In France, the Gaullist Party is used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist. Gaullism claim to transcend the left-right divide but in practice the current Gaullist party is the centre-right Republicans. In the past, some Gaullist voters saw themselves as leaning towards the left—a view ascribed to the once-leading Gaullist André Malraux. However, most of Charles de Gaulle's own followers leaned towards the right-leaning national conservative. Left-leaning voters started showing less support again after Malraux's death in 1976, as figures of the Gaullist left were marginalised. Under its various names and acronyms, the Gaullist Party has been the dominant organisation of the French right since the beginning of the Fifth Republic. Author of the L'Appel of 18 June 1940, founder and leader of the Free French Forces, General Charles de Gaulle is the symbol of the French Resistance to the Nazi occupation and the Vichy government. Yet, based in London in Algiers, he was forced to compromise with the domestic Resistance movements dominated by various political forces.
In 1944, while France was liberated, De Gaulle presided over the provisional government composed of Communists and Christian Democrats. Because De Gaulle refused to create a great political party unifying the non-Communist Resistance, a lot of parties re-emerged; the Christian democratic Popular Republican Movement seemed to be the closest to De Gaulle. The provisional government implemented policies inspired by the programme of the National Council of Resistance: nationalization of banks and some industrial companies, the development of a Welfare State. However, it was divided about the way forward for political institutions and the constitution for the Fourth Republic. For De Gaulle, the "regime of the parties" that had characterized the Third Republic was a cause of the 1940 military disaster, he advocated a strong executive power, governing in the national interest, led by a man, an incarnation of national unity. Indeed, in his mind, France is strong when it is united and the parties, represented in Parliament, serve particular interests and thus express national divisions.
In November 1945, a large majority of the French voters accepted the elaboration of a new Constitution. At the same time, they elected a new National Assembly; the French Communist Party, the Socialist French Section of the Workers' International and the Christian democratic MRP were the largest forces represented in this Assembly. It re-elected de Gaulle as president of the provisional government but, disagreeing with restoration of the "regime of the parties", de Gaulle resigned in January 1946. In May 1946, a first constitutional law was rejected by referendum. One month a new Assembly was elected in order to write a new constitutional text. In his Bayeux Manifesto, De Gaulle outlined his institutional ideas but he was accused of wanting re-establish a Bonapartist government. Furthermore, without the support of a political force, he could not influence the constitutional law being prepared. René Capitant founded a Gaullist Union for the Fourth Republic but it could not prevent the approval of the text prepared by the elected Assembly, which restored the parliamentary system.
In 1947, he gathered the anti-Communist opposition in the Rally of the French People. He accused the Fourth Republic of being dominated by the "parliamentary fiddles" and to organize the state helplessness. In keeping with its nationalist stance, it accused the French Communist Party of being a vassal of the Soviet Union. Furthermore, it denounced what it called the "abandonment" of colonies by the Third Force cabinets, it viewed French participation in the European Economic Community to be a threat to the nation. In addition, the Gaullists recommended an association between capital and labour in order to end the "struggle of classes", which hampered national unity. Six months after its founding, membership of the RPF reached one million, it took control of the executive of many cities, including Paris and Bordeaux. After the 1951 legislative election and in despite of the change of the ballot system, the RPF formed the largest parliamentary group of the Assembly, but it made a systematic opposition.
In 1952, some RPF deputies voted in favour of Antoine Pinay's cabinet joined the majority, against the instructions of De Gaulle. They left the RPF parliamentary group. More and more divided, the RPF suffered an important decrease in the 1953 local elections. On 6 May 1953, De Gaulle asked to the Gaullist deputies to abandon the name "RPF". One month 5 Gaullist deputies joined Joseph Laniel's government. Indeed, they participated to right-wing majorities a part of the Gaullists as Jacques Chaban-Delmas joined the center-left Republican Front under the label National Centre of Social Republicans. At the end of the 1950s, the Fourth Republic floundered in Algerian War; the 13 May 1958 riots in Algeria caused a political crisis. A threat of military coup was brandished. Emissaries sent by de Gaulle participated to this bustle; the National Assembly accepted to call back De Gaulle to lead the cabinet. On 28 September, a new constitution was approved by referendum; the Fifth Republic was born. The parliamentary system was not questioned.
In order that he should not be faced with an hostile Assembly, dominated by the parties, De Gaulle let his followers organize a political party, the
Puebla Athletic Club was a former Mexican football club from the city of Puebla. Its football team played in the Primera Fuerza prior to the professionalization and development of the Primera División de México in 1943. "Puebla Athletic Club" was founded in 1895 by the English immigrants that lived in the city of Puebla at that time. The club practiced tennis until July 19, 1902,) when the club started playing football. Puebla A. C.'s venue was "Campo Velódromo", use for the practise of baseball.) In 1904 the Puebla football squad joined the Primera Fuerza league, at the time the only organized football league in Mexico, having been founded in 1902. Most of Primera Fuerza teams were from Mexico City. In their first tournament in 1904–05 Puebla lost all games and didn't score a goal in the 8 matches played, therefore finishing last. In the 1905–06 season, the club struggled and managed to score its first and only goal in that tournament, finishing last with no wins, 1 draw and 7 losses, 20 goals against.
For the 1906–07 season Puebla finished third with 3 wins, 3 losses and 2 draws for a total of 9 points with 8 goals scored and 6 against. This tournament was the club's last in the league due to the lack of interest from the people of Puebla with the native Mexican crowd not supporting an English only football club; the City of Puebla would not see Football for 8 years until 1915, when a new football club was founded by the Spaniards living in Puebla. Due to the lack of opponents, having only one with neighboring town San Martín Texmelucan, the club would be forced to go Orizaba, Veracruz to find competition where they participated for a few years in the old "Liga Veracruzana de Fútbol". Another club was founded this time by Mexican in 1917 under the name of "Reforma". Other clubs would soon be formed by German immigrants which only lasted a few years, it wasn't till 1944 –a year after the first professional football league was established in Mexico– that the city had a professional club Puebla FC, founded on May 7, 1944.
From 1904–07After the 1906–07 season, Puebla A. C. folded Football in Mexico Reforma Athletic Club Albinegros de Orizaba Puebla FC
Wiljan Vloet is a Dutch football manager. Vloet had a rather short playing career as amateur player, started working as coach in 1979, when he took charge of the youth team of amateurs VV Heerenveen while still playing. In 1984, he took his first head coaching job, at amateurs Heusden. In 1999, after six seasons in charge of Hoofdklasse club OJC Rosmalen, he was appointed by FC Den Bosch as youth coach, he successively moved to Roda JC, where he stayed in charge from 2002 to 2005. He moved to Sparta Rotterdam and was replaced at the end of the 2006–2007 season by Gert Aandewiel, who came over from HFC Haarlem. Vloet signed with ADO Den Haag, who he guided back to the Eredivisie in the spring of 2008, he worked as youth coach of PSV Eindhoven till November 2009, when he was appointed head coach of Eredivisie club N. E. C.. After two seasons in charge of the Nijmegen club, he left in June 2011 to accept a move back at Sparta Rotterdam, this time as technical director for the club. On 10 February 2016 FC Den Bosch announced Vloet succeeds René van Eck as manager of the club, so starts with his second term at the club.
White River State Park covers 250 acres in Indianapolis, United States, on the western edge of the downtown area at 801 West Washington Street. It is one of seven designated cultural districts in Indianapolis. Among the attractions located in or near the park are the Indiana State Museum and IMAX Theater, the Indianapolis Zoo and White River Gardens, the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, the NCAA Headquarters and Hall of Champions, the Medal of Honor Memorial, Victory Field, Military Park, the Farm Bureau Insurance Lawn Concert Series, the Indiana Cross Country Arena. White River State Park is an urban park located in Indianapolis and is not part of the 32 properties managed by the Division of State Parks, a land management team within the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Restoration on this area began in the late 1980s, when public attention fell on the Indiana Central Canal; the canal was engineered in the 1830s as a way to ship goods through the state of Indiana, but the project went bankrupt and the Indianapolis section of the canal was the only section, dug.
Although the canal was never used for its intended purpose, recent restoration and development have changed the area and it is functioning as a cultural center within the city of Indianapolis. One of the proposed focal points of the park, Indiana Tower, was never constructed; the following listing shows key points of interest and founding dates surrounding White River State Park and Central Canal Cultural District: Historic Pumphouse1870 – Opens as the original water pumping station for the city of Indianapolis. 1969 – Pumping Station closed. 1980 – Accepted for inclusion on the National Register for Historic Places. 1981 – Renovations complete and reopens as the Park's headquarters and Visitors' Center. White River State Park Visitors' Center 2003 – Opens. Indianapolis Zoo1988 – Park’s first attraction established. White River Gardens1999 – Opens. Historic Washington Street Pedestrian Bridge1916 – Opens as part of the National Road. 1994 – Historic National Road U. S. 40 linking the U. S. from east to west start renovations.
1999 – Art Sculptures in the Park begins. NCAA Headquarters & NCAA Hall of Champions Museum1999–2000 – Relocated to Indianapolis from Kansas City. National Federation of State High School Associations Headquarters 1999–2000 – Relocated to Indianapolis from Kansas City. Indiana State Museum2002 – Opens. IMAX 3D Theatre1996 – Opens as Indiana's only IMAX theatre. 1996-Present – Operates as the largest IMAX in Indiana. Congressional Medal of Honor Memorial1999 – Opens and dedication. Military Park1822 – Indianapolis's first documented 4th of July celebration. 1852 – First Indiana State Fair. 1861 – Civil War encampment until 1865. Present day – Home to many charity events and outdoor concertsIndiana Historical Society1830 – Founded. 1999 – A neighbor of White River State Park located just east of West Street. State Capitol Building and Government ComplexNot one of the Park's attractions, but a neighbor to White River State Park and open to the public. Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art1989 – Opened as the park’s second attraction.
2005 – Opens expanded gallery space, state-of-the-art education facility, performance/special event areas, indoor/outdoor dining restaurant – doubling the Museum's size. Victory Field1996 – Opens as home of the Indianapolis Indians playing games from April to September. 2005 – Triple-A affiliate of MLB Pittsburgh Pirates. White River State Park Concert Series2004 – Opens inaugural summer concert season at a temporary concert venue, the 7,500-seat "Farm Bureau Insurance Lawn". 2006 – Named one of the top 100 outdoor concert venues in the world by Pollstar magazine. 2007 – Named one of the top 100 outdoor concert venues in the world by Pollstar magazine, doubles concert attendance with 50,000+ spectators, includes 11 shows. 2008 – Once again, named one of the top 100 outdoor concert venues in the world by Pollstar magazine and over 50,000 spectators at 8 shows. 2009 – Named one of the top 100 outdoor concert venues in the world by Pollstar magazine and another great season with over 50,000 spectators at 12 shows.
2018 - The White River State Park Development Commission announced plans to replace the temporary structure. 2019 - Construction began on a permanent venue. The $27 million project is set to be completed in June 2020; the new venue, "The Amphitheater at White River State Park", will have 3,000 permanent seats with a general admission lawn area that can hold up to 4,500. The Indiana Cross Country Arena2007 – White River State Park partners with the Indiana Invaders, Indy Greenways, Indianapolis Parks, the National Institute for Fitness & Sport and international businesses, community partners to revitalize the flood plain green space along the White River for education and recreation opportunities. 2008 – Opens unofficially in August with 9 meets and invitationals. 2008 – Middle school, high school, youth teams showcase their competitive spirit. 2010 – Anticipated its official inaugural season in late summer. Official website The Lawn At White River
Bertman Original Ballpark Mustard is a brown mustard made by Bertman Foods Company, a Cleveland, food manufacturer and distributor which has produced several varieties of mustards since 1925, well known regionally because they are served at sports stadiums around Cleveland. There is a version of Bertman's original mustard recipe sold by The Davis Food Company called Stadium Authentic Mustard, but the original recipe, made by Bertman's organization, carries the "Bertman Original" designation. Bertman's original recipe is still being made by his family business Bertman's spicy brown mustard, has been used at sports stadiums in and around Cleveland for over 90 years, including League Park, Cleveland Municipal Stadium, Jacobs Field, Progressive Field. Joe Bertman, known for coming up with food solutions for his commercial customers, created the mustard for League Park, one of his top accounts, in the garage of his home in Cleveland's Kinsman neighborhood. Bertman's is well known to sports fans, was declared the "signature concession item" by ESPN.com writer Jim Caple.
Joseph "Joe" Bertman began the business in his twenties with a partner in a garage at the Bertman home at E. 147th near Kinsman, where spices and pickles were processed and packaged. The partner was bought out during the first few years of the business. Bertman expanded his sales territory from Cleveland to Pennsylvania. After WWII he had negotiated exclusive distribution rights to many food products with a fleet of trucks and a large sales force; the company moved to 653 E. 103rd by the mid-1930s, changed its name to Bertman Pickle Co.. Not too shortly after that, the company moved again; the company changed its name to Bertman Foods Company, now located at 7777 Grand Avenue in Cleveland. The company sold pickles, salad dressings, coffees and canned and dried foods products to schools and other large-scale food operations, his company supplied mustard to the Cleveland Municipal Stadium. Known for coming up with products to meet the needs of his clients, Bertman invented his spicy brown mustard in 1921.
His mustard, under the family label, is served at major sports venues in Cleveland to this day. The mustard branded by one of his former employees, Stadium Authentic Mustard, is sold in retail stores and online, served in over 150 stadiums and arenas throughout the United States, but not in most Cleveland sports stadiums, where the competing Bertman's Original brand continues to be sold. In 1966, Cleveland had one local brown mustard: Joe Bertman's. David Dwoskin, one of Bertman's sales reps, represented the Bertman brand to retailers throughout Ohio. In 1969, The Davis Food Company partnered with Joe to make "The Authentic Stadium Mustard" available for retail sales in supermarkets. In 1971, Dwoskin registered the name "The Authentic Stadium Mustard" for his new company Davis Food Company. In 1982, Davis Food Company obtained exclusive rights to sell to both wholesale and retail markets as well as stadiums and other venues. In the early 1980s there was a disagreement between Dwoskin. Dwoskin produced his own mustard under the Stadium brand through his own company.
The Bertman Family continues to sell its version of the mustard through its Bertman Foods Company. Dwoskin told Cleveland.com. Bertman Original is served at all Cleveland sports stadiums. Bertman Original is licensed to feature the Chief Wahoo logo of the Cleveland Indians baseball club, is served at all Cleveland sports venues save FirstEnergy Stadium, which serves Stadium Authentic. Both mustards are sold in grocery stores, specialty food shops, online; the trademarked "Bertman Original Ball Park Mustard" is still sold at Cleveland sports venues, as a competing brand to Stadium Mustard by the Bertman family. It's hard to tell Bertman Original apart from Stadium, a 2011 blind tasting revealed remarkable similarities, with Bertman, which has some sugar in it, being a bit sweeter, Stadium being a bit more spicy. Bertman's Original Ballpark Mustard is still made in Ohio. List of mustard brands Bertman Ball Park Mustard The Authentic Stadium Mustard
Tjälknöl, tjälknul or tjaele lump is a dish originating from Norrland, Sweden. It is made from a frozen moose steak, or other meat, roasted at a low temperature; the tjälknöl is cooked in the oven from a solid-frozen state at only 75–100 °C for 12 hours until the core temperature reach 75 °C. After cooking the meat is allowed to rest in the fridge for 5 hours submerged in brine inside a covered tight container, for example a freeze bag, together with other spices such as garlic, bay leafs, lingon berries; the meat needs to be turned a couple of times. The tjälknöl is served cold in thin slices with, for example, a potato gratiné or on the Christmas table; the dish has some similarities to roast beef, but is cooked at a lower temperature and for a longer time which makes the meat tender. The name comes from the words "tjäle" and "knul". "Tjäle" means tjaele, in this case the steak. The word "knul" is a Norrland dialect word meaning "lump", with "knöl" being the standard Swedish equivalent; the dish was created by Ragnhild Nilsson from Hundberget outside Sweden in the 1970s.
Ragnhild was married to a moose-hunter and had asked her husband to thaw a moose steak while she was at work. Her husband forgot about it, but panicked and put the solid-frozen steak in the oven to thaw at a low temperature, he left the house and forgot about the oven. The next day when Ragnhild came home from work she understood what had happened and how long the steak had been left in the oven, she contemplated to use it as dog food, but as it was such fine meat she instead tried to save the tasteless steak by soaking it in brine for a couple of hours. When the couple tried the steak they found it both tender and good. Ragnhild improved the recipe over the years, until 1982 when her husband surreptitiously admitted it to a competition held by ICA-kuriren where they looked for new provincial dishes. Ragnhild's tjälknöl won the competition as Medelpad's new provincial dish; the recipe on Swedish Wikibooks Ragnhild's original recipe