Ripley, West Virginia
Ripley is a city in and the county seat of Jackson County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 3,252 at the 2010 census. Ripley was owned and settled by William and Lewis Rodgers, they received a grant of 400 acres in 1768 where "Sycamore Creek joins Big Mill Creek". The land was sold to Jacob Starcher, most in 1803. Jacob Starcher erected a grist mill in 1824 and laid out the town in 1830, naming it in honor of Harry Ripley, a young minister, to be married, but drowned in Big Mill Creek, about one and a half miles north of the town, shortly before the ceremony took place; when Jackson County was formed in 1831, the residents of the county could not decide where to locate the county seat. The people who lived along the Ohio River near the Ravenswood settlement favored that location; the people who lived farther inland objected. The Virginia General Assembly appointed an independent commission to make the final decision which selected Ripley. In 1832, the Starchers donated 8 acres of land to the county, 2 acres for the location of the county courthouse and jail, six for the general use of the new county.
The town was chartered by the Virginia General Assembly in 1832. The post office was established in 1832 with the name Jackson Court House; the name was shortened in 1893 to Jackson. In 1897 the name became Ripley. During the Civil War, Ripley remained under control of the Union except for a brief incursion by Confederate General Albert G. Jenkins in September 1862; the last public hanging in West Virginia took place in Ripley in 1897, when John Morgan was hanged for murder. In 1990, the Ravenswood Aluminum Corporation locked out its 1,700 workers, most living in Ravenswood, at least a third had lived in Ripley at the time; the workers went on strike and were let back in 1993. In 2008, former president Bill Clinton gave a speech at the fire station on behalf of his wife Hillary Clinton during her campaign for the Democratic nomination for President. Ripley is located at 38°49′16″N 81°42′51″W, along Mill Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.28 square miles, of which, 3.17 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,252 people, 1,476 households, 854 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,025.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,614 housing units at an average density of 509.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.2% White, 0.2% African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 1,476 households of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.1% were non-families. 39.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age in the city was 46.1 years. 19.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 44.6% male and 55.4% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,263 people, 1,423 households, 893 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,056.3 people per square mile. There were 1,543 housing units at an average density of 499.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.22% White, 0.06% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population. There were 1,423 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 25.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,861, the median income for a family was $37,027. Males had a median income of $29,531 versus $20,881 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,451. About 12.1% of families and 16.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Ripley claims to host the "Biggest Small Town Fourth of July Celebration" in the nation. On July 4, 2002 President George W. Bush gave a public speech at the town's courthouse. Ripley is served by the Jackson County School District. Schools located in Ripley are: Ripley High School Ripley Middle School Ripley Elementary School Fairplain Elementary School Jackson County Center of West Virginia University at Parkersburg WVRP -- Public Radio WCEF -- Country Dee Caperton- Miss West Virginia 1964
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Ravenswood, West Virginia
Ravenswood is a city in Jackson County, West Virginia, United States, along the Ohio River. The population was 3,876 at the 2010 census. Ravenswood is located at 38°57′11″N 81°45′41″W, along the Ohio River at the mouth of Sandy Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.90 square miles, of which, 1.83 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,876 people, 1,657 households, 1,061 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,118.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,807 housing units at an average density of 987.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.4% White, 0.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 1,657 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.0% were non-families.
32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 42.4 years. 23% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,031 people, 1,692 households, 1,135 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,190.1 people per square mile. There were 1,832 housing units at an average density of 995.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.04% White, 0.25% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population. There were 1,692 households out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families.
30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 23.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,308, the median income for a family was $37,416. Males had a median income of $34,417 versus $21,134 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,696. About 15.4% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.4% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over. Primary and secondary public education is provided by Jackson County Schools. Ravenswood public schools include Henry J. Kaiser Elementary School, Ravenswood Grade School, Ravenswood Middle School, Ravenswood High School.
Ravenswood Grade School is located about 1-1/2 miles outside of the town limits. The other schools are located within the town boundaries; the official mascot of Ravenswood High School is the Red Devil. Lower level schools are referred to as Demons. Private school education is provided by the Heritage Christian Academy. Ravenswood is sited on land once owned by George Washington. Washington acquired the 2,448-acre parcel in 1770, designated Colonel William Crawford to survey the lands in 1771. A permanent settlement was first established in 1810, the town streets and lots were laid out in their current pattern by descendants of George Washington in 1835; when Kaiser Aluminum planned a new facility with 12,000 workers, Bill Finley was hired planned "Company Town" of 25,000. He went on to become a planner with the National Capital Planning Commission, develop the community of Columbia, Maryland for the Rouse Company; the Kaiser facility is now owned by Century Aluminum. In February 2010, USA Today referred to Ravenswood as "teetering on a ghost town".
Mayor Lucy Harbert responded by bringing in sponsorships from several Silicon Valley-based companies like ScanCafe.com and StartUps.com. On March 26, 2010, Mike Ruben, a reporter with the State Journal newspaper, announced that Ravenswood was "transforming" the town into "Aluminum City, U. S. A." to help attract local tourism revenue: "L. A. Promoter Plans to Market'Aluminum City'." None of these developments came to fruition. 1840 First Election held in the home of Bartholomew Fleming. 1852 Ravenswood incorporated in the state of Virginia. 1863 Ravenswood becomes part of West Virginia when a proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln admits West Virginia to the Union. 1863 The Battle of Buffington Island, the only major battle of the American Civil War fought in Ohio, takes place one mile north of Ravenswood. 1886 The Ohio River Rail Road reaches Ravenswood. 1892 The Ravenswood and Glenville Railroad is completed to Spencer. 1931 Opening of the Ravenswood Glass Novelty Company. 1957 Henry J. Kaiser opens the world's largest aluminum refinery six miles south of Ravenswood.
1960 Presidential Candidate John F. Kennedy visits Ravenswood during the Primary Election campaign. 1964 The Ravenswood exit of Interstate 77
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai