A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Atari SA is a French corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972 by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA. The original Atari, Inc. founded in Sunnyvale, California in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was a pioneer in arcade games, home video game consoles, home computers. The company's products, such as Pong and the Atari 2600, helped define the electronic entertainment industry from the 1970s to the mid-1980s. In 1984, as a result of the video game crash of 1983, the original Atari Inc. was split, the arcade division was turned into Atari Games Inc. Atari Games received the rights to use the logo and brand name with appended text "Games" on arcade games, as well as rights to the original 1972–1984 arcade hardware properties; the Atari Consumer Electronics Division properties were in turn sold to Jack Tramiel's Tramiel Technology Ltd. which renamed itself to Atari Corporation. In 1996, Atari Corporation reverse-merged with disk-drive manufacturer JT Storage, becoming a division within the company.
In 1998, Hasbro Interactive acquired all Atari Corporation related properties from JTS, creating a new subsidiary, Atari Interactive. Infogrames Entertainment bought Hasbro Interactive in 2001 and renamed it Infogrames Interactive, which intermittently published Atari branded titles. In 2003, it renamed the division Atari Interactive. Another IESA division, Infogrames Inc. changed its name to Atari Inc. the same year, licensing the Atari name and logo from its fellow subsidiary. In 2008, IESA completed its acquisition of Atari, Inc.'s outstanding stock, making it a wholly owned subsidiary. IESA renamed itself Atari, SA in 2009, it sought bankruptcy protection under French law in January 2013. In 1971, Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney founded a small engineering company, Syzygy Engineering, that designed and built Computer Space, the world's first commercially available arcade video game, for Nutting Associates. On June 27, 1972, the two incorporated Atari, Inc. and soon hired Al Alcorn as their first design engineer.
Bushnell asked Alcorn to produce an arcade version of the Magnavox Odyssey's Tennis game, which would be named Pong. While Bushnell incorporated Atari in June 1972, Syzygy Company was never formally incorporated. Before Atari's incorporation, Bushnell considered various terms from the game Go choosing atari, referencing a position in the game when a group of stones is imminently in danger of being taken by one's opponent. Atari was incorporated in the state of California on June 27, 1972. In 1973, Atari secretly spawned a competitor called Kee Games, headed by Nolan's next door neighbor Joe Keenan, to circumvent pinball distributors' insistence on exclusive distribution deals. Joe Keenan's management of the subsidiary led to him being promoted president of Atari that same year. In 1976, through Grass Valley, CA firm Cyan Engineering, started development of a flexible console, capable of playing the four existing Atari games; the result was the Atari Video Computer System, or AVCS. The introductory price of $199 included a console, two joysticks, a pair of paddles, the Combat game cartridge.
Bushnell knew he had another potential hit on his hands but bringing the machine to market would be expensive. Looking for outside investors, Bushnell sold Atari to Warner Communications in 1976 for an estimated $28–32 million, using part of the money to buy the Folgers Mansion. Nolan continued to have disagreements with Warner Management over the direction of the company, the discontinuation of the pinball division, most the notion of discontinuing the 2600. In 1978, Kee Games was disbanded. In December of that year, Nolan Bushnell was fired following an argument with Manny Gerard. "e started fighting like dogs. And the wheels came off that fall. Warner claimed they fired me," recalled Bushnell. "I say I quit. It was a mutual separation."Development of a successor to the 2600 started as soon as it shipped. The original team estimated. Mid-way into their effort the home computer revolution took off, leading to the addition of a keyboard and features to produce the Atari 800 and its smaller sibling, the 400.
The new machines had some success when they became available in quantity in 1980. From this platform Atari released their next-generation game console in 1982, the Atari 5200, it was unsuccessful due to incompatibility with the 2600 game library, a small quantity of dedicated games, notoriously unreliable controllers. Under Warner and Atari's chairman and CEO, Raymond Kassar, the company achieved its greatest success, selling millions of 2600s and computers. At its peak, Atari accounted for a third of Warner's annual income and was the fastest growing company in US history at the time. However, it ran into problems in the early 1980s as interference from the New York-based Warner management affected daily operations, its home computer, video game console, arcade divisions operated independently and cooperated. Faced with fierce competition and price wars in the game console and home computer markets, Atari was never able to duplicate the success of the 2600; these problems were followed by the video game crash of 1983, with losses that totaled more than $500 million.
Warner's stock price slid from $60 to $20, the company began searching for a buyer for its troubled division. In 1983, Ray Kassar had res
Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure (1991 video game)
Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure is a video game for the Atari Lynx handheld, part of the Bill & Ted franchise and is based on the Bill & Ted films and the Saturday morning cartoon. It was released by Atari in 1991; the Princesses and Elizabeth, have been kidnapped by Death and the San Dimas duo must travel through time to find and rescue them. The game is set with an overhead view of all the action. Unlike other Bill & Ted games, players get the choice to play as either Ted; the main aim of the game is to collect all the musical notes that are scattered around each particular time. The game starts with the player having access to only one timeframe - old Egypt. Bill and Ted can travel to the next timeframe by collecting a phone book page. There are different structures in the game that can be entered to collect notes, keys, or other important items that are needed. If the player is touched by an enemy, the character is respawned at the entry point of the last building or back at the phone booth.
One gameplay feature the ability to use different instruments to ward off enemies. The player starts with the guitar, if they collect and switch to a different instrument, the game's music changes to reflect the instrument, being played. Another feature of the game is the interplay between eras - for instance, when in old Egypt, the player is warned that one of the items they see has a false version and a real version. After the player travels to ancient Egypt and finds the staff gives it to its owner in old Egypt, they cannot travel to the next destination until they plant the warning; this avoids a time paradox. Players can save their progress by a unique 16-character password, which represents every part of the game's state; this system worked well and saved on the costs of putting non-volatile memory into the Lynx game card. It was possible to play a cooperative multiplayer game, with one player as Bill and the other as Ted, by use of a ComLynx cable. Robert A. Jung reviewed the game, published to IGN, in his final verdict he wrote.
Though the sound and graphics are not extraordinary, in the end Bill and Ted's Excellent Adventure earns its name." Giving a score of 8 out of 10. Bill & Ted's Excellent Video Game Adventure NES game. Bill & Ted's Excellent Game Boy Adventure Game Boy game. Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure
Double Dragon is a beat'em up video game series developed by Technōs Japan and released as an arcade game in 1987. The series stars twin martial artists and Jimmy Lee, as they fight against various adversaries and rivals. Due to the popularity of the game series, an animated series and live-action film adaptation have been produced; the franchise is the property of Arc System Works, the company that had ported the original Double Dragon to the Sega Master System console in 1988. The first game, Double Dragon, was released in the arcades in 1987. A Nintendo Entertainment System version produced by Technōs was released in 1988, followed by a Game Boy version in 1990. Various licensed versions were produced by other developers for gaming platforms such as the Master System, Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Atari Lynx and for home computers. Two Double Dragon sequels were released for the arcade: Double Dragon II: The Revenge in 1988 and Double Dragon 3: The Rosetta Stone in 1990. Like the original, Technōs produced versions for the NES.
A fourth game was released for the Super NES in 1992, titled Super Double Dragon. It was the last game produced by the original team at Technōs; the Game Gear game Double Dragon is not a port of the original arcade game, but is instead an new entry in the series that has gameplay elements that are more similar to Streets of Rage. In 1994, Tradewest released Double Dragon V: The Shadow Falls for the Super NES and Genesis in North America and Europe, a competitive fighting game developed by Leland Interactive based on the Double Dragon animated TV series by Bohbot Entertainment. A Jaguar version was released by Telegames as well. Another fighting game was produced by Technōs titled Double Dragon, was released for the Neo-Geo arcade and home console in 1995. A Neo-Geo CD version was released, as well as a PlayStation version by Urban Plant, it was the last Double Dragon game produced by Technōs. In 2003, a remake of the original Double Dragon, titled Double Dragon Advance, was produced by Atlus and Million for the Game Boy Advance.
In 2009, was released a remake for the Zeebo, developed by Brizo Interactive and published by Tectoy. In 2011, another remake was released for the iPhone, developed by Brizo Interactive and published by Aksys Games. On April 4, 2012, WayForward Technologies announced that they would be developing Double Dragon Neon, a self-parody of the series; the game was released September 11, 2012 for PlayStation Network, one day for Xbox Live, was released for PC in the first quarter of 2014. On April 5, 2013, Double Dragon II: Wander of the Dragons, a 3D remake of the original Double Dragon II, was released on the Xbox Live Arcade by game developer Gravity. A compilation of the three arcade titles, titled Double Dragon Trilogy, was released by DotEmu in 2013 for iOS, Android, GOG, Steam platforms. A new title in the series, titled Double Dragon IV, was released on January 30, 2017 for the PlayStation 4 and PC and September 7, 2017 for the Nintendo Switch, it takes place shortly after Double Dragon II: The Revenge and uses an 8-bit artstyle, similar to the NES ports of the earlier entries of the series.
The title is developed by Arc System Works and former Technos staff such as producer Takaomi Kaneko, director Yoshihisa Kishimoto, character designer Koji Ogata, composer Kazunaka Yamane, programmer Kei Oyama. Super Spike V'Ball - The NES version which features Billy and Jimmy as playable characters. WWF Superstars - Features a cameo by Billy as one of the game's spectators. River City Ransom - The Double Dragon theme music plays during the battle against Randy and Andy, two characters based on Billy and Jimmy; the Japanese counterparts of Randy and Andy, Ryūichi and Ryūji, are recurring characters in the Kunio-kun games. Abobo appears as a recurring enemy in River City Ransom Underground. Battletoads & Double Dragon - A crossover game between Double Dragon and the Battletoads. Voltage Fighter Gowcaizer - Burnov from the Neo-Geo Double Dragon game makes a cameo as Captain Atlantis' opponent in his ending. Rage of the Dragons - An unofficial homage to Double Dragon produced by Evoga and Noise Factory.
The main characters are named Jimmy Lewis. Abobo's Big Adventure - An unofficial parody of various Nintendo Entertainment System titles, including Double Dragon, starring Abobo as the main character. River City: Rival Showdown - Both Billy and Jimmy Lee are playable characters in the Double Dragon Duel mode. A Double Dragon comic book limited series loosely based on the games was published by Marvel Comics in 1991, which lasted six issues from July to December; the comic book was written by Dwayne McDuffie for the first four issues and by Tom Brevoort and Mike Kanterovich for the final two. It features original villains, a unique story that explains the brothers parentage. Double Dragon is one of the video games featured in the manga, titled Rock'n Game Boy by Shigeto Ikehara, in Comic BomBom from October 1989 to December 1991. A Double Dragon animated series was produced by DiC Entertainment and Bohbot Productions, which aired in syndication for two seasons from 1993 to 1995, lasting 26 episodes.
A film version of Double Dragon was released in theaters in 1994 directed by James Yukich and starring Scott Wolf and Mark Dacascos as the Lee brothers. For most of the series, players take control of martial artist Billy Lee, who battles against various adversaries such a
Batman Returns (video game)
Batman Returns is a beat'em up video game for various platforms based on the film of the same name. The Sega console versions were published by Sega while the NES and Super NES versions were developed and published by Konami; the MS-DOS version was developed by Spirit of Discovery. The Amiga version was developed by Denton Designs, published by Konami. There is a Lynx version, published by Atari Corporation; the SNES version of the game was released in 1993. It is fundamentally a left-to-right scrolling fighter beat'em up, a genre, featured on the console at the time; the gameplay and graphics are similar to the Final Fight games. The game takes the player through seven scenes featured in the film. Various members of the Red Triangle Circus Gang attack Batman throughout the game. Batman has a number of weapons and moves including the batarang; each level ends with a boss character, which requires a little more strategy to defeat. A number of levels are two-dimensional platform levels as opposed to the majority of the pseudo-3D levels where freer movement is permitted.
The fifth level consists of driving the Batmobile in a chase scene where Batman must chase bikers and a armed van from the gang. In order to defeat them, the Batmobile uses a machine gun; the NES version of the game is a beat'em up game, but closer in style and gameplay to the Double Dragon series. The player only has one life bar, it implements a password-save system. Of special note are the two side-scrolling racing levels in which the player controls the Batmobile and the Batskiboat; the music was composed by Takashi Tateishi. The Sega Genesis and Sega CD versions of the game are more or less identical, as they are both two-dimensional platforming games similar in design to Sega's previous movie-based Batman game; the Genesis version of the game was released on December 29, 1992, during the same time Ecco the Dolphin was released for the Sega Genesis as well. The CD version of the game features a number of 3D racing levels that took advantage of the graphics hardware provided by the Mega-CD unit, plus improved music in the form of CD audio with a number of animations featuring original artwork.
While different versions follow the movie's plot from start to finish, the Sega versions start after The Penguin kills the Ice Princess and puts the blame on Batman for killing her, as shown in the game's introductions. The Sega Master System and Sega Game Gear versions of the game are side-scrolling platform games. However, the titles were created independently of the 16-bit versions; this version featured a unique branched level system, allowing players to choose from an easy and difficult route. The latter forced players to use rope swinging to navigate over large floorless areas in these versions of levels; the Atari Lynx version is a 2D side-scroller consisting of four levels. The first level you face the Circus Gang with Penguin as the end level boss; the second level you face the police on the roof tops with Catwoman as the end level boss. The third level you have to defeat Penguin's forces in the sewer, while the four level is titled "Arctic World" where you face Penguin for the final time.
The game was developed in-house by Atari-Eypx produced by John Skruch with the main programmers being Jerome Starch and Eric Ginner. There was an Atari Lynx II release; the DOS version of the game, published by Konami, differs from the other versions, in that it was not an action game, rather an adventure game. The Amiga version of the game was a subject of considerable controversy. Gametek had, prior to the game's release, sent a number of screenshots derived from the PC title to market the game; as such, a number of computer magazines previewed the game as a direct conversion of the PC adventure. The reality, was different; the game was, contrary to expectations, not a conversion of the PC title, but a side-scrolling platform game akin to the console games. It was plagued with bugs, including inaccurate collision detection. Reviews of the SNES game were positive, although some criticism was made about the lack of originality. Praise was gained for the quality of the graphics, fluid controls, balanced difficulty level and atmosphere.
It was awarded Best Licensed Game of 1992 by Electronic Gaming Monthly. The Mega-CD version was a bestseller in the UK; the gaming press universally panned the Amiga version of the game for the aforementioned bugs, for being near unplayable together with poor graphics and sound – the game was given marks as low as 19%. The belief that the Amiga version would be a conversion of the PC title may have been contributory to the disappointment and anger expressed by many magazines – reviews on modern retro gaming sites are, not so critical of the game, although few offer much praise. Robert A. Jung reviewed the Atari Lynx version of the game quoting "It offers solid action and a serious challenge wrapped up in a hot license" giving a final score of 8 out of 10. Entertainment Weekly gave the game an A and wrote that "Forget about the tortured dualities of good and evil — this is a rousing, jump and-shoot-action game, whose main links with the movie are in its dark backgrounds and Tim Burton-inspired character design."
Batman Returns at MobyGames Batman Returns on IMDb
Gauntlet II is a 1986 arcade game released by Atari Games and the first sequel to 1985's Gauntlet. Gauntlet II, like its predecessor, is a fantasy-themed slash game; the gameplay is similar to the original Gauntlet, a top down dungeon crawl supporting up to four players. The biggest difference from the original game is that players can choose identical classes, instead of being limited to a particular one for each joystick. Thus, instead of having a "warrior", "wizard", "valkyrie", in Gauntlet II there could be a "red wizard", a "blue elf" and a "green warrior". In addition to the new "class" system, new level designs were added, including the possibility of encountering them in altered ways by having the play-field turned in steps of 90°. Other new features included the enemy "It", which upon contact would make a player "It" and draw all enemies towards him/her; the only way to release this curse is by touching another player or entering the exit, turning any level containing "It" into a fantasy filled game of tag.
Other notable additions include the ability to ricochet shots off walls by means of a special pick-up, acid puddles that caused large, predetermined amounts of damage and a large dragon which would occupy multiple squares and require multiple hits to destroy. New level elements were added, adding more variety to the original game; these included "all walls are invisible", "magic walls" which changed into monsters or items when hit, "stun tiles" which stunned the player, fake exits. Another challenge in the game is the possibility to find a "secret room"; this can be found by completing specific achievements within the level. The secret room contains items such as magic potions. Home versions of Gauntlet II were released in the United States by Mindscape and Europe by U. S. Gold. Among the console versions of the game, a 1992 Game Boy version was released, on May 3, 2007, a PlayStation 3 port became available for download, but that version has since been removed from the PS3's online store; the port for the Nintendo Entertainment System was among the first NES games to support 4-player mode.
Gauntlet II was part of the 2012 compilation Midway Arcade Origins. The Game Boy version was praised by the German Play Time magazine for its technical implementation, faithful recreation of graphics, for evoking nostalgic feelings with similar sound effects, however this version was criticized for difficult-to-recognize sprites and its technically weak theme music; the Spectrum version of the game was not received as well as the original, however Sinclair User said it was "A corker. Fast action and superb gameplay make Gauntlet II the first sequel worth the cash". Your Sinclair said it was "A'must have' for all of you who asked for Gauntlet on your Desert Island Disks." Both YS and Crash gave the main weaknesses as the over-similarity to the original. Gauntlet II at the Killer List of Videogames Gauntlet II at the Arcade History database Gauntlet II for the Atari ST at Atari Mania Gauntlet II at Lemon 64 Gauntlet II at SpectrumComputing.co.uk
BattleWheels is a vehicular combat video game for the Atari Lynx, released in 1993. The game supports up to six players using the Lynx's Comlynx system. Set in the year 2019 BattleWheels is the most popular sport with HiTech heavy-armoured cars. Chris Bieniek wrote in VideoGames & Computer Entertainment that BattleWheels combines elements from Warbirds, BattleTech Centers, the Mad Max film series. While praising the scaling effects and effective implementation of the Comlynx, his review focused on the numerous features and resulting depth of the gameplay, noting elements such as the use of stereo sound to clue the player in to the locations of opponents and missiles, the customizable weapons setup, ability to obscure the windshields of opponents, he summed up that "Though it sounds contradictory to the theme of... a fast-paced, violent game, Battlewheels is a game of subtlety," and gave it a 9 out of 10. While GamePro's Boss Music was impressed with the graphics and features, he felt the gameplay was too repetitive to sustain interest during the single-player mode with the lack of music.
He recommended. Robert Jung reviewed the game, published to IGN Entertainment. In his final verdict he went on to say "the best implementation of the "Car Wars" idea I've seen on any computer or video game console." Giving the game 9 out of 10. An updated version of the game was in development for the Atari Jaguar by Beyond Games, but it was never released. BattleWheels at AtariAge BattleWheels at GameFAQs BattleWheels at MobyGames