Sonargaon was a historic administrative and maritime centre in Bengal. Situated in the centre of East Bengal, it was the seat of the medieval Muslim rulers and governors of eastern Bengal. Sonargaon was described by numerous historic travellers, including Ibn Battuta, Ma Huan, Niccolò de' Conti and Ralph Fitch, as a thriving centre of trade and commerce, it was an administrative centre of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah's sultanate, the Bengal Sultanate and the Kingdom of Bhati. The area is located near the modern industrial river port of Narayanganj in Bangladesh. Today, the name Sonargaon survives as the Sonargaon Upazila in the region; the name Sonargaon came as the Bangla version of the ancient name Suvarnagrama. Buddhist ruler Danujamadhava Dasharathadeva shifted his capital to Suvarnagrama from Bikrampur sometime in the middle of the 13th century. In the early 14th century, Buddhist rule in this kingdom ended when Shamsuddin Firoz Shah of Lakhnauti conquered it. Muslim settlers first arrive in Sonargaon region in around 1281.
Sharfuddin Abu Tawwamah, a medieval Sufi saint and Islamic philosopher came and settled here sometime between 1282 and 1287. He established his Khanqah and founded a Madrasa. Firoz Shah built a mint in Sonargaon from; when he died in 1322, his son, Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah, replaced him as the ruler. In 1324 Delhi Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, declared war against him and after the battle, Bahadur Shah was captured and Bengal, including Sonargaon, became a province of Delhi Sultanate; the same year, Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq and successor of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, released him and appointed him as the governor of Sonargaon province. After four years of governorship, in 1328, Bahadur Shah declared independence of Bengal. Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent Bahram Khan, to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was killed. Bahram Khan recaptured Sonargaon for the Delhi Sultanate and he was appointed the governor of Sonargaon; when Bahram Khan died in 1338, his armour-bearer, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, declared himself the independent Sultan of Sonargaon.
Fakhruddin sponsored several construction projects, including a trunk road and raised embankments, along with mosques and tombs. 14th century Moroccan traveller, Ibn Batuta, after visiting the capital in 1346, described Fakhruddin as "a distinguished sovereign who loved strangers the fakirs and sufis". After the death of Fakhruddin in 1349, Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah became the next independent ruler of Sonargaon. Ilyas Shah, the independent ruler of Lakhnauti, attacked Sonargaon in 1352. After defeating Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah, he became the sole ruler of whole Bengal for the first time in history and thus he became the founder of a sultanate of the unified Bengal. A squadron of the Chinese fleet of Zheng He, commanded by the eunuch Hong Bao, visited Sonargaon in 1432; the information about that expedition comes from the book of one of its participants, the Muslim translator Ma Huan. In 1451 Huan wrote his experience in details in his book Yingyai Shenglan. Sonargaon is the eastern terminus of the Grand Trunk Road, built by the Pashtun emperor Sher Shah Suri and extended 2500 kilometres from Bangladesh across northern India and Pakistan to Kabul in Afghanistan.
When Taj Khan Karrani was the independent Afghan ruler of Bengal, Isa Khan obtained an estate in Sonargaon and Maheswardi Pargana in 1564 as a vassal of the Karrani rulers. Isa Khan increased his strength and in 1571 he was designated as the ruler of the whole Bhati region. In 1575 he helped Daud Khan Karrani fight the Mughal flotilla in the vicinity of Sonargaon. Daud Khan Karrani died in the Battle of Raj Mahal against Mughals in 1576. Akbar made Isa Khan the zamindar of Sonargaon, making him one of the Baro-Bhuiyans. However, he continued resisting Mughal rule. With the help of his allies, he stood defiant against Mughals in battle against Subahdar Khan Jahan in 1578, Subahdar Shahbaz Khan in 1584 and Durjan Singh in 1597. Isa Khan died in September 1599, his son, Musa Khan took control of the Bhati region. But after the defeat of Musa Khan on 10 July 1610 by Islam Khan, the army general of Mughals, Sonargaon became one of the sarkars of Bengal subah; the capital of Bengal was shifted to Jahangirnagar.
Panam City was established in the late 19th century in the vicinity of Sonargaon as a trading centre of cotton fabrics during British rule. Hindu cloth merchants built their residential houses following colonial style with inspiration derived from European sources. Today this area is protected under the Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh; the city was linked with the main city area by three brick bridges – Panam Bridge, Dalalpur Bridge and PanamNagar Bridge – during the Mughal period. The bridges are still in use. Sonakanda Fort is a Mughal river-fort located on the bank of the Shitalakshya River at Bandar. Lok Shilpa Jadughar Bangladesh Folk Arts and Crafts Foundation of Sonargaon was established by Bangladeshi painter Joynul Abedin on 12 March 1975; the house called Bara Sardar Bari, was built in 1901. On 15 February 1984, Narayanganj subdivision was upgraded to a district by the Government of Bangladesh. Hence Sonargaon became a subdistrict of Narayanganj District of Dhaka division. Due to the many threats to preservation, Sonargaon was placed in 2008 Watch List of the 100 Most Endangered Sites by the World Monuments Fund.
By the 14th century Sonargaon became a commercial port. Trade activities were mentioned by travellers like Ma Huan and Ralph Fitch. Maritime
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
The Shunga Empire was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established after the fall of the Maurya Empire, its capital was Pataliputra, but emperors such as Bhagabhadra held court at Besnagar in eastern Malwa. Pushyamitra Shunga was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Shunga rulers. However, after the death of Agnimitra, the second king of the dynasty, the empire disintegrated: inscriptions and coins indicate that much of northern and central India consisted of small kingdoms and city-states that were independent of any Shunga hegemony; the dynasty is noted for its numerous wars with both indigenous powers. They fought the Kalinga, the Satavahana dynasty, the Indo-Greek Kingdom and the Panchalas and Mitras of Mathura. Art, education and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhut, the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi.
Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of art. The script used by the empire was used to write Sanskrit; the Shunga Empire played an imperative role in patronizing culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya was composed in this period. Artistry progressed with the rise of the Mathura art style; the last of the Shunga emperors was Devabhuti. He is said to have been overfond of the company of women; the Shunga dynasty was replaced by the subsequent Kanvas. The Kanva dynasty succeeded the Shungas around 73 BCE; the Shunga dynasty was a Brahmin dynasty, established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death, when the emperor Brihadratha Maurya, the last ruler of the Maurya Empire, was assassinated by his Senānī or commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was reviewing the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pushyamitra Shunga ascended the throne. Pushyamitra Shunga became the ruler of Magadha and neighbouring territories.
His realm covered the central parts of the old Mauryan Empire. The Shunga had control of the central city of Ayodhya in northern central India, as is proved by the Dhanadeva-Ayodhya inscription. However, the city of Mathura further west never seems to have been under the direct control of the Shungas, as no archaeological evidence of a Shunga presence has been found in Mathura. On the contrary, according to the Yavanarajya inscription, Mathura was under the control of Indo-Greeks from some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, remained so as late as 70 BCE; some ancient sources however claim a greater extent for the Shunga Empire: the Asokavadana account of the Divyavadana claims that the Shungas sent an army to persecute Buddhist monks as far as Sakala in the Punjab region in the northwest:... Pushyamitra equipped a fourfold army, intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama.... Pushyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, departed.... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, proclaimed that he would give a... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk.
The Malavikagnimitra claims that the empire of Pushyamitra extended to the Narmada River in the south. They may have controlled the city of Ujjain. Meanwhile and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan Plateau to the Satavahana dynasty. Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years, he was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of Kālidāsa. Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha; the power of the Shungas weakened. It is said; the Shungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE. Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin emperor was Pushyamitra Shunga, is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir and Bactria. Buddhist scripture such as the Asokavadana account of the Divyavadana and ancient Tibetan historian Taranatha have written about persecution of Buddhists. Pushyamitra is said to have burned down Buddhist monasteries, destroyed stupas, massacred Buddhist monks and put rewards on their heads, but some consider these stories as probable exaggerations.
"... Pushyamitra equipped a fourfold army, intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama.... Pushyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, departed.... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, proclaimed that he would give a... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk." Indian Puranic sources such as the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana, describe the resurgence of Brahmanism following the Maurya Dynasty, the killing of millions of Buddhists: "At this time the best of the brahmanas, performed sacrifice on the top of a mountain named Arbuda. By the influence of Vedic mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared from the yajna, they annihilated all the Buddhists. It is said there were 4 million Buddhists and all of them were killed by uncommon weapons". Pushyamitra is known to have revived the supremacy of the Bramahnical religion and reestablished animal sacrifices that had
The Bengal Presidency reorganized as the Bengal Province, was once the largest subdivision of British India, with its seat in Calcutta. It was centred in the Bengal region. At its territorial peak in the 19th century, the presidency extended from the present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in the west to Burma and Penang in the east; the Governor of Bengal was concurrently the Viceroy of India for many years. Most of the presidency's territories were incorporated into other British Indian provinces and crown colonies. In 1905, Bengal proper was partitioned, with Eastern Bengal and Assam headquartered in Dacca and Shillong. British India was reorganised in 1912 and the presidency was reunited into a single Bengali-speaking province; the Bengal Presidency was established in 1765, following the defeat of the last independent Nawab of Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 23 June 1757, the Battle of Buxar in 22 October 1764. Bengal was the economic and educational hub of the British Raj, it was the centre of the late 19th and early 20th century Bengali Renaissance and a hotbed of the Indian Independence Movement.
The Partition of British India in 1947 resulted in Bengal's division on religious grounds, between the Indian state of West Bengal and the Pakistanian province of East Bengal, which first became East Pakistan in 1955 under Pakistanian rule and the nation of Bangladesh in 1971. Under Warren Hastings the consolidation of British imperial rule over Bengal was solidified, with the conversion of a trade area into an occupied territory under a military-civil government, while the formation of a regularised system of legislation was brought in under John Shore. Acting through Lord Cornwallis Governor-General, he ascertained and defined the rights of the landholders over the soil; these landholders under the previous system had started, for the most part, as collectors of the revenues, acquired certain prescriptive rights as quasi-proprietors of the estates entrusted to them by the government. In 1793 Lord Cornwallis declared their rights perpetual, gave over the land of Bengal to the previous quasi-proprietors or zamindars, on condition of the payment of a fixed land tax.
This piece of legislation is known as the Permanent Settlement of the Land Revenue. It was designed to "introduce" ideas of property rights to India, stimulate a market in land; the former aim misunderstood the nature of landholding in India, the latter was an abject failure. The Cornwallis Code, while defining the rights of the proprietors, failed to give adequate recognition to the rights of the under-tenants and the cultivators; this remained a serious problem for the duration of British Rule, as throughout the Bengal Presidency ryots found themselves oppressed by rack-renting landlords, who knew that every rupee they could squeeze from their tenants over and above the fixed revenue demanded from the Government represented pure profit. Furthermore, the Permanent Settlement took no account of inflation, meaning that the value of the revenue to Government declined year by year, whilst the heavy burden on the peasantry grew no less; this was compounded in the early 19th century by compulsory schemes for the cultivation of opium and indigo, the former by the state, the latter by British planters.
Peasants were forced to grow a certain area of these crops, which were purchased at below market rates for export. This added to rural poverty. So unsuccessful was the Permanent Settlement that it was not introduced in the North-Western Provinces after 1831, in Punjab after its conquest in 1849, or in Oudh, annexed in 1856; these regions remained administratively distinct. The area of the Presidency under direct administration was sometimes referred to as Lower Bengal to distinguish it from the Presidency as a whole. Punjab and Allahabad had Lieutenant-Governors subject to the authority of the Governor of Bengal in Calcutta, but in practice they were more or less independent; the only all-Presidency institutions which remained were the Civil Service. The Bengal Army was amalgamated into the new British-Indian Army in 1904–5, after a lengthy struggle over its reform between Lord Kitchener, the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy; the partition of the large province of Bengal, decided upon by Lord Curzon, Cayan Uddin Ahmet, the Chief Secretary of Bengal carried into execution in October 1905.
The Chittagong and Rajshahi divisions, the Malda District and the States of Hill Tripura and Comilla were transferred from Bengal to a new province, Eastern Bengal and Assam. The province of West Bengal consisted of the thirty-three districts of Burdwan, Bankura, Hughli, Twenty-four Parganas, Nadia, Jessore, Patna, Shahabad, Champaran, Darbhanga, Bhagalpur, Santhal Parganas, Balasore and Kandhmal, Sambalpur, Hazaribagh, Ranchi and Manbhum; the princely states of Sikkim and the tributary states of Odisha and Chhota Nagpur were not part of Bengal, but British relations with them were managed
Gangaridai is a term used by the ancient Greco-Roman writers to describe a people or a geographical region of the ancient Indian subcontinent. Some of these writers state that Alexander the Great withdrew from the Indian subcontinent because of the strong war elephant force of the Gangaridai; the writers variously mention the Gangaridai as a distinct tribe, or a nation within a larger kingdom. A number of modern scholars locate Gangaridai in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region, although alternative theories exist. Gange or Ganges, the capital of the Gangaridai, has been identified with several sites in the region, including Chandraketugarh and Wari-Bateshwar; the Greek writers use the names "Gandaridae", "Gandaritae", "Gandridae" to describe these people. The ancient Latin writers use the name "Gangaridae", a term that seems to have been coined by the 1st century poet Virgil; some modern etymologies of the word Gangaridai split it as "Gaṅgā-rāṣṭra", "Gaṅgā-rāḍha" or "Gaṅgā-hṛdaya". However, D. C.
Sircar believes that the word is the plural form of "Gangarid", means "Ganga people". Several ancient Greek writers mention Gangaridai, but their accounts are based on hearsay; the earliest surviving description of Gangaridai appears in Bibliotheca historica of the 1st century BCE writer Diodorus Siculus. This account is based on a now-lost work the writings of either Megasthenes or Hieronymus of Cardia. In Book 2 of Bibliotheca historica, Diodorus states that "Gandaridae" territory was located to the east of the Ganges river, 30 stades wide, he mentions that no foreign enemy had conquered Gandaridae, because it of its strong elephant force. He further states that Alexander the Great advanced up to Ganges after subjugating other Indians, but decided to retreat when he heard that the Gandaridae had 4,000 elephants. In Book 17 of Bibliotheca historica, Diodorus once again describes the "Gandaridae", states that Alexander had to retreat after his soldiers refused to take an expedition against the Gandaridae.
The book mentions that a nephew of Porus fled to the land of the Gandaridae, although C. Bradford Welles translates the name of this land as "Gandara". In Book 18 of Bibliotheca historica, Diodorus describes India as a large kingdom comprising several nations, the largest of, "Tyndaridae", he further states. He goes on to mention that Alexander did not campaign against this nation, because they had a large number of elephants; the Book 18 description is as follows: Diodorus' account of India in the Book 2 is based on Indica, a book written by the 4th century BCE writer Megasthenes, who visited India. Megasthenes' Indica is now lost, although it has been reconstructed from the writings of Diodorus and other writers. J. W. McCrindle attributed Diodorus' Book 2 passage about the Gangaridai to Megasthenes in his reconstruction of Indica. However, according to A. B. Bosworth, Diodorus' source for the information about the Gangaridai was Hieronymus of Cardia, a contemporary of Alexander and the main source of information for Diodorus' Book 18.
Bosworth points out. This suggests that Diodorus obtained the information about the Gandaridae from another source, appended it to Megasthenes' description of India in Book 2. Plutarch mentions the Gangaridai as "'Gandaritae" and as "Gandridae". Ptolemy, in his Geography, states that the Gangaridae occupied "all the region about the mouths of the Ganges", he names. This suggests. Based on the city's name, the Greek writers used the word "Gangaridai" to describe the local people; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea does not mention the Gangaridai, but attests the existence of a city that the Greco-Romans described as "Ganges": Dionysius Periegetes mentions "Gargaridae" located near the "gold-bearing Hypanis" river. "Gargaridae" is sometimes believed to be a variant of "Gangaridae", but another theory identifies it with Gandhari people. A. B. Bosworth dismisses Dionysius' account as "a farrago of nonsense", noting that he inaccurately describes the Hypanis river as flowing down into the Gangetic plain.
Gangaridai finds a mention in Greek mythology. In Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica, Datis, a chieftain, leader of the Gangaridae, in the army of Perses III, fought against Aeetes during the Colchian civil war. Colchis was situated on the east of the Black Sea. Aeetes was the famous king of Colchia against whom Jason and the Argonauts undertook their expedition in search of the "Golden Fleece". Perses III was king of the Taurian tribe; the Roman poet Virgil speaks of the valour of the Gangaridae in his Georgics. Quintus Curtius Rufus noted the two nations Gangaridae and Prasii: Pliny the Elder states: The ancient Greek writers provide vague information about the centre of the Gangaridai power; as a result, the historians have put forward various theories about its location. Pliny (1st ce
The Ganesha dynasty began with Raja Ganesha in 1414, from the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. After Raja Ganesha seized control over Bengal, he faced an imminent threat of invasion. Ganesha appealed to a powerful Muslim holy man named Qutb al Alam to stop the threat; the saint agreed on the condition that Raja Ganesha's son, would convert to Islam and rule in his place. Raja Ganesha agreed and Jadu started ruling Bengal as Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah in 1415. Qutb al Alam died in 1416 and Raja Ganesha was emboldened to depose his son and return to the throne as Danujamarddana Deva. Jalaluddin was reconverted to Hinduism by the Golden Cow ritual. After the death of his father Jalaluddin started ruling again. Jalaluddin's son, Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah ruled for only 3 years due to anarchy; the dynasty is known for its liberal policies as well as its focus on justice and charity
Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad
The Nawabs of Bengal were the rulers of the provinces of Bengal and Orissa. Between 1717 and 1772, they served as the rulers of the subah of Bengal. However, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire. Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar, he lost to the British, who in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad and established itself as a political power in Bengal. In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were puppets to the British. In 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat of the Nawab was taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company; the last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 November 1880 in favour of his eldest son, Hassan Ali Mirza. Nawabs of Murshidabad succeeded the Nawabs of Bengal as Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad, following Mansur Ali Khan's abdication They got the title changed as the title of the Nawab of Bengal was abolished in 1880.
They had no say in the share of the revenue collected and were ceased to use any force. After Indian Independence in 1947 it was declared that the princely states must accede to either India or Pakistan. Murshidabad became a part of East Pakistan for two days, it became a part of India on 17 August 1947, following which the Pakistani flag was brought down from the Hazarduari Palace and the Indian tricolour was hoisted atop it. After merging with India, they had no power as the Government of India took over all the princely states in India; the house of the Nawabs appeared to have come to end in 1969 with Waris Ali Mirza being the last reigning Nawab and with no clear succession. Although he left three sons and three daughters there was no clear successor to the title after his death because he disinherited one and the others disputed his will. In August 2014, the Supreme Court of India declared Syed Mohammed Abbas Ali Mirza to be the heir to the erstwhile Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad and lawful heir to the Nawab's property and office, in abeyance since the death of Abbas Ali Mirza's maternal uncle Waris Ali Mirza in 1969.
However, it is to be noted that after Indian independence in 1947, followed by the promulgation of the Indian Constitution on 26 January 1950, which marked the transformation of the Dominion of India into the Republic of India, the Article 18 of the Indian Constitution abolished all titles, except those given by the Government of India to those who have made their mark in military and academic fields. However, under the policy of Privy Purse nobles were allowed to enjoy certain privileges and keep their titles, but this policy was abolished in 1971 by the twenty-sixth Amendment of the Constitution of India. Thus the title of the "Nawab Bahadur of Murshidabad" was constitutionally and abolished in 1971; the term "Bengal" incorporates to delineate the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal which including but not limited is all districts within the People's Republic of Bangladesh, as well as West Bengal, India. During the first partition of Bengal in the early 20th century a new province, Eastern Bengal was created as a Lieutenant-Governorship along with Assam.
In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east became: Assam, Bengal Province. The Nawab thus gained rule over Orissa. So sometimes That is why the Nawabs of Bengal were mentioned as "Nawab of Bengal" - where Nazim means the provincial governor - as they ruled over three subahs while the Nawabs of Murshidabad were the local ruler of the city of Murshidabad; the majority of modern Bengal is inhabited by Bengali people. The early Sultans of Bengal ruled until 1282, followed by the rule of several successive dynasties. Ilyas Shah founder of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, took complete charge of the Bengal and the capital was shifted to Sonargaon, he was one of the independent rulers of Bengal. His son, Sikandar Shah, who succeeded him, built the Adina Mosque at Pandua, near Gour, Adina Mosque in the medieval times, was considered to be the largest in undivided Bengal, as well as the entire Indian subcontinent; the Mughal Empire emerged as a powerful Empire in northern India.
Babur, related to two legendary warriors – Timur and Genghis Khan, invaded north India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty. Babur thus became the first Mughal emperor, he was succeeded by Humayun. At the same time, Sher Shah Suri of the Suri dynasty rose to prominence and established himself as the ruler of the present day Bihar by defeating Ghiyasuddin Shah, but he lost to capture the kingdom because of sudden expedition of Humayun. In 1539, Sher Khan faced Humayun in the Battle of Chausa, he forced Humayun out of India. Assuming the title Sher Shah, he ascended the throne of Delhi, he captured Agra and established control from Bengal in the east, to the Indus River in the west. After his death he was succeeded by Islam Shah Suri, but in 1544 the Suris were torn apart by internal conflicts. Humayun took this advantage and captured Lahore and Delhi, but he died in 1556 AD, he was succeeded by Akbar. After this, the administration of the entire region of Bengal passed into the hands of governors appointed by the Mug