Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall
Akron Beacon Journal
The Akron Beacon Journal is a morning newspaper in Akron, United States. Owned by GateHouse Media, it is the sole daily newspaper in Akron and is distributed throughout Northeast Ohio; the paper's coverage focuses on local news and business rubber and tire production. The Beacon-Journal has won three Pulitzer Prizes: in 1968, 1971, 1987; the paper was founded with the 1897 merger of the Summit Beacon, first published in 1839, the Akron Evening Journal, founded in 1896. In 1903, the Beacon Journal was purchased by Charles Landon Knight, his son John S. Knight inherited the paper, on Charles' death; the Beacon Journal under Knight was the original and flagship newspaper of Knight Newspaper Company called Knight Ridder. The McClatchy Company bought Knight Ridder in June 2006 with intentions of selling 12 Knight Ridder newspapers. On August 2, 2006, McClatchy sold the Beacon Journal to Black Press. In 2018, GateHouse Media bought the newspaper. On November 11, 2013, the Akron Beacon Journal printed its last paper in-house.
It subsequently used the presses at The Repository in Canton, Ohio owned by GateHouse. As of March 2019 it was using the presses at The Plain Dealer in Ohio. Sheldon Ocker, who covered the Cleveland Indians for the Beacon Journal, received the 2018 J. G. Taylor Spink Award. Official website McClatchy to Sell the Akron Beacon Journal to Black Press Ltd. Knight Ridder sale wins approval
Newton, New Jersey
Newton the Town of Newton, is an incorporated municipality located in Sussex County, New Jersey, United States. It is situated 60 miles by road northwest of New York City, it is one of fifteen municipalities in the state organized as a town, the municipal government operates under a council-manager structure provided by the Faulkner Act, or Optional Municipal Charter Law. As the location of the county's administrative offices and court system, Newton is the county seat of Sussex County. Newton was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 11, 1864, from portions of Newton Township, partitioned to create Andover Township and Hampton Township, was dissolved. Additional land was acquired from Andover Township in 1869 and 1927, from Fredon Township in 1920; as of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 7,997, reflecting a decline of 247 from the 8,244 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 723 from the 7,521 counted in the 1990 Census. Newton is located near the headwaters of the east branch of the Paulins Kill, a 41.6-mile tributary of the Delaware River.
In October 1715, Colonial surveyor Samuel Green plotted a tract of 2,500 acres at the head of the Paulins Kill known as the Tohokenetcunck River, on behalf of William Penn. This tract, which would not be settled for 30–35 years, was part of the survey and division of the Last Indian Purchase by the West Jersey Board of Proprietors. At the time of Green's survey, northwestern New Jersey was populated with bands of the Munsee, the northern branch of the Lenni Lenape peoples; the first recorded settler within the boundaries of present-day Newton was a German Palatine immigrant named Henry Hairlocker who arrived sometime before 1751 when he appears in Morris County records as receiving a tavern license. The Newtown Precinct, a large township, was created in 1751, Sussex County was created from Morris two years on June 8, 1753; the township would be named Newtown after the colonial village of Newtown in Queens, New York from where the Pettit family originated or from its status as a "new town". In 1762, Jonathan Hampton, of Elizabethtown, surveyed the location for a county courthouse and town green at the intersection of a military supply road he built during the French and Indian War and a major north-south artery called the King's Highway.
The construction of the courthouse was completed in 1765 and the village that developed around it became known as Sussex Court House. The county courthouse was the site of a raid by British partisan Lieutenant James Moody during the American Revolution. In 1797, the village's post office was renamed Newtown and in 1825, the spelling was altered to Newton. Newton Township would cede land to create new townships on several occasions in the eighteenth and nineteenth-centuries, until a final division dissolved the township on April 11, 1864, through a legislative act of New Jersey Legislature that created the village of Newton as an incorporated town and two rural townships—Hampton and Andover. Newton is located in a segment of the Great Appalachian Valley; the Great Appalachian Valley is a gigantic trough—a 1,200-mile-long chain of valley lowlands that stretches about from Quebec to Alabama and is the eastern-most edge of Ridge and Valley Appalachians physiographic province. This physiographic province, one of five in New Jersey, occupies two-thirds of the county's area dominated by Kittatinny Mountain and the Kittatinny Valley.
This province's contour is characterized by long ridges with long, continuous valleys in between that run parallel from southwest to northeast. The features of the Ridge and Valley province were created 300–400 million years ago during the Ordovician period and Appalachian orogeny—a period of tremendous pressure and rock thrusting that caused the creation of the Appalachian Mountains; this region is formed by sedimentary rock. Newton's land area drains into the watersheds of the Paulins Kill and Pequest River—two rivers that are tributaries of the Delaware River; these watersheds are separated by slate ridges. These slate ridges were quarried for slate for roofs and other industrial purposes beginning with a quarry opened by Elijah Blackwell in 1859 that operated under a series of different owners and commercial entities until 1930. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of 3.169 square miles, including 3.146 square miles of land and 0.023 square miles of water.
The Town of Newton is bordered to the north and east by Hampton Township, to the west by Fredon Township, to the south by Andover Township. Because of its location in the higher elevations of northwestern New Jersey's Appalachian mountains, Newton, as well as the rest of Sussex County, has a cooler humid continental climate or microthermal climate which indicates patterns of significant precipitation in all seasons and at least four months where the average temperature rises above 10 °C This differs from the rest of the state, a humid mesothermal climate, in which temperatures range between -3 °C and 18 °C during the year's coldest month. Sussex County is part of USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6. During winter and early spring, New Jersey in some years is subject to "nor'easters"—significant storm systems that have proven capable of cau
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
Morris Communications, headquartered in Augusta, Georgia, is a held media company with diversified holdings that include magazine publishing, outdoor advertising, book publishing and distribution, visitor publications, online services. Today, the Georgia-based enterprise reaches across the nation, has holdings in Europe, employs 6,000 people. Morris is the publisher of The Milepost, a northwestern American travel guide. Morris Communications is separate from Morris Multimedia, founded by Charles H. Morris, a member of the same family that founded Morris Communications. Morris Communications is the parent company to Morris Media Network. Morris Media Network consists of special interest magazines including travel. Underneath the Morris umbrella is CitySpin, event marketing and ticket platform. William S. Morris Jr. began working in the media industry in 1929 when he got a job as a bookkeeper at the Augusta Chronicle. He and his wife founded Southeastern Newspapers, Inc.. They bought the remaining shares of the Chronicle in 1955 and expanded with the purchase of the Augusta Herald.
Their son William S. "Billy" Morris III joined the company in 1956. Additional newspapers in Georgia were added in the coming years. Billy was appointed President of the company in 1966, the name was changed to Morris Communications Corp. in 1970. The company continued to expand, adding interests radio and television as well as newspapers in Alaska and Texas; the company purchased Florida Publishing Co. owners of The Florida Times-Union and The St. Augustine Record, on January 1, 1983; the company expanded into outdoor advertising in 1985 with the purchase of Naegele Outdoor Advertising, which they renamed Fairway Outdoor Advertising. In 1995, they expanded into Kansas by acquiring Stauffer Communications, which had a portfolio of newspapers and TV and radio stations, they added travel guides starting with the acquisition of Best Read Guide Franchise Corp. in 1997, added Guest Informant in 2003 and Where in 2004. Morris Visitor Publications has since grown to become the company's second-largest division.
Another subsidiary, Morris Publications Ltd. UK, was created in 1998, they acquired London This Week, renaming it the London Planner. Morris Publishing Group was formed in 2001 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Morris Communications to handle the newspaper side of the corporation. MPG publishes 12 daily, 11 non-daily, numerous free community newspapers in the United States. MPG sold 14 daily newspapers and 3 non-daily newspapers to GateHouse Media in 2017. In 2004, Morris unsuccessfully brought suit against PGA Tour, alleging that PGA Tour violated section 2 of the Sherman Act, codified at 15 U. S. C. § 2, by monopolizing the markets for the publication of compiled real-time golf scores on the Internet, the sale, or syndication of those scores. In addition, Morris alleged that PGA Tour further violated section 2 of the Sherman Act by refusing to deal with Morris; the district court granted summary judgment in favor of PGA Tour because it found, inter alia, that PGA Tour had a valid business justification for its actions.
With the decline of the newspaper industry, Morris Communications has been cutting employee wages since 2009 to prevent further layoffs. In 2010, Morris Publishing Group filed a pre-packaged Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization with $415 million in debt. On May 18, 2015, Morris announced; the deal was finalized and Alpha Media took control of the Morris radio stations on September 1 that year. On October 14, 2015, it was revealed that Morris Communications Company VP of audience sent a company-wide email to maintain specific editorial positions to make a political point; this has put the organization into question relating to its ethics. Further issues arose with Morris Communications' failure to respond for comment. In August 2017, Morris sold their non-daily newspapers to GateHouse Media. Alaska Magazine American Angler Barrel Horse Brochure Management Carolina Parent in Raleigh, NC Charlotte Home + Garden in Charlotte, NC Charlotte Parent in Charlotte, NC Charlotte Wedding in Charlotte, NC Charlotte Magazine in Charlotte, NC EA Bride in Kansas City, KO Equine Journal in Oxford, MA Fly Travel Horsecity.com IN New York, in New York, New York Orlando Home + Garden in Orlando, FL Orlando Magazine in Orlando, FL Orlando Wedding in Orlando, FL Piedmont Parent in Raleigh, NC Saint Louis Bride in Saint Louis, MO Skirt!
In Charleston, SC The Milepost Western Horseman Western LifeStyle Where The company published 12 daily newspapers and 17 non-daily newspapers with a combined circulation in the range of 700,000. Daily newspapers included: the St. Augustine Record in St. Augustine, FL the Florida Times-Union in Jacksonville, FL the Augusta Chronicle in Augusta, GA the Savannah Morning News in Savannah, GA the Topeka Capital-Journal in Topeka, KS the Amarillo Globe-News in Amarillo, TX the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal in Lubbock, TX the Peninsula Clarion in Kenai, AK the Juneau Empire in Juneau, AK the Athens Banner-Herald in Athens, GA the Columbia County News in Augusta, GA the Wadley Herald in Wadley, GA the Sylvania Telephone in Sylvania, GA North Augusta Today in Augusta, GA Effingham Now in Effingham County, GA Bryan County Now in Bryan County, GA Business in Savannah in Savannah, GA the Hampton County Guardian in Hampton, SC the People-Sentinel in Barnwell, SC the Jasper County Sun in Hardeeville, SC Hardeeville Today in Hardeeville, SC Bluffton Today in Bluffton, SC the Capital City Weekly in Juneau, AK the Homer News in Homer, AK Frenship Today in Lubbock, TX the Pine River Journal in Cass County, MNThese were sold to GateHouse Media in August 2017.
The Herald-Times is a daily newspaper serving Bloomington and surrounding areas. The newspaper won the Blue Ribbon Daily award in 1975, 1984 2007, 2014, naming it the best daily newspaper in the state of Indiana in those years; the newspaper is the current incarnation of a business started in 1877, the Bloomington Telephone, named for the new invention. In 1943, the Telephone merged with the Evening World to become the Bloomington World-Telephone. Another paper, the Bloomington Daily Herald, was started in 1947 and three years those papers merged into the Daily Herald-Telephone; the word Daily was dropped in 1977 and the name changed to the Herald-Times in 1989 while the newspaper switched from an evening publication to a morning publication. Starting in 1966, the newspaper produced a joint Sunday-only publication with its sister newspaper, the Times-Mail, in neighboring Bedford called the Sunday Herald-Times, distributed to the expanded readership of both communities. In 2001, the name of the Sunday newspaper was changed to the Hoosier Times and distributed to a much larger area.
Official website Official YouTube channel Timeline of Monroe County, Indiana newspapers
South Bend Tribune
The South Bend Tribune is a daily newspaper and news website based in South Bend, Indiana. It is distributed in South Bend, north central Indiana, southwestern Michigan, it has three times been recognized by the Hoosier State Press Association as a "Blue Ribbon Newspaper". Most notably, the Tribune won a court case against censorship in case, it is the third largest daily broadsheet newspaper in the State of Indiana by circulation. The Tribune was locally and family owned by Schurz Communications, based in Mishawaka, for more than 146 years: from its founding in 1872 until 2019. Five generations of the same family had operated the newspaper; the Tribune was sold to GateHouse Media on Feb. 1, 2019. Because the University of Notre Dame is just outside South Bend city limits, the Tribune receives much of its readership due to its Notre Dame news and sports coverage. Other sections include Local News, Entertainment and a weekly Community News section; the Tribune operates two other websites: "In The Bend" and "ND Insider."
The top executives in 2018 are Executive Editor Alan Achkar. Alfred B. Miller and Elmer Crockett, Union veterans of the Civil War founded the Tribune in 1872 in South Bend, a manufacturing center on the St. Joseph River in northern Indiana; the Tribune was founded as a Republican newspaper. Miller and Crockett had worked together earlier at the St. Joseph County Register, a weekly newspaper based in South Bend, owned by Schuyler Colfax, who served as Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives during the Civil War and as vice president under Ulysses S. Grant. Miller was skilled in editing and writing, Crockett was a mechanical man who handled the presses; the two were brothers-in-law, as in 1868, Crockett had married Miller's sister, Anna. The first four-page edition of The Tribune was published on a Saturday evening, March 9, 1872; the Tribune's original printing offices were at 73 and 75 West Washington St. in downtown South Bend. Two other men from the Register held minor partnership roles in The Tribune at the start, but withdrew with a few years: James H. Banning, a printer, Elias W. Hoover, a wood engraver.
In an editorial in the first edition, the editors wrote: "We know that in our four or five years' experience in the newspaper business in this city, its reading population has increased nearly one half, that the county has grown accordingly and that there is room for a journal like The Tribune more than there was room for two papers a dozen years ago. No city in the state is growing so as South Bend..." The two men operated The Tribune together until Miller's death in 1892. The Tribune operated a book and art supply store in conjunction with the newspaper until 1902. Frederick A. Miller, Alfred B. Miller's son, became the Tribune's editor upon his father's death. F. A. Miller was 24 years old at the time, he had graduated from South Bend High School in 1887 and on July 3 of that year joined his father's editorial staff. F. A. Miller served as editor and publisher of The Tribune from 1892 until his death at age 86 on Nov. 29, 1954. In a political philosophy inherited from his Civil War veteran father, F.
A. Miller "ran The Tribune as a straight forward Republican organ. Unless a Republican candidate was an atrocious choice, or tied to an organization that Miller found obnoxious, such as the Ku Klux Klan, he could count upon The Tribune's endorsement," The Tribune reported of Miller in its March 9, 1972 centennial edition. Miller's editorial battles on the local scene were intense against city administrations he regarded as corrupt, which tended to be Democratic. "In 1928 he conducted full scale war against the regime of Mayor Chester R. Montgomery, whom The Tribune accused of harboring gambling, liquor violations and prostitution," The Tribune reported in its centennial edition. Montgomery, fighting back, published a 76-page booklet as an open letter to the people of South Bend, titled "The Tribune F. A. Miller Menace." F. A. Miller hated mistakes in print. For years, there was a sign painted in large block letters on the newsroom wall, placed there by his orders, stating: "Be Accurate." He was exceedingly particular about the spelling of names, including the use of correct middle initials.
Miller disliked cigarettes, his rules forbid staff members from smoking on duty. Miller worked with Crockett, his father's original partner, until Crockett's death on June 3, 1924 at age 79; the Tribune moved in to its current office at 225 W. Colfax Ave. in April 1921. It is the newspaper's fourth location since its founding. F. A. Miller and his wife had no children; when F. A. Miller died in 1954, his nephew, Franklin D. Schurz Sr. became The Tribune's publisher. Schurz had worked for The Tribune company for nearly 30 years as the secretary-treasurer and business manager, because his training was as an accountant. Franklin D. Schurz was the first head of The Tribune to carry the formal title of publisher. Born in South Bend on March 8, 1898, the son of Mr, and Mrs. John G. Schurz, Franklin Schurz Sr. lived in South Bend most of his life. After graduating from South Bend High School in 1916, Schurz earned a bachelor's degree and a master's of business administration degree from Harvard University, with a break for service in the U.
S. Army during World War I. A popular legend has it that Franklin Schurz Sr. the publisher and a nephew of Alfred Miller, took polka lessons sponsored weekly polka nights on South Bend's Polish west side. The social events were a huge hit and helped establish inroads for the newspaper in the immigrant community; such community outreach and the newspaper's aggressive reporting helped push the Tribune past the News-Times, which wen