft as soon as 2020. On February 7, 2020, it was announced that the airline had been named Breeze Airways. Prior to the official naming, the project that would become Breeze Airways was known as Moxy, colliding with Marriott's Moxy Hotels trademark. All the airline's branding, such as logo and aircraft livery was developed by the Brazilian airline marketing specialist Gianfranco "Panda" Beting, Azul's co-founder and responsible for creating the branding of Azul, TAP Air Portugal and Transbrasil.

In February 2020, Neeleman said the airline would be known as the "World’s Nicest Airline". Breeze will offer point-to-point service between secondary airports including. F. Green Airport Scranton International Airport Sarasota Bradenton International Airport Seattle-Tacoma Airport St. Pete–Clearwater International Airport Tweed New Haven Airport Breeze intends to operate a low cost carrier model, but to offer a first class product. Aircraft will not feature seatback in-flight entertainment; as of February 2020, the Breeze Airways fleet consists of the following aircraft. On July 17, 2018, Breeze signed a memorandum of understanding with Airbus for 60 A220-300 aircraft to be delivered from 2021. In January 2019, Breeze firmed up its order for the A220 aircraft. In order to serve short-haul routes, Breeze has agreed to sublease up to 30 Embraer E195 from Azul Brazilian Airlines, although the total number received depends on whether LOT Polish Airlines exercise their lease options. "The founder of JetBlue is about to start a new airline".

The Economist. June 22, 2018. "America Is Getting a New Airline That Offers Something Passengers Have Been Crying Out For". July 17, 2018. "Coming Soon: Moxy Airways? - Live and Let's Fly". Live and Let's Fly. June 19, 2018. "JetBlue's Founder is Starting a New US Airline With $100 Million and 60 Planes". View from the Wing. June 18, 2018.e "Breeze Airways Airline Profile |CAPA". CAPA centre for aviation