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Gawler, South Australia

Gawler is the oldest country town on the Australian mainland in the state of South Australia, is named after the second Governor of the colony of South Australia, George Gawler. It is about 40–44 km north of the centre of the state capital, is close to the major wine producing district of the Barossa Valley. Topographically, Gawler lies at the confluence of two tributaries of the Gawler River, the North and South Para rivers, where they emerge from a range of low hills. A semi-rural area, Gawler has been swept up in Adelaide's growth in recent years, is now considered an outer northern suburb of Adelaide, it is counted as a suburb in the Outer Metro region of the Greater Adelaide Planning Region. A British colony, South Australia was established as a commercial venture by the South Australia Company through the sale of land to free settlers at £1 per acre. Gawler was established through a 4,000-acre "special survey" applied for by Henry Dundas Murray and John Reid and a syndicate of ten other colonists.

The town plan was devised by the colonial surveyor William Light, was the only town planned by him other than Adelaide. William Jacob laid out the town. Adelaide became a model of foresight with ample parklands. After Light's death, it became a model for numerous other planned towns in South Australia; as the only other town planned by Light, Gawler is dissimilar to Adelaide's one square mile grid. The parkland along the riverbanks and a Victorian preference for public squares are present, but Light was aware that he was planning a village, not a metropolis. Gawler prospered early with the discovery of copper nearby at Kapunda and Burra, which resulted in Gawler becoming a resting stop to and from Adelaide, it developed industries including flour milling by Hilfers & Co, the engineering works of James Martin & Co manufactured agricultural machinery and ore-processing machinery and smelters for the mines of Broken Hill and the Western Australian goldfields, steam locomotives and rolling stock.

May Brothers & Co. manufactured mining and agricultural machinery. With prosperity came a modest cultural flowering, the high point of, the holding of a competition to compose an anthem for Australia in 1859, four decades before nationhood; the result was the Song Of Australia, written by Caroline Carleton to music by Carl Linger. This became, in the next century, a candidate in a national referendum to choose a new National Anthem for Australia to replace God Save the Queen. Gawler had a horse street tram service from 1879 to 1931. Gawler is a commercial centre for the Mid-North districts of South Australia and a dormitory town for Adelaide. Gawler hosts stages of the annual cycling race, the Tour Down Under; the annual show is South Australia's largest country show. Show attendances attract an estimated 30,000 people over the weekend. Gawler is just over forty kilometres north of Adelaide city centre along Main North Road. Main North Road was the historic road to the Mid North region of South Australia.

North of Gawler, the road is now known as the Horrocks Highway. The Sturt Highway runs northeast from the north side of Gawler, leading to Nuriootpa, the Riverland and Sydney; the Barossa Valley Way runs east from the centre of Gawler into the Barossa Valley, was the original route of the Sturt Highway. The Thiele Highway leads north between the Horrocks and Sturt Highways to Freeling and Morgan; the Northern Expressway is a new highway to the southwest providing a bypass of Gawler as part of the North–South Corridor, Adelaide which will provide a non-stop road from south of Adelaide to Nuriootpa. Gawler railway station was the terminus of the railway from Adelaide from 1857; the railway was extended to Kapunda in 1860. Gawler became a junction station when a branch was constructed into the Barossa Valley in 1911; this is the line that provides the Gawler Gawler Central railway stations in Gawler. Gawler Central is now the terminus of the metropolitan rail services from Adelaide. Gawler's horse-drawn tram service opened in 1879.

It operated for both goods and passengers from the railway station along what is now Nineteenth Street and Murray Street to a terminus near where the Gawler Central station is now. It passed the James Martin & Co engineering factory, providing a convenient way to deliver heavy equipment such as locomotives manufactured there. Broad gauge locomotives were taken directly on the tramway, narrow gauge were transported on specially-built flat-bed trucks. There were sidings at May Brothers and Company and Dowson's Mill; the tram closed in 1931 replaced by a bus, the tracks lifted soon after. The tram route is now part of Adelaide Metro bus route number 491. Jack Bobridge, Australian Olympic cycling medallist Leslie Duncan, politician Bruce Eastick, politician Cecil Hincks, politician Justin Kurzel, film director Brenton Langbein, violinist and composer Darren Lehmann, Former Australian cricketer, was born in Gawler in 1970 Lyn Lillecrapp, Paralympic swimmer Riley McGree, football player for Adelaide United Lisa Ondieki, Long distance runner and Olympic silver medallist Town of Gawler List of locomotive builders Town of Gawler website Gawler travel guide from Wikivoyage Gawler Now and Then

Pamela H. Smith

Pamela H. Smith is a historian of science specializing in attitudes to nature in early modern Europe, with particular attention to craft knowledge and the role of craftspeople in the Scientific Revolution, she is the Seth Low Professor of History, founding director of the Making and Knowing Project, founding director of the Center for Science and Society, chair of the Presidential Scholars in Society and Neuroscience, all at Columbia University. Smith is serving a two-year term as president of the Renaissance Society of America. Smith received a bachelor's degree from the University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, in 1979, a PhD from Johns Hopkins University, in 1991. Smith was the Margaret and Edwin F. Hahn Professor in the Social Sciences, professor of history at Pomona College from 1990-2005 and the director of European Studies at Claremont Graduate University from 1996–2003. Smith was a fellow at Wissenschaftskolleg, the Institute of Advanced Study in Berlin in 1994–1995. In 1995, Smith received the Pfizer Award for her book The Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire.

Smith was selected as a John S. Guggenheim Foundation fellow in 1997–1998. Smith won the Sidney M. Edelstein international fellowship for research in the history of chemistry in 1997–1998. Smith served as Getty Research Institute Scholar in 2000–2001. In 2003-2004 and 2009–2011, Smith was awarded a New Directions Fellowship by the Andrew Mellon Foundation, her book, The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution won the 2005 Leo Gershoy Prize awarded by the American Historical Association. Smith was a Samuel H. Kress Paired Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts at the National Gallery of Art in 2008. Smith was a Fellow at Princeton University's Davis Center for Historical Studies in 2009–2010; the Matter of Art: Materials, Cultural Logics, c. 1250-1750, co-edited with Christy Anderson, Anne Dunlop, Manchester University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-7190-9060-8 Ways of Making and Knowing: The Material Culture of Empirical Knowledge, co-edited with Amy Meyers and Harold J. Cook, Bard Graduate Center/University of Michigan Press, 2014.

ISBN 978-0-4721-1927-1. Second printing, 2017. ISBN 978-1-9417-9211-7 Making Knowledge in Early Modern Europe: Practices and Texts, 1400-1800 co-edited with Benjamin Schmidt, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-2267-6329-3 The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-2267-6423-8 Merchants and Marvels: Commerce and Art in Early Modern Europe, co-edited with Paula Findlen, New York: Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0-4159-2816-8 The Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. Paperback edition, 1996. ISBN 978-0-6911-7323-8, ISBN 978-0-2267-6426-9

Flag of Bermuda

The flag of Bermuda as a red ensign was first adopted on 4 October 1910. It is a British Red Ensign with the Union Flag in the upper left corner, the coat of arms of Bermuda in the lower right. Prior to this like most of the British colonies at the time it adopted a blue ensign with a seal that depicted a dry dock with three sailing ships. In 1999, the flag was changed with an enlarged coat of arms; the flag is unusual for a British overseas territory in that it is used on land in a red ensign form. Bermuda's use of a red ensign on land is in keeping with Canada and the Union of South Africa, both of which used red ensigns ashore as local flags in the early part of the 20th century. Bermuda's flag is an appropriate civil ensign for vessels registered on the Bermuda portion of the British Register, by virtue of the Bermuda Merchant Shipping Act of 2002; the Governor of Bermuda uses a Union Flag defaced with the coat of arms, a design traditional for Governors of the British overseas territories.

For the state ensign, a blue ensign is used. The Latin inscription on the coat of arms reads Quo Fata Farunt; the coat of arms shows a lion holding a shield. List of British flags Bermuda at Flags of the World Flag and Ensign of Bermuda Presentation of Bermuda Regiment Colours

Carbon Engineering

Carbon Engineering is a Canadian-based clean energy company focusing on the commercialization of Direct Air Capture technology that captures carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. This captured CO2 can either be stored underground in what is known as carbon capture and storage, or converted into carbon-neutral fuel using renewable energy sources, by a process the company calls Air to fuels; the company is running a pilot plant in Squamish, British Columbia, removing CO2 from the atmosphere since 2015 and converting it into fuels since December, 2017. The company was founded in 2009 by David Keith, now a Board Member as well as a professor of public policy and applied physics at Harvard University, is now led by Steve Oldham, former Senior Vice President of Strategic Business Development at MacDonald and Associates. Carbon Engineering is funded by several government and sustainability-focused agencies as well as by private investors, including Microsoft founder Bill Gates and oil sands financier N. Murray Edwards.

In addition, in 2019 the company received 68 million USD from private investors, including fossil fuel companies Chevron, BHP. Carbon Engineering's DAC system integrates two main cycles; the first cycle is the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere in a device called an "air contactor" using an alkaline hydroxide solution. The second cycle regenerates the capture liquid used in the air contactor, delivers pure CO2 as an end product; these cycles operate in tandem continuously, producing a concentrated stream of CO2 gas as an output, requiring only energy and small material make up streams as inputs. Energy is used in such a way that no new CO2 emissions are incurred, thus do not counteract what was captured from the air; the captured atmospheric CO2 can be stored underground, used for enhanced oil recovery, or turned into low-carbon synthetic fuels using the company's AIR TO FUELS™ technology. Carbon Engineering's Air to fuel process can produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, or jet A using inputs of atmospheric CO2, renewable electricity such as that from solar PV.

Electricity is used to split water and manufacture hydrogen, combined with captured atmospheric CO2 to form fuels. This approach offers a means to deliver clean fuels that are compatible with existing engines, can help de-carbonize the transportation sector by displacing fuels made from crude oil. In 2015, Carbon Engineering started operations of its full end-to-end pilot plant, located in Squamish, British Columbia, Canada; when running, this facility captures 1 ton of atmospheric CO2 per day. In 2017, the company incorporated fuel synthesis capability into the DAC pilot plant and converted CO2 into fuel for the first time in December 2017. Based on the data obtained from the pilot plant, David Keith and Carbon Engineering published a manuscript on June 7, 2018 that presents a simulation suggesting that CO2 can be captured from the atmosphere at a cost of 94 to 233 USD per ton, "epending on financial assumptions, energy costs, the specific choice of inputs and outputs." The manuscript, titled "A process for capturing CO₂ from the atmosphere," was published in the journal Joule.

Both DAC and Air to fuel technologies have been proven at the pilot plant and are now being scaled up into commercial markets. Individual DAC facilities can be built to capture 1 million tons of CO2 per year. At that scale, one Carbon Engineering air capture plant could negate the emissions from ~250,000 cars—either by sequestering the CO2 or by using the recycled carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuel. Over 9,500 of Carbon Engineering's air capture plants would be needed to offset the annual CO2 emissions from the estimated 2 billion vehicles by 2035, which includes medium and heavy trucks that emit more greenhouse gases than passenger vehicles. More still would be needed once aviation, agriculture and non-vehicle emissions are factored in. In May 2019, Carbon Engineering announced it was partnering with Oxy Low Carbon Ventures, LLC. A subsidiary of Occidental, to design and engineer a large-scale Direct Air Capture plant capable of capturing 500,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide from the air each year, which would be used in OLCV’s enhanced oil recovery operations and subsequently stored underground permanently.

Construction for the plant is expected to begin in 2021, with the plant becoming operational within two years, it will be located in the Permian Basin. In September 2019, Carbon Engineering announced they were expanding the capacity of the design of the plant from 500,000 metric tons to an expected one million metric tons of CO2 captured per year. Official website "How One Company Pulls Carbon From The Air, Aiming To Avert A Climate Catastrophe" December 10, 2018 NPR.org Katie Brigham: Bill Gates and Big Oil back this company that’s trying to solve climate change by sucking CO2 out of the air, CNBC, 22 June 2019

J. Bone

J. Bone is a Canadian comic book artist and writer who has worked on such titles as DC Comics' Batman: The Brave and the Bold and Super Friends, he was the inker on the one-shot Batman/The Spirit. J. Bone's first published work was Solar Stella for Sirius Entertainment, for which he was nominated for an Eisner Award 2001. In 2002, Oni published Alison Dare, co-created by J. Torres with art by J. Bone. Spider-Man: Tangled Web #11. J. Bone inked Darwyn Cooke on "Open All Night!", a Spider-Man Valentine's Day story. Spider-Man's Tangled Web #21. Co-Plotted and penciled the Spider-Man Christmas story titled "T'was the Fight Before Xmas" featuring several female Marvel characters. Wolverine/Doop #1-2. 2-issue miniseries written by Peter Milligan that co-stars X-Force's Doop. Darwyn Cooke pencils with J. Bone inks. "The Atomics: Spaced Out & Grounded in Snap City". TPB collection of Atomics King-Size Giant Spectacular. J. Bone is featured as a guest artists in the series and drawn by Mike Allred. Batman/The Spirit.

One-shot crossover issue between Batman and The Spirit, featuring some of the supporting casts of both characters. Co-written by Cooke and Jeph Loeb, penciled by Cooke with inks by J. Bone; the Spirit #1-6, 8-12. Inker and sometimes finishes over Darwyn Cooke pencils. Justice League: The New Frontier Special. Penciled and inked the Wonder Woman and Black Canary back-up story. "Super Friends". J. Bone provides interior art for issues 9, 15, 18, 24, 27. DC Retroactive: Wonder Woman - The'70s #1 (DC Comics, September 2011 The Saviours #1-5 Although the story arc wraps up in issue 5, we are promised future issues which never materialized; the Rocketeer: Hollywood Horror #1–4 "Rocketeer/The Spirit: Pulp Friction" #3-4. Miniseries written by Mark Waid. "The Rocketeer: At War" #3-4. Miniseries written by Marc Guggenheim. Super Friends #1-29 Billy Batson and the Magic of Shazam! #6 The Legion of Super-Heroes: The Silver Age Omnibus Vol. 1 Madman Atomic Comics #14 "It's a Mad, Mad, Madman Movie" Art by Darwyn Cooke.

J. Bone on Comic Book DB Official blog

Bystrup Architecture Design Engineering

Bystrup Arkitekter is a Danish architecture and design firm established in 1994. Headed by Erik Bystrup, the firm's designs focus on aesthetics, functionality and ecology; the office is located at Vermundsgade 40 A in Denmark. The company employs between 11–50 planners and designers; the workforce consists of business professionals. The company focuses on developing buildings and power pylons. Among others, BYSTRUP has created the energy efficient Pandora HQ, located in the heart of Copenhagen; the company is the creator of Neue Messe München, the Munich Trade Fair, Norges Varemesse, the Norwegian Trade Fair. In 2015, Bystrup and partners won the design for a pedestrian bridge between Nine Elms and Pimlico in London, with spiral ramps preserving parks at both ends. Bystrup has furthermore designed the Langelinje Bridge in central Copenhagen, as well as several motorway bridges and projects abroad. Starting in 2001, the company has been developing new design power pylons; these have been energized in Denmark and abroad.

The Design Pylon The BYSTRUP Design Pylon was awarded 1st prize in an international competition organised by the Danish TSO Energinet.dk in 2001. At present, about 80 of these pylons have been erected in Denmark and are energized since 2004; the Eagle Pylon After winning another competition in Denmark, 500 pylons are installed an energized on a main 400kV line in Denmark with a design called "Eagle". Operational in late 2014 and carrying 2x1,800 MW. T-Pylon In 2011, following a design competition managed by RIBA Competitions the Royal Institute of British Architects awarded a ₤5,000 reward to Bystrup for a new design of electrical towers called the T-Pylon, designed by Bystrup architect Rasmus Jessing; the design, which energy secretary Chris Huhne called "an innovative design, simple and practical", is set to replace the 88,000 pylons that have been in use in the United Kingdom since the 1920s. This design, which lowers the size from 50 meters and 30 tons to 32 meters and 20 tons, is lauded for its appearance and energy conservation ability.

The Pylon's conductors are in a unique triangular configuration which should theoretically minimize the extent of circuits and magnetic fields. The project will play a role in the United Kingdom's plan to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050 because energy production and use will rely on electricity; the company has received the "Good Practice of the Year" awarded in 2014 by RGI in the categori'Technology and Design' for gaining public acceptance with the Eagle Pylon line. With the T-Pylon, the company won the EI Awards in 2015. Official website http://www.theengineer.co.uk/energy-and-environment/news/bystrup-wins-uk-pylon-design-competition-with-t-pylon/1010612.article