President of Nepal
The President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is the head of state of Nepal and commander in chief of the Nepalese Armed Forces. The office was created in May 2008; the first President of Nepal was Ram Baran Yadav. The current president is Bidhya Devi Bhandari, elected in October 2015, she is the first female Nepali head of state. The President is to be formally addressed as "The Right Honourable". Under the Interim Constitution adopted in January 2007, all powers of governance were removed from the King of Nepal, the Nepalese Constituent Assembly elected in the 2008 Constituent Assembly election was to decide in its first meeting whether to continue the monarchy or to declare a republic. During the suspension of the monarchy, Girija Prasad Koirala Prime Minister of Nepal, acted as Head of State. On 28 May 2008, the Assembly voted to abolish the monarchy. Dr. Ram Baran Yadav won the historic election from the Constituent Assembly, was sworn in as the nation's first president ending a 247 year old monarchy.
The President is elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of Nepal and the members of the provincial legislatures. A law shall determine the weight of each of their votes. Whoever receives a majority of the delegates' votes is elected. If no one receives a majority in the first round, runoffs are held between the top two candidates until one receives a majority; the presidential term is five years. A President may be elected any number of times, but not more than twice in succession; the President's powers are entirely ceremonial. In some parliamentary republics, the president is vested with executive powers on paper, but is bound by convention to act on the advice of the prime minister and the government. In Nepal, the President is not the nominal chief executive, as the Constitution explicitly vests executive power in the Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister. King of Nepal List of heads of state of Nepal, for a comprehensive list of Nepalese heads of state since 1768 List of Prime Ministers of Nepal Vice President of Nepal Office of the President of Nepal
Nepalese Civil War
The Nepalese Civil War, known popularly as the Maoist Conflict, Maoist Insurgency or Maoist Revolution, was a ten-year-long armed conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal and the government of Nepal, fought from 1996 to 2006. The insurgency period was popularly known as Maovadi Dwandakaal in Nepal; the rebellion was launched by the CPN-M on 13 February 1996 with the main aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy and establishing a People's Republic. It ended with the Comprehensive Peace Accord signed on 21 November 2006; the conflict was characterized by lynchings, purges and autonomous rule, spread of communist teachings, conflicts against the authority and crimes against humanity. The revolution resulted in deaths of over 17,000 people involving civilians, insurgents and police personnels, internally displaced hundreds of thousands of people; this revolution succeeded in overthrowing the 240 years old Hindu Shah monarchy of Gorkha and established secular republican regime which resulted in political and cultural change in Nepal popularly termed Krambhanga.
More than 17,000 people were killed during the conflict, including over 4,000 Nepalis killed by Maoists from 1996-2005, over 8,200 Nepalis killed by government forces from 1996-2005. In addition, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. Furthermore, this conflict disrupted most rural development activities. On 10 January 1990, the United Left Front was formed, together with the Nepali Congress, was the backbone of the broad-based movement for democratic change. However, communist groups, uncomfortable with the alliance between the ULF and the Congress Party, formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement; the UNPM called for elections to a constituent assembly, rejected compromises made by ULF and the Congress Party with the royal house. In November 1990, the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN, was formed, included key elements of the UNPM. On 21 January 1991, the CPN set up the United People's Front of Nepal, with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front to contest elections.
The CPN held its first convention on 25 November 1991, adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution", decided that the party would remain an underground party. In the 1991 election, the UPFN became the third-largest party in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements within the UPFN surged. One group, led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal, argued for immediate armed revolution, while the other group, led by Nirmal Lama, claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle. On 22 May 1994, the CPN/UPFN was split in two; the militant faction renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal, or CPN. This faction described the government forces, mainstream political parties, the monarchy, as "feudal forces"; the armed struggle began on 13 February 1996, when the CPN carried out 7 simultaneous attacks over 6 districts. The Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency; the Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for which the police would sustain control.
Controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. On 19 July 2001, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala resigned over his inability to tackle the Maoist insurgency, over the refusal of the army to take part in the conflict. On 25 July 2001, the government of Sher Bahadur Deuba and the Maoist insurgents declared a ceasefire, held peace talks from August–November of that year; the failure of these peace talks resulted in the return to armed conflict, beginning when the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal, on 22 November. Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents, mobilizing artillery; the insurgency situation changed in 2002, as the number of attacks by both sides increased and more people died than in any other year of the war. The government responded to the insurgency by banning anti-monarchy statements, imprisoning journalists, shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary ceasefires, were held between the insurgents and the government.
The government categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for elections to a constituent assembly, for fear that it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected both the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with King Gyanendra rather than via Prime Minister Deuba, the Maoists' request for discussions to be mediated by a third party such as the United Nations. Throughout the war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoists dominated the rural areas; this was a result of the fact that all government institutions were located in either the capital city Kathmandu, or the headquarters of a district. In August 2004 Kathmandu came under rebel control, as the Maoists performed a week-long blockade of the city. Under the aegis of the global War on Terror and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, United Kingdom, India, among other nations, provided extensive m
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Nepal)
The Nepalese Ministry of Foreign Affairs abbreviated as MoFA is responsible for conducting external affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Ministry of Foreign Affairs represents other line ministries and the Government of Nepal while dealing with other states. Minister for Foreign Affairs of Nepal, the Rt. Hon. Pradeep Gyawali, is leading the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shankar Das Bairagi is serving as Foreign Secretary of Nepal. Nepal's modern, bilateral diplomatic relations began with neighboring India in June 1947, followed by formal relations with France in April 1949. According to Government of Nepal Rules, 2069 Ministry of Foreign Affairs has the following roles and function: Formulation, implementation and evaluation of foreign policy and programs of Nepal Relation with foreign nations Representation of Nepal in foreign countries Publicity of Nepal in foreign countries Passport and visa to be issued in abroad Hospitality Management Protocol Claim over a person of a Nepali or foreign citizen by the respective governments.
Diplomatic protection and privileges Record of Nepali citizens who are in abroad and their right and protection. Non-resident Nepalese Economic diplomacy Development and promotion of public and non-governmental organizations at international level Consular practice United Nations, South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation and other international and regional organization Foreign diplomatic mission in Nepal Negotiation and agreement at diplomatic level Operation of Nepal foreign service This is a list of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Nepal: 1948: Sovag Jung Thapa 1948–1951: Mohan Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana 1951–1952: Matrika Prasad Koirala 1952–1953: Khadga Man Singh 1953–1955: Dilli Raman Regmi 1955–1956: Sovag Jung Thapa 1956–1957: Chuda Prasad Sharma 1957: Kunwar Inderjit Singh 1958–1959: Purendra Bikram Shah 1959–1960: Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala 1960–1962: Tulsi Giri 1962: Rishikesh Shaha 1962–1963: Tulsi Giri 1963–1968: Kirti Nidhi Bista 1968–1971: Gehendra Bahadur Rajbhandari 1971–1972: Kirti Nidhi Bista 1972–1975: Gyanendra Bahadur Karki 1975–1979: Krishna Raj Aryal 1979: Kirti Nidhi Bista 1979–1981: K. B.
Shahi 1981–1982: Surya Bahadur Thapa 1982–1985: Padma Bahadur Khatri 1985–1986: Ranadhir Subba 1986–1990: Shailendra Kumar Upadhyaya 1990: Hari Bahadur Basnet 1990: Pashupati Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana 1990–1991: Krishna Prasad Bhattarai 1991–1994: Girija Prasad Koirala 1994–1995: Madhav Kumar Nepal 1995–1997: Prakash Chandra Lohani 1997–1998: Kamal Thapa 1998–1999: Girija Prasad Koirala 1999: Krishna Prasad Bhattarai 1999–2000: Ram Sharan Mahat 2000–2001: Chakra Bastola 2001–2002: Sher Bahadur Deuba 2002–2003: Narendra Bikram Shah 2003–2004: Surya Bahadur Thapa 2004: Bhekh Bahadur Thapa 2004–2005: Sher Bahadur Deuba 2005–2006: Ramesh Nath Pandey 2006–2007: Khadga Prasad Oli 2007–2008: Sahana Pradhan 2008–2009: Upendra Yadav 2009–2011: Sujata Koirala 2011: Upendra Yadav 2011–2012: Narayan Kaji Shrestha 2012: Ishwor Pokhrel 2012–2013: Narayan Kaji Shrestha 2013–2014: Madhav Prasad Ghimire 2014–2015: Mahendra Bahadur Pandey 2015–2016: Kamal Thapa 2016–2017: Prakash Sharan Mahat 2017: Krishna Bahadur Mahara 2017–2018: Sher Bahadur Deuba 2018: Khadga Prasad Oli 2018–present: Pradip Kumar Gyawali There are two departments under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Department of Passport, Kathmandu Department of Consular Services, KathmanduThe Ministry has operated a Liaison Office in the border town of Birgunj since 2005.
The Ministry operates the Institute of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu. Foreign relations of Nepal Diplomatic missions of Nepal Official Ministry website
Election Commission, Nepal
The Election Commission, Nepal is a constitutional body responsible for conducting and monitoring elections, as well as registering parties and candidates and reporting election outcomes, in Nepal. It was born out of the 1950 revolution in Nepal, was established in law in 1951, although it has been changed somewhat by law over time, it has six members. During the Constituent Assembly elections in 2008, it was criticized for not upholding its duties, but was acknowledged to have managed the elections well nonetheless; the first election commissioner was Subarna Shumsher Rana in 1951 A. D; the year 1950 was important in the history of Nepal: in that year, the Rana dynasty, which had controlled the government for 104 years, was overthrown. The coup d'état marked Nepal's first attempt at democracy; the democratic experiment was short-lived. However, another major accomplishment was the establishment of the National Election Commission in 1951; the commission was declared by law to be independent of the government in 1966.
This has been confirmed by Nepal's interim constitution in 2007. It has five members, consisting of four others; the members serve for 6 years. In order to enforce its election guidelines, the commission employs a group of around 240,000 officials civil servants, to monitor elections; when the commission was established, the members were chosen by the King. In 1989, King Birendra's constitution declared that the Chief Election Commissioner would still be appointed by the king, but the others would not; the interim constitution further amended the body's composition in 2006: all five members were made under appointment of the Prime Minister. The commission came under some criticism during the Constituent Assembly elections for failing to enforce the code of conduct during elections, it failed to educate voters about the election. However, it was acknowledged to have helped the elections run smoothly overall
Vice President of Nepal
The position of Vice President of Nepal constitutes the deputy head of state of Nepal and was created when the Nepalese monarchy was abolished in May 2008. The current vice-president of Nepal is Nanda Kishor Pun; the vice president is to be formally addressed as'His Excellency'. Under the interim constitution adopted in January 2007, all powers of governance were removed from the King of Nepal, the Nepalese Constituent Assembly elected in the Nepalese Constituent Assembly election, 2008 was to decide in its first meeting whether to continue the monarchy or to declare a republic. On 28 May 2008 the Assembly had voted to abolish the monarchy; the Fifth Amendment to the Interim Constitution established that the president, vice-president, prime minister and Constituent Assembly chairman and vice-chairman would all be elected on the basis of a "political understanding". However, if one were not forthcoming, they could be elected by a simple majority; the first election was the Nepalese presidential election, 2008.
The parties failed to agree on candidates for president or vice president, so an election took place. Parmananda Jha of the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum was elected with the support of the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal President of Nepal List of current vice presidents
2017 Nepalese local elections
The 2017 Nepalese local elections were held in Nepal in three phases on 14 May, 28 June and 18 September in 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 276 municipalities and 460 rural municipalities. It was the first local level election. Local elections were held in 53 municipalities in February 2006 under regime of King Gyanendra but were boycotted by the major political parties and saw low voter turnout. Prior to 2006, the previous elections was held in 1997 with a mandate of five years. Elections were supposed to be held on 2002 but were delayed due to the ongoing Nepal Civil War. With the promulgation of the new constitution in 2015, a three-tier governance system was introduced, with national and local levels of governance. A Local Body Restructuring Commission was established as required by the constitution under the chairmanship of Balananda Paudel; the commission proposed 719 local structures, revised to 753 by the government. The new local levels were formed by changing the existing cities and village development council and came into existence on 10 March 2017.
Local levels will have a Deputy chairperson/mayor. Local levels are further subdivided into wards which will have 4 members. Out of the 4 members 2 must be female. All terms are for a total of 5 years; the elections are direct with the one getting the most ballots is declared the winner. The first phase of election was peaceful but there were sporadic instances of violence. A CPN-UML activist was killed in Dolakha on the eve of election. Another person was killed in Namobuddha municipality, Kavre on the day of election, the incident is still under investigation. One person died after security personnel opened fire during a clash between the cadres of Nepali Congress and CPN-UML in Melung village council of Dolakha district on election day. A candidate from Rastriya Prajantantra Party died in Naraharinath Village Council, Kalikot after police opened fire when cadres of Netra Bikram Chand led CPN tried to capture the ballot boxes. A reelection took place in one ward of Bharatpur after a CPN-Maoist Centre vote count representative tore 90 ballot papers when the count was in progress.
In the second phase, a UML cadre died after being hit by a stone in his testicles during a clash with Nepali Congress cadres at Chededaha Village council Bajura. A cadre of Netra Bikram Chand-led CPN Maoist died in Dhangadi, Kailali after a bomb carried by him exploded prematurely on June 26. Local Election Results
Foreign relations of Nepal
Though the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of Nepal it is the Office of Prime Minister that has exercised the authority to formulate and conduct policies related to Nepal's foreign affairs. As a landlocked country wedged between two larger and far stronger powers, Nepal has tried to maintain good relations with both of its neighbor, People's Republic of China and Republic of India. However, relationship with India, the country with greater hegemonic power over Nepal, has seen major ups and downs in recent years. Given Nepal's geographical vulnerabilities, traditionally Nepal's southern neighbor India, has been able to shape Nepal's foreign policy to serve India's interest to the detriment of Nepal's own interest. However, with the ongoing democratization of Nepal, shifting of the state-power from the hands of few elitists to democratically elected government institution, India has been facing increasing resistance within Nepal in implementing foreign policies that are detrimental to Nepal's own interest.
In recent years, Indian government's attempts to deny landlocked Nepal'Transit rights' via India as a fundamental right for a member of the UN, as guaranteed in the UN charter, the issues of occupation of some Nepalese territories by Indian forces have hampered the relationship between the two countries. For most part though, Nepal has traditionally maintained a non-aligned policy and enjoys friendly relations with neighboring countries and all the major countries of the world. Constitutionally, foreign policy is to be guided by “the principles of the United Nations Charter, Panchsheel, international law and the value of world peace.” In practice, foreign policy has not been directed toward projecting influence internationally but toward preserving autonomy and addressing domestic economic and security issues. Nepal's most substantive international relations are with international economic institutions, such as the Asian Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a multilateral economic development association.
Nepal has strong bilateral relations with major providers of economic and military aid, such as France, Japan, South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, with whom military ties date to the nineteenth century. The country's external relations, barring relations with India and China, are managed by its Ministry of Foreign Affairs while relationship with India and China, Nepal's most important partners, is still managed by the Prime Minister's Office. Nepal's relation with China has seen a major upswing in the recent years with China now becoming Nepal's 3rd largest aid donor, the largest source of FDI to Nepal. Nepal has played an active role in the formation of the economic development-oriented South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and is the site of its secretariat. On international issues, Nepal follows a nonaligned policy and votes with the Non-Aligned Movement in the United Nations. Nepal participates in a number of UN specialized agencies and is a member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Colombo Plan, the Asian Development Bank.
In 2000, the government established the National Human Rights Commission, a government-appointed commission with a mandate to investigate human rights violations. To date, the Commission has investigated 51 complaints.. Although freedom of expression is used as constitutional right, some minor problems regarding it have been reported in the country. Trafficking in women and child labour remain serious problems. A joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of the border with India. Nepal has border disputes with India at Lipulekh and Kalapani in Darchula district and Susta in Bihar.. In 2018,EPG,a joint committee between Nepal & India has finished preparing a report in order to settle the border disputes between these two countries & the report is yet to be submitted to the head of governments of both countries. Nepal has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 11 September 2003 and on 24 January 2017 became the 108th WTO member to ratify the WTO's Trade Facilitation Agreement.
Illicit production of cannabis for domestic and international drug markets continues to be considered as an international problem, as do rumours that the country operates as a transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia and Pakistan to the West. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 1972. Nepal and Argentina established diplomatic relations on January 1, 1962; the relations between Nepal and Argentina are based on goodwill and mutual understanding. Some public opinion of Nepalese people deteriorated after the Gurkha's role in the Falklands War with the British Army; the Argentinean Government has shown interest to extend technical cooperation on leather processing industries in Nepal under the South-South Cooperation. However, the Argentinean proposal has not been materialized yet. Nepal's trade balance with Argentina is in favour of Argentina. There is no significant figure of export from Nepal. Major commodities imported by Nepal from Argentina are Crude soybean oil, soybean oil, vegetable waxes, sun flower oil and maize.
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 March 1993. Nepal has good bilateral relations with Bangladesh. Though Nepal views Bangladesh as an access to the sea and seaports in Bangladesh, as an alternative to Indian seaport in Calcutta, successive Nepalese government have failed in increasing connectivity