Urban decay is the sociological process by which a functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or deurbanization, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings and infrastructure, high local unemployment, fragmented families, political disenfranchisement, a desolate cityscape, known as greyfield or urban prairie. Since the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay has been associated with Western cities in North America and parts of Europe. Since major structural changes in global economies and government policy created the economic and the social conditions resulting in urban decay; the effects counter the development of most of North America. In contrast, North American and British cities experience population flights to the suburbs and exurb commuter towns. Another characteristic of urban decay is blight—the visual and physical effects of living among empty lots and condemned houses. Urban decay has no single cause. During the Industrial Revolution, from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century, rural people moved from the country to the cities for employment in manufacturing industry, thus causing the urban population boom.
However, subsequent economic change left many cities economically vulnerable. Studies such as the Urban Task Force, the Urban White Paper, a study of Scottish cities posit that areas suffering industrial decline—high unemployment, a decaying physical environment —prove "highly resistant to improvement". Changes in means of transport, from the public to the private—specifically, the private motor car—eliminated some of the cities' public transport service advantages, e.g. fixed-route buses and trains. In particular, at the end of World War II, many political decisions favored suburban development and encouraged suburbanization, by drawing city taxes from the cities to build new infrastructure for towns; the manufacturing sector has been a base for the prosperity of major cities. When the industries have relocated outside of cities, some have experienced population loss with associated urban decay, riots. Cut backs on police and fire services may result, while lobbying for government funded housing may increase.
Increased city taxes encourage residents to move out. Rent controls are enacted due to public pressure and complaints regarding the cost of living. Proponents of rent controls argue that rent controls combat inflation, stabilize the economic characteristics of a city's population, prevent rent gouging, improve the quality of housing. Capitalist economists have documented that rent control affects the supply and demand relationship in housing markets which can contribute to urban blight and does not provide the benefits its proponents advocate. Rent control contributes to urban blight by reducing new construction and investment in housing and deincentivizing maintenance. If a landlord's costs to perform maintenance consume too large a proportion of profit, revenue minus costs, from rent, the landlord will feel pressure to drastically reduce or eliminate maintenance entirely; this effect has been observed in New York City, a 2009 study by a lobbying firm found 29% of rent-controlled buildings were categorized as either deteriorated or dilapidated in contrast with 8% of non-rent-controlled housing.
The largest example of urban decay is Traverse City Michigan's Boardman Neighborhood. In the United States, the white middle class left the cities for suburban areas because of higher crime rates and perceived danger caused by African-American migration north toward cities after World War I —the so-called "white flight" phenomenon; some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration, numbering about 1.6 million Black migrants who left Southern rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities, after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration, in which 5 million or more African-Americans moved, including many to California and various western cities. Between 1910 and 1970, Blacks moved from 14 states of the South Alabama, Louisiana and Texas to the other three cultural regions of the United States. More townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration. By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population.
More than 80 percent lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West. From the 1930s until 1977, African-Americans seeking borrowed capital for housing and businesses were discriminated against via the federal-government–legislated discriminatory lending practices for the Federal Housing Administration via redlining. In 1977, the US Congress passed the Community Reinvestment Act, designed to encourage commercial banks and
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
A skyway, skybridge, or skywalk is a type of pedway consisting of an enclosed or covered footbridge between two or more buildings in an urban area. This protects pedestrians from the weather. In North America skyways are owned by businesses, are therefore not public spaces. However, in Asia, such as Bangkok's and Hong Kong's skywalks, they are built and owned separately by the city government, connecting between run rail stations or other transport with their own footbridges, run many kilometers. Skyways connect on the first few floors above the ground-level floor, though they are sometimes much higher, as in Petronas Towers; the space in the buildings connected by skyways is devoted to retail business, so areas around the skyway may operate as a shopping mall. Non-commercial areas with associated buildings, such as university campuses, can have skyways and/or tunnels connecting buildings; the world's largest discontinuous skyway network – Calgary, Canada's "+15 Walkway" system – has a total length of 18 km.
The Minneapolis Skyway System is the world's largest continuous system and spans 11 miles connecting 80 blocks in downtown Minneapolis. On a smaller scale, terminals of large airports are connected by skywalk systems, as at Manchester Airport, United Kingdom; some cities have the equivalent of a skyway underground, there are mixed subway/skyway systems. Florence, Vasari Corridor, connects Palazzo Vecchio to Uffizi and to Palazzo Pitti, 16th century Venice, Bridge of Sighs, connects Doge's Palace and prison, 16th century Copenhagen, Denmark: skywalk connecting courts building to adjacent uses, 18th century Faaborg, Denmark: skywalk in centrum, 18th century Besides pedestrian safety and convenience, the chief reasons assigned by urban planners for skywalk development are decrease of traffic congestion, reduction in vehicular air pollution and separation of people from vehicular noise. A number of cities have given intricate analysis to skywalk systems employing computer models to optimize skywalk layout.
There is debate about the negative impact on urban areas of skyways. Robertson noted the negative impacts to street activities, reductions to the property value at ground level. Woo found. Cui called for more research into the impact of skyways in developing countries. There are significant skyway networks in many cities in the US Midwest, such as Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, Rochester and Duluth. Most networks in North America are owned. A notable exception in are the Saint Paul skyways. Highest cantilevered skybridge between buildings in the world now placed in local Raffles City skyscrapers complex in Chongqing, China. World longest 430-meters pedestrian hanging skywalk Zhangjiajie Glass Bridge between mountain peaks situated in China. One of the most famous similar cantilevered skybridges known in Singapore's Marina Bay Sands resort complex of skyscrapers. Wide known the world's highest 2-story skybridge, 170 m above the ground and 58 m long, between the two towers on 41st and 42nd floors in Petronas Twin Towers dual skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Malaysia have the mountainarian tourist pedestrian glass-bottom Langkawi Sky Bridge in Kedah, Langkawi. One of the most impessionable hanging pedestrian skybridges, supported by two giant hands, Golden Bridge now attracts the tourists in Ba Na Hills near Da Nang, Vietnam. In Bangkok, Thailand there are more than 5.4 km of covered wide dedicated elevated skywalks with lighting. These were developed due to lack of proper sidewalks as well as street hawkers and local merchants taking advantage of any sidewalk space as makeshift commercial real estate. Common reasons skywalks were built include to avoid street pollution, wetness from food vendors and/or rain, long queues and uneven pavement, supporting urbanism but most tourism receipts. Most skywalks connect to a BTS station and utilize space underneath the rail line and BTS pillar supports; these skywalks have connector ramps which connect stations to malls seamlessly and are paid for by the malls themselves, otherwise the city and BTS fund walkway development.
A 50km long extension project was shelved in 2011 due to funding issues the system is growing organically. In Hong Kong, there are numerous foot bridge networks across the city. Large networks exists around elevated or at grade MTR stations and connections between malls and housing estates in new town centers; the largest network spans Admiralty and parts of Sheung Wan districts in the CBD and consists of the Central Elevated and Central–Mid-Levels Walkway systems which link up over 40 major office buildings. The Central–Mid-Levels walkway system is the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world according to Guinness World Records. Other large systems exist in Mong Kok; the Mumbai Skywalk Project is a planned discontinuous network of over 50 km of skywalks in Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India. The skyways will connect Mumbai Suburban Railway stations to important junctions, each 1 to 2 km in length; the first of these is a 1.3 km long skywalk connecting the suburban regions of Kurla.
Additionally, short skyways are used to connect buildings in other Asian locations. Brussels, Belgium has a skyway between the two Belgacom Towers. London has skywalks on the Barbican London Wall; the City of London Pedway S
Downtown Newark is the Central Business District of Newark in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. Downtown is the site of the original Puritan settlement of Newark located at a bend in the Passaic River; the first settlers, led by Robert Treat, landed not far from the present site of the New Jersey Performing Arts Center. The intersection of Broad and Market Streets, known as the Four Corners was once considered the busiest intersection in the nation, is the heart of traditional downtown. Most of Newark's office buildings are located in this area. In the post-World War II era, downtown seemed to be moving north during the New Newark architectural period, in the direction of Washington Park. Since the 1967 riots, it has been shifting east in the direction of Newark Penn Station, the Gateway Center and the Passaic River. Panasonic constructed their North American HQ building on Raymond Blvd near McCarter Hwy. There are several more new office buildings including One Newark Center, The Legal And Communications Building, The two Penn Plaza office buildings, the Claremont building on McCarter Hwy, office space for the FBI and a few more federal agencies, a few other office buildings.
There is several projects in the design stages for this area. Downtown Newark is the home to Newark's major cultural venues - the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, the 3,000-seat Newark Symphony Hall, Prudential Center, the critically acclaimed Newark Museum, Military Park, the New Jersey Historical Society. Downtown is home to Seton Hall University School of Law and Aljira, an emerging artist's gallery, it is home to Government Center, an area of municipal and federal government offices and Newark Convention and Visitors Bureau, where visitors can find out all things happening right here in the city of Newark. It was once home to a Chinatown neighborhood centered on Mulberry Arcade, off of Mulberry Street, near Lafayette and Green Streets. Many of downtown's cultural and historical sites are linked by the unmarked Lenape Trail, which leads to Branch Brook Park, the Watchung Mountains and the Passaic Meadows on this yellow-blazed trail; the $375 million Prudential Center, home to the New Jersey Devils, opened on October 25, 2007, with the first of ten concerts by Bon Jovi.
Since numerous "big name" acts have performed there, the Rolling Stones pay per view concert in 2013 was broadcast from the Prudential Center. At the time, the arena was the New York metropolitan area's first all-new professional sports venue in over two decades. Much of the city's retail and commercial developments is centered on Market Street; the intersection of the two streets, known as Four Corners is considered to be one of the busiest in the state and at one time was considered the busiest in the country. Both Broad Street and Market Street are a bustle of activity crowded with numerous shops. Broad Street has many street vendors as well. At night, the streets are vacant and shops are closed; the City of Newark is committed to turning downtown into a "24-hour city" and the downtown area is beginning to develop a 24-hour presence. The former Hahne's and Lefcourt buildings have been converted into mixed use developments including a Whole Foods, other retail establishments, over one hundred residential apartments beginning in 2014.
A six story addition and underground parking was built on the Halsey St side of the complex. Two brand new luxury high rise apartment buildings have opened. One Theatre Square, directly opposite the NJPAC, developed by Dranoff Properties, it is 23 stories and features private balconies/terraces, parking deck, rooftop swimming pool, other amenities. Nearby, Boraie Development constructed the 21 story luxury apartment building known as 40 Rector Street, it was constructed on the former site of Science High School. It has many amenities including underground parking, rooftop swimming pool and tiki bar, etc.. Rutgers–Newark has built a six hundred bed dormitory on Central Avenue. An old office building on Clinton Street has successfully been converted to luxury lofts. Additionally, 1180 Raymond, across from Military Park and Newark's second tallest building, completed a $150 million conversion to luxury apartments in 2006; the former home of New Jersey Bell at 540 Broad St was being converted into market rate apartments.
Verizon will still lease three floors in the building. The structure is named Walker House; the former Kislak building at 579 Broad St near Central Ave is being converted into market rate apartments by a development company from New Orleans called Red Mellon Restorations. On Market Street, many new lofts have been built, including Rock Plaza Lofts. Market Street near Mulberry Street has become a restaurant row, featuring establishments from a German style beer garden to a critically acclaimed barbecue restaurant. A new Mariott Courtyard Hotel was built at the corner of Broad Street and Lafayette Street near Prudential Center arena. An Indigo Hotel opened a few years ago at Broad Street and Edison Place in the former First National State Bank building. On East Park Street, the former Carlton Hotel was completely renovated and is now a TRYP By Wyndham hotel. On Broad Street and Williams Street is another adaptive reuse called Williams Flats, featuring upscale apartments and ground floor retail space.
Under construction at the corner of Broad Street and Hill Street is an IHOP restaurant with four floors of market rate apartments on top. Teachers Village, which consists of 12 separate residential buildings and some businesses, was opened; the Ironside Newark complex is under construction and M&M Mars has sig
Mulberry Commons called Triangle Park, is a planned public park in Newark, New Jersey. It was first proposed in 2005 to be the centerpiece of 22 acres of the city's Downtown surrounded by Gateway Center, Newark Penn Station, Government Center and Prudential Center, a 19,000 seat arena which opened in 2007; the city had acquired deed to the park land in conjunction with the construction of the arena, but the project had not been further developed. In March 2016, Mayor Ras J. Baraka announced that park design would begin in April after a request for qualifications. An official opening ceremony for the park took place October 2, 2017; the plan includes a city square of 2.5 acres connecting to footbridge of 0.5 miles over McCarter Highway and the Northeast Corridor to the Ironbound neighborhood with direct access to the train platforms at Penn Station. The area around the Mulberry Commons, much of it owned by Edison Properties, will be developed by the company and other partners converting the Newark Warehouse Building into retail and commercial space, the City of Newark Parking Authority is planning five-story parking deck with 515 spaces with ground floor retail space, a cafe with outdoor seating and offices to house the agency.
The park is near. Only several hundred Chinese remain in the immediate area out of; the site was earlier the rail yard of the western terminus of the Central Railroad of New Jersey's Newark and New York Railroad until service was discontinued and is used as a parking lot operated by Edison Park Fast operations, which owns numerous lots in the city. The Triangle Park site is a parcel of 3 acres in the shape of the triangle, it is situated within the larger block bounded by Edison Place, Lafayette Street, McCarter Highway and Mulberry Street. The city acquired the land for the arena and park under the auspices of the Newark Downtown Core Redevelopment Corporation for about $9.4 million in a series of complex purchase and transfer transactions with landowners Jose Lopez and Edison Properties, among others. The NDCRC was disbanded in April 2011 amid accusations of mismanagement; the land was transferred to the Newark Housing Authority in February 2015. The park was first proposed to act as a city square for new residential and commercial buildings in the district around the Prudential Center.
Edison Properties, which owns development sites on the periphery of the proposed park, had previous agreements with the city and proposed more a passive park with open space. It promoted the adaption of the former CNJ bridge to pedestrian walkway footbridge over McCarter Highway, the Northeast Corridor rail tracks south of Penn Station, NJ Railroad Avenue to the city's Ironbound neighborhood, with a projected timeline of 2007 and an estimated cost between $40-$60 million. In February 2015, the Municipal Council of Newark heard proposals for development of the park, which would change the original vision of the park and potential stakeholders; the city had opted to work with Boraie Development, which had a proposal that included retail and entertainment facilities. According to Mayor Ras J. Baraka, the development of a 125,000-square-foot passive park would cost the city about $200,000 to $300,000 a year to maintain. Baraka stated that it was "a valuable piece of land" should proceed with ratables.
In March 2016, the city announced a new plan to build a 2.5-acre public park and a footbridge of 0.5 miles with a direct connection to the train platforms at Newark Penn Station ending at a park in the Ironbound named for Peter Francisco. Edison Properties as well as other stakeholders including the Prudential Center, the New Jersey Devils, J&L Parking Corporation, have contributed funds and will oversee the development of the remaining acreage for commercial and residential uses; the Newark Warehouse Building, a 1907 Newark landmark known as the Central Graphic Arts Building, is located between the northeastern side of the park site and Edison Place. The first commercial project is the transformation of the building into Ironside Newark. M&M Mars-Wrigley signed a lease in 2017 for several floors in the building for office space; some employees will be relocated here from their Chicago office. A couple of law firms have signed leases for office space in the building. Grammy Museum Experience Military Park Washington Park Lincoln Park, Newark Grant USA Tower List of tallest buildings in Newark Mulberry Commons official website
Newark Legal Center
The Newark Legal Center known as One Riverfront Center, is an office building in Newark, New Jersey located along the banks of the Passaic River and connected by a skywalk over Raymond Boulevard to Gateway Center and Penn Station. Developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the twenty story tower contains condominium and rental office space geared to the legal profession. Land between the tower and the riverfront in the shadow of the nearby Dock Bridge, maybe incorporated into a planned park. List of tallest buildings in Newark Penn Plaza East Government Center List of tallest buildings in New Jersey
Western Electric Company was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996, to the local Bell Operating Companies until 1984. The company was responsible for many technological innovations and seminal developments in industrial management, it served as the purchasing agent for the member companies of the Bell System. In 1856, George Shawk purchased an electrical engineering business in Ohio. On December 31, 1869, he became partners with Enos M. Barton and the same year, sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray. In 1872 Barton, Gray moved the business to Clinton Street, Chicago and incorporated it as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, they manufactured a variety of electrical products including typewriters and lighting and had a close relationship with telegraph company Western Union, to whom they supplied relays and other equipment. In 1875, Gray sold his interests to Western Union, including the caveat that he had filed against Alexander Graham Bell's patent application for the telephone.
The ensuing legal battle between Western Union and the Bell Telephone Company over patent rights ended in 1879 with Western Union withdrawing from the telephone market and Bell acquiring Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric was the first company to join in a Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. In 1899, it invested in a 54 % share of Ltd.. Western Electric's representative in Japan was Walter Tenney Carleton. In 1901, Western Electric secretly purchased a controlling interest in a principal competitor, the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company, but in 1909 was forced by a lawsuit to sell back to Milo Kellogg. On July 24, 1915, employees of the Hawthorne Works boarded the SS Eastland in downtown Chicago for a company picnic; the ship rolled over at the dock and over 800 people died. In 1920, Alice Heacock Seidel was the first of Western Electric's female employees to be given permission to stay on after she had married; this set a precedent in the company, which had not allowed married women in their employ.
Miss Heacock had worked for Western Electric for sixteen years before her marriage, was at the time the highest-paid secretary in the company. In her memoirs, she wrote that the decision to allow her to stay on "required a meeting of the top executives to decide whether I might remain with the Company, for it established a precedent and a new policy for the Company - that of married women in their employ. If the women at the top were permitted to remain after marriage all women would expect the same privilege. How far and how fast the policy was expanded is shown by the fact that a few years women were given maternity leaves with no loss of time on their service records."In 1925, ITT purchased the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company of Brussels and other worldwide subsidiaries from AT&T, to avoid an antitrust action. The company manufactured rotary system switching equipment under the Western Electric brand. Early on, Western Electric managed an electrical equipment distribution business, furnishing its customers with non-telephone products made by other manufacturers.
This electrical distribution business was spun off from Western Electric in 1925 and organized into a separate company, Graybar Electric Company, in honor of the company's founders, Elisha Gray and Enos Barton. Bell Telephone Laboratories was half-owned by Western Electric, the other half belonging to AT&T. Western Electric used various logos during its existence. Starting in 1914 it used an image of AT&T's statue Spirit of Communication. In 1915, the assets of Western Electric Manufacturing were transferred to a newly incorporated company in New York, New York named Western Electric Company, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T; the sole reason for the transfer was to provide for the issuance of a non-voting preferred class of capital stock, disallowed under the statutes of the state of Illinois. All telephones in areas where AT&T subsidiaries provided local service, all components of the public switched telephone network, all devices connected to the network were made by Western Electric and no other devices were allowed to be connected to AT&T's network.
AT&T and Bell System companies were rumored to employ small armies of inspectors to check household line impedance levels to determine if non-leased phones were in use by consumers. Western Electric telephones were owned not by end customers but by the local Bell System telephone companies—all of which were subsidiaries of AT&T, which owned Western Electric; each phone was leased from the phone company on a monthly basis by customers who paid for their phone as part of the recurring lease fees. This system had the effect of subsidizing basic telephone service, keeping local phone service inexpensive, under $10 per month, including the leased phone. After divestiture, basic service prices increased, customers were now responsible for inside building wiring and telephone equipment; the Bell System had an extensive policy and infrastructure to recycle or refurbish phones taken out of service, replacing all defective, weak, or otherwise unusable parts for new installations. This resulted in an extraordinary longevity of Western Electric telephone models and limited the variety of new designs introduced into the market place.
AT&T strictly enforced policies against using telephone equipment by other manufacturers on their network. A customer who insisted on using a telephone not supplied by the Bell System had to first transfer the phone to the local Bell operating company, who leased the phone back to the customer for a monthly charge in addition to a re-wiring fee. In the 1970s when consumers incr