Frank Sinatra Has a Cold
"Frank Sinatra Has a Cold" is a profile of Frank Sinatra written by Gay Talese for the April 1966 issue of Esquire. The article is one of the most famous pieces of magazine journalism written and is considered not only the greatest profile of Frank Sinatra but one of the greatest celebrity profiles written; the profile is one of the seminal works of New Journalism and is still read and studied. In the 70th anniversary issue of Esquire in October 2003, the editors declared the piece the "Best Story Esquire Ever Published". Vanity Fair called it "the greatest literary-nonfiction story of the 20th century". Talese had spent the first ten years of his career at The New York Times, he felt restricted by the limitations of newspaper writing and began searching for jobs with magazines. In 1965, he signed a six-story contract with Esquire magazine, his first assignment from Esquire editor Harold Hayes was to write a profile of Frank Sinatra. It was a difficult assignment. Sinatra was about to turn 50 and in the spotlight.
Sinatra's relationship with 20-year-old Mia Farrow was in the news. A CBS television documentary had upset Sinatra, who felt that his life was being pried into, he was unhappy about speculation in the documentary about his connection to Mafia leaders, he was worried about his starring role in an upcoming NBC show named after his album, A Man and His Music, his various business ventures in real estate, his film company, his record label, an airline. At the time, Sinatra maintained a personal staff of 75. Sinatra refused to be interviewed for the profile. Rather than give up, Talese spent the three months, beginning in November 1965, following Sinatra and observing everything he could and interviewing any members of his entourage who were willing to speak. Esquire paid nearly $5,000 in expenses over the duration of the story. Talese was uncertain whether the story could be finished, but concluded, in a letter to Harold Hayes, that "I may not get the piece we'd hoped for—the real Frank Sinatra but by not getting it—and by getting rejected and by seeing his flunkies protecting his flanks—we will be getting close to the truth about the man."
Without Talese receiving Sinatra's cooperation, the story was published in April 1966. The profile begins with Sinatra in a sullen mood at a private Hollywood club. Stressed about all the events in his life and many of his staff, are in a poor mood because Sinatra is afflicted by the common cold, hampering his ability to sing; the significance of the cold is expressed by Talese in one of the story's most famous passages: Sinatra with a cold is Picasso without paint, Ferrari without fuel—only worse. For the common cold robs Sinatra of that uninsurable jewel, his voice, cutting into the core of his confidence, it affects not only his own psyche but seems to cause a kind of psychosomatic nasal drip within dozens of people who work for him, drink with him, love him, depend on him for their own welfare and stability. A Sinatra with a cold can, in a small way, send vibrations through the entertainment industry and beyond as as a President of the United States sick, can shake the national economy.
The style of narrative writing, in this passage and throughout the piece, was alien to journalism at the time, was considered the province of fiction writing. Only a few other authors, such as Tom Wolfe, were using such techniques in journalistic writing; the piece employed techniques like scenes and third-person narrative that were common in fiction, but still rare in journalism. While Sinatra was near the heights of his fame in the 1960s the world of music was changing; the arrival of bands like the Beatles and the accompanying cultural change was threatening to Sinatra. This is illustrated in a scene with the writer Harlan Ellison, wearing Game Warden boots, corduroy slacks, a Shetland sweater and a tan suede jacket in a club. Sinatra insults Ellison about his clothing. After Ellison is cajoled into leaving the room, Sinatra tells the assistant manager, "I don't want anybody in here without coats and ties."Though never speaking with Sinatra, Talese cast light on the singer's mercurial personality and internal turmoil.
The story detailed Sinatra's relationship with his children and his former wives, Nancy Barbato and Ava Gardner. Through a series of scenes and anecdotes, focusing on the people surrounding Sinatra, the article "reveals the inner workings of the climate-controlled biosphere the singer had constructed around himself—and the inhospitable atmosphere coalescing outside its shell."The article ends with a passage indirectly demonstrating Sinatra's unquenchable thirst to remain relevant: Frank Sinatra stopped his car. The light was red. Pedestrians passed across his windshield but, as usual, one did not, it was a girl in her twenties. She remained at the curb staring at him. Through the corner of his left eye he could see her, he knew, because it happens every day, that she was thinking, It looks like him, but is it? Just before the light turned green, Sinatra turned toward her, looked directly into her eyes waiting for the reaction he knew would come, it came and he smiled. She smiled and he was gone.
The article was an instant sensation. The journalist Michael Kinsley has said, "It's hard to imagine a magazine article today having the kind of impact that article and others had in those days in terms of everyone talking about it purely on the basis of the writing and the style."After Tom Wolfe popularized the term "New Journalism" in his 1973 anthology The New Journalism, Talese's piece became studied and imitated. The piece is contrasted to modern magazine
Charles Milles Manson was an American criminal and cult leader. In mid-1967, he began forming what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune based in California. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969. In 1971, he was convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of seven people, all of which members of the group carried out at his instruction. Manson was convicted of first-degree murder for two other deaths. At the time the Manson Family began to form, Manson was an unemployed ex-convict who had spent half of his life in correctional institutions for a variety of offenses. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson and founding member of the Beach Boys. In 1968, the group recorded one of Manson's songs, retitled "Never Learn Not to Love", as a B-sided single without Manson's credit. Manson was obsessed with the Beatles their 1968 self-titled album.
Guided by his interpretation of the band's lyrics, he adopted the term "Helter Skelter" to describe an impending apocalyptic race war. He and his followers, who were young women, believed that the murders would help precipitate that war. From the beginning of Manson's notoriety, a pop culture arose around him in which he became an emblem of insanity and the macabre. After he was charged with the crimes of which he was convicted, recordings of songs written and performed by Manson were released commercially, starting with Lie: The Love and Terror Cult. Various musicians have covered some of his songs. Manson was sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted to life with the possibility of parole after California invalidated the state's death penalty statute in 1972, he served out his life sentence at California State Prison in Corcoran and died at age 83 in late 2017. Charles Manson was born on November 12, 1934 to 16-year-old Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender, née Maddox, in the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.
He was first named "no name Maddox". Within weeks, he was called Charles Milles Maddox.:136–7Manson's biological father appears to have been Colonel Walker Henderson Scott Sr. against whom Kathleen Maddox filed a paternity suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in 1937. Manson may never have known his biological father.:136–7 Scott worked intermittently in local mills, had a local reputation as a con artist. He allowed Maddox to believe he was an army colonel, although "Colonel" was his given name; when Maddox told Scott she was pregnant, he told her. In August 1934, before Manson's birth, Maddox married William Eugene Manson, whose occupation was listed on Charles's birth certificate as a "laborer" at a dry cleaning business. Maddox went on drinking sprees for days at a time with her brother Luther, leaving Charles with a variety of babysitters, they were divorced on April 30, 1937, when a court accepted Manson's charge of "gross neglect of duty". On August 1, 1939, Maddox and Luther's girlfriend Julia Vickers spent the evening drinking with Frank Martin, a new acquaintance who appeared to be wealthy.
Maddox and Vickers decided to rob him, Maddox phoned her brother to help. They were incompetent thieves, were found and arrested within hours. At the trial seven weeks Luther was sentenced to ten years in prison, Kathleen was sentenced to five years. Manson was placed in the home of an uncle in McMechen, West Virginia, his mother was paroled in 1942. Manson characterized the first weeks after she returned from prison as the happiest time in his life. Manson's family moved to Charleston, West Virginia, where Manson continually played truant and his mother spent her evenings drinking, she was arrested for grand larceny, but not convicted. After moving to Indianapolis, Maddox started attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings where she met an alcoholic named Lewis, whom she married in August 1943; as well as playing truant, Manson began stealing from stores and his home. In 1947, Maddox looked for a temporary foster home for Manson, but she was unable to find a suitable one, she decided to send him to the Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana, a school for male delinquents run by Catholic priests.
Manson soon fled home to his mother. He spent Christmas 1947 in McMechen, at his aunt and uncle's house, where he was caught stealing a gun. Manson ran away to Indianapolis ten months later. Instead of returning to his mother, he rented a room and supported himself by burgling stores at night, he was caught, a sympathetic judge sent him to Boys Town, a juvenile facility in Omaha, Nebraska. After four days, he and a student named Blackie Nielson somehow obtained a gun, they used it to rob a grocery store and a casino, as they made their way to the home of Nielson's uncle in Peoria, Illinois.:136–146Neilson's uncle was a professional thief, when the boys arrived he took them on as apprentices. Manson was arrested two weeks during a nighttime raid on a Peoria store. In the investigation that followed, he was linked to his two earlier armed robberies, he was sent to a strict reform school. He claimed that other students raped him with the encouragement of a staff member. Manson developed a self-defense technique he called the "insane game".
When he was physically unable t
Ocean City High School
See here for the closed Ocean City High School in Maryland. Ocean City High School is a four-year comprehensive public high school located in Ocean City, in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States, serving students in ninth through twelfth grades as the lone secondary school of the Ocean City School District. Students from the Corbin City, Sea Isle City and Upper Township school districts attend Ocean City High School as part of sending/receiving relationships; as of the 2015-16 school year, the school had an enrollment of 1,254 students and 98.8 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 12.7:1. There were 31 eligible for reduced-cost lunch. In 1883, the first school in Ocean City was built in 1883 between 8th and 9th Streets on Central Avenue, serving Kindergarten to High School; the first graduating class of six students was in 1904. A separate elementary school was built in 1913, causing the original Central Avenue to become the sole building for the high school. In 1923, a new high school was built between 5th and 6th Streets on Atlantic and Ocean Avenue, the original facility became the city's police department and municipal court.
The high school on Atlantic Avenue expanded in 1967, again in 1983. By 1995, the Ocean City School Board decided that the 1923 facility was outdated and failed to meet state efficiency standards. After two failed referenda on expanding the school, a referendum in 2001 passed to build a new high school, having secured $11.5 million in state funding. The new facility opened in 2004, the original high school from 1923 was demolished in 2005. An observatory was built with a telescope capable of 700x magnification. In the 2011 "Ranking America's High Schools" issue by The Washington Post, the school was ranked 67th in New Jersey and 1,938th nationwide. In Newsweek's May 22, 2007 issue, ranking the country's top high schools, Ocean City High School was listed in 1210th place, the 41st-highest ranked school in New Jersey. In its 2013 report on "America's Best High Schools", The Daily Beast ranked the school 872nd in the nation among participating public high schools and 65th among schools in New Jersey.
The school was the 118th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 339 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2014 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", using a new ranking methodology. The school had been ranked 63rd in the state of 328 schools in 2012, after being ranked 99th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed; the magazine ranked the school 110th in 2008 out of 316 schools. The school was ranked 93rd in the magazine's September 2006 issue, which surveyed 316 schools across the state. Schooldigger.com ranked the school 154th out of 381 public high schools statewide in its 2011 rankings which were based on the combined percentage of students classified as proficient or above proficient on the mathematics and language arts literacy components of the High School Proficiency Assessment. Ocean City High School's first graduating class, in 1904, consisted of six students, who attended a school building located at Central Avenue between 8th and 9th streets.
A new building was constructed at the site that served as the high school until 1924. The second OCHS building was constructed between 5th and 6th Streets and Atlantic and Ocean Avenues, by Vivian B. Smith, an architect and OCHS alumnus, was expanded in 1963 with north and south wings added. After 1961, students from Somers Point and Linwood no longer attended the high school. A 1982 renovation project renovated the front portion of the old building. In December 2001, voters approved construction of the current facility on Atlantic Avenue between 5th and 6th streets. Construction began in 2004 and the new building was finished for the 2004–05 school year; the old building was torn down and replaced by parking and tennis courts. A Neo-Gothic entrance arch is the only remnant of the previous structure; the Ocean City High School Red Raiders compete in the Atlantic Division of the Cape-Atlantic League, an athletic conference consisting of both parochial and public high schools located in Atlantic County, Cape May County, Cumberland County and Gloucester County, operating under the aegis of the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association.
With 944 students in grades 10–12, the school was classified by the NJSIAA for the 2015–16 school year as South Jersey, Group III for most athletic competition purposes, which included schools with an enrollment of 794 to 1,076 students in that grade range. The football team competes in the Independence Division of the 95-team West Jersey Football League superconference and was classified by the NJSIAA as South Jersey Group III for football for 2017-18; the school has extracurricular activities. Carey Stadium is used for Ocean City High School's football team. Soccer and lacrosse are played at the Tennessee Avenue fields; the school has baseball, tennis, field hockey, crew, cross country and many other teams. The boys' basketball team won the New Jersey state championship in 1955 and 1964 under coach Fred "Dixie" Howell. In March 1964 at the Atlantic City Convention Hall, the OCHS basketball team won the Group II state championship by defeating North Arlington High School by a score of 76–51 in the tournament final.
During their championship run they won every game by 20 points or more. The girls' team won the Group III state title in 2013, defeating Jefferson Township High School in the final game of the tournament; the football team won the NJSIAA South Jersey state se
Truman Garcia Capote was an American novelist, short story writer, screenwriter and actor. Several of his short stories and plays have been praised as literary classics, including the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's and the true crime novel In Cold Blood, which he labeled a "nonfiction novel". At least 20 films and television dramas have been produced from his work. Capote rose above a childhood troubled by divorce, a long absence from his mother, multiple migrations, he had discovered his calling as a writer by the age of 8, for the rest of his childhood he honed his writing ability. Capote began his professional career writing short stories; the critical success of one story, "Miriam", attracted the attention of Random House publisher Bennett Cerf, resulted in a contract to write the novel Other Voices, Other Rooms. Capote earned the most fame with In Cold Blood, a journalistic work about the murder of a Kansas farm family in their home. Capote spent four years writing the book aided by his lifelong friend Harper Lee, who wrote To Kill a Mockingbird.
A milestone in popular culture, In Cold Blood was the peak of Capote's literary career. In the 1970s, he maintained his celebrity status by appearing on television talk shows. Born in New Orleans, Capote was the son of 17-year-old Lillie Mae Faulk and salesman Archulus Persons, his parents divorced when he was 4, he was sent to Monroeville, where, for the following four to five years, he was raised by his mother's relatives. He formed a fast bond with his mother's distant relative, Nanny Rumbley Faulk, whom Truman called "Sook". "Her face is remarkable – not unlike Lincoln's, craggy like that, tinted by sun and wind", is how Capote described Sook in "A Christmas Memory". In Monroeville, he was a neighbor and friend of author Harper Lee, who based the character Dill on Capote; as a lonely child, Capote taught himself to read and write before he entered his first year of school. Capote was seen at age 5 carrying his dictionary and notepad, began writing fiction at age 11, he was given the nickname "Bulldog" around this age.
On Saturdays, he made trips from Monroeville to the nearby city of Mobile on the Gulf Coast, at one point submitted a short story, "Old Mrs. Busybody", to a children's writing contest sponsored by the Mobile Press Register. Capote received recognition for his early work from The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards in 1936. In 1933, he moved to New York City to live with his mother and her second husband, José García Capote, a Canarian-born textile broker from La Palma, who adopted him as his stepson and renamed him Truman García Capote. However, José was convicted of embezzlement and shortly afterwards, when his income crashed, the family was forced to leave Park Avenue. Of his early days, Capote related, "I was writing sort of serious when I was about eleven. I say in the sense that like other kids go home and practice the violin or the piano or whatever, I used to go home from school every day, I would write for about three hours. I was obsessed by it." In 1935, he attended the Trinity School in New York City.
He attended St. Joseph Military Academy. In 1939, the Capote family moved to Greenwich and Truman attended Greenwich High School, where he wrote for both the school's literary journal, The Green Witch, the school newspaper; when they returned to New York City in 1942, he attended the Franklin School, an Upper West Side private school now known as the Dwight School, graduated in 1943. That was the end of his formal education. While still attending Franklin in 1943, Capote began working as a copyboy in the art department at The New Yorker, a job he held for two years before being fired for angering poet Robert Frost. Years he reflected, "Not a grand job, for all it involved was sorting cartoons and clipping newspapers. Still, I was fortunate to have it since I was determined never to set a studious foot inside a college classroom. I felt that either one was or wasn't a writer, no combination of professors could influence the outcome. I still think I was correct, at least in my own case." He left his job to live with relatives in Alabama and began writing his first novel, Summer Crossing.
Capote based the character of Idabel in Other Voices, Other Rooms on his Monroeville neighbor and best friend, Harper Lee. Capote once acknowledged this: "Mr. and Mrs. Lee, Harper Lee's mother and father, lived near, she was my best friend. Did you read her book, To Kill a Mockingbird? I'm a character in that book, her father was a lawyer, she and I used to go to trials all the time as children. We went to the trials instead of going to the movies." After Lee was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1961 and Capote published In Cold Blood in 1966, the authors became distant from each other. Capote began writing short stories from around the age of 8. In 2013, the Swiss publisher Peter Haag discovered 14 unpublished stories, written when Capote was a teenager, in the New York Public Library Archives. Random House published these under the title The Early Stories of Truman Capote. Between 1943 and 1946, Capote wrote a continual flow of short fiction, including "Miriam", "My Side of the Matter", "Shut a Final Door".
His stories were published in both literary quarterlies and well-known popular magazines, including The Atlantic Monthly, Harper's Bazaar, Harper's Magazine, The New Yorker, Prairie Schooner, Story. In June 1945, "Miriam" was published by Mademoiselle and went on to win a prize
Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. It stretches from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. Brightly adorned with billboards and advertisements, Times Square is sometimes referred to as "The Crossroads of the World", "The Center of the Universe", "the heart of The Great White Way", "the heart of the world". One of the world's busiest pedestrian areas, it is the hub of the Broadway Theater District and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. Times Square is one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, while over 460,000 pedestrians walk through Times Square on its busiest days. Known as Longacre Square, Times Square was renamed in 1904 after The New York Times moved its headquarters to the newly erected Times Building – now One Times Square – the site of the annual New Year's Eve ball drop which began on December 31, 1907, continues today, attracting over a million visitors to Times Square every year.
Times Square functions as a town square, but is not geometrically a square. Broadway runs diagonally, crossing through the horizontal and vertical street grid of Manhattan laid down by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, that intersection creates the "bowtie" shape of Times Square; the southern triangle of Times Square has no specific name, but the northern triangle is called Father Duffy Square. It was dedicated in 1937 to Chaplain Francis P. Duffy of New York City's U. S. 69th Infantry Regiment and is the site of a memorial to him, along with a statue of George M. Cohan, as well as the TKTS reduced-price ticket booth run by the Theatre Development Fund. Since 2008, the booth has been backed by a red, triangular set of bleacher-like stairs, used by people to sit, talk and take photographs; when Manhattan Island was first settled by the Dutch, three small streams united near what is now 10th Avenue and 40th Street. These three streams formed the "Great Kill". From there the Great Kill wound through the low-lying Reed Valley, known for fish and waterfowl and emptied into a deep bay in the Hudson River at the present 42nd Street.
The name was retained in a tiny hamlet, Great Kill, that became a center for carriage-making, as the upland to the south and east became known as Longacre. Before and after the American Revolution, the area belonged to John Morin Scott, a general of the New York militia, in which he served under George Washington. Scott's manor house was at what is 43rd Street, surrounded by countryside used for farming and breeding horses. In the first half of the 19th century, it became one of the prized possessions of John Jacob Astor, who made a second fortune selling off lots to hotels and other real estate concerns as the city spread uptown. By 1872, the area had become the center of New York's horse carriage industry; the locality had not been given a name, city authorities called it Longacre Square after Long Acre in London, where the horse and carriage trade was centered in that city. William Henry Vanderbilt ran the American Horse Exchange there. In 1910 it became the Winter Garden Theatre; as more profitable commerce and industrialization of Lower Manhattan pushed homes and prostitution northward from the Tenderloin District, Long Acre Square became nicknamed the Thieves Lair for its rollicking reputation as a low entertainment district.
The first theater on the square, the Olympia, was built by cigar manufacturer and impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. According to Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, "By the early 1890s this once sparsely settled stretch of Broadway was ablaze with electric light and thronged by crowds of middle- and upper-class theatre and cafe patrons." In 1904, New York Times publisher Adolph S. Ochs moved the newspaper's operations to a new skyscraper on 42nd Street at Longacre Square, on the site of the former Pabst Hotel, which had existed on the site for less than a decade since it opened in November 1899. Ochs persuaded Mayor George B. McClellan Jr. to construct a subway station there, the area was renamed "Times Square" on April 8, 1904. Just three weeks the first electrified advertisement appeared on the side of a bank at the corner of 46th Street and Broadway; the north end became Duffy Square, the former Horse Exchange became the Winter Garden Theatre, constructed in 1911. The New York Times moved to more spacious offices one block west of the square in 1913 and sold the building in 1961.
The old Times Building was named the Allied Chemical Building in 1963. Now known as One Times Square, it is famed for the Times Square Ball drop on its roof every New Year's Eve. In 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association, headed by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, chose the intersection of 42nd Street and Broadway to be the Eastern Terminus of the Lincoln Highway; this was the first road across the United States, which spanned 3,389 miles coast-to-coast through 13 states to its western terminus in Lincoln Park in San Francisco, California. Times Square grew after World War I, it became a cultural hub full of theatres, music halls, upscale hotels. Times Square became New York's agora, a place to gather to await great tidings and to celebrate them, whether a World Series or a presidential election. Advertising grew in the 1920s, growing
Floyd Patterson was an American professional boxer who competed from 1952 to 1972, twice reigned as the world heavyweight champion from 1956 to 1962. At the age of 21, he became the youngest boxer in history to win the title, was the first heavyweight to regain the title after losing it; as an amateur, he won a gold medal in the middleweight division at the 1952 Summer Olympics. In 1956 and 1960, Patterson was voted Fighter of the Year by The Ring magazine and the Boxing Writers Association of America, he was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1991. Born into a poor family in Waco, North Carolina, Patterson was the youngest of eleven children, he experienced troubled childhood. His family moved to New York, where Floyd was a truant and a petty thief. At age 10, he was sent to the Wiltwyck School for Boys, a reform school in upstate New York, which he credited with turning his life around, he stayed there for two years. He attended high school in New York where he succeeded in all sports.
Patterson took up boxing at age fourteen, was trained by Cus D'Amato at his Gramercy Gym. Three years he won the gold medal in the 1952 Helsinki Olympics as a middleweight. In 1952, he won the National Amateur Middleweight Championship and New York Golden Gloves Middleweight Championship. Round of 16: Defeated Omar Tebakka by decision, 3–0 Quarterfinal: Defeated Leonardus Jansen by a first-round TKO Semifinal: Defeated Stig Sjölin by disqualification in the third round Defeated Vasile Tiță by a first-round knockoutPatterson's amateur record was 40 wins and 4 defeats. Patterson carried his hands higher than most boxers, in front of his face. Sportswriters called Patterson's style a "peek-a-boo" stance. Patterson turned pro and rose through the ranks, his only early defeat being an eight-round decision to former Light Heavyweight Champion Joey Maxim on June 7, 1954, at the Eastern Parkway Arena in Brooklyn, New York. Although Patterson fought around the light heavyweight limit for much of his early career, he and manager Cus D'Amato always had plans to fight for the Heavyweight Championship.
In fact, D'Amato made these plans clear as early as 1954, when he told the press that Patterson was aiming for the heavyweight title. However, after Rocky Marciano announced his retirement as World Heavyweight Champion on April 27, 1956, Patterson was ranked by The Ring magazine as the top light heavyweight contender. After Marciano's announcement, Jim Norris of the International Boxing Club stated that Patterson was one of the six fighters who would take part in an elimination tournament to crown Marciano's successor; the Ring moved Patterson into the heavyweight rankings, at number five. After beating Tommy "Hurricane" Jackson in an elimination fight, Patterson faced former Light Heavyweight Champion Archie Moore on November 30, 1956, for the World Heavyweight Championship, he beat Moore by a knockout in five rounds and became the youngest World Heavyweight Champion in history, at the age of 21 years, 10 months, 3 weeks and 5 days. He was the first Olympic gold medalist to win a professional heavyweight title.
After a series of defenses against fringe contenders, Patterson met Ingemar Johansson of Sweden, the number one contender, in the first of three fights. Johansson triumphed over Patterson on June 26, 1959, with the referee Ruby Goldstein stopping the fight in the third round after the Swede had knocked Patterson down seven times. Johansson became Sweden's first World Heavyweight Champion, thus becoming a national hero as the first European to defeat an American for the title since 1933. Patterson knocked out Johansson in the fifth round of their rematch on June 20, 1960, to become the first man in history to regain the Undisputed World Heavyweight Championship. Johansson hit the canvas hard out before he landed flat on his back. With glazed eyes, blood trickling from his mouth and his left foot quivering, he was counted out. Johansson lay unconscious for five minutes. A third fight between them was held on March 13, 1961 and while Johansson put Patterson on the floor, Patterson retained his title by knockout in the sixth round to win the rubber match in which Patterson was decked twice and Johansson, once in the first round.
Johansson had landed both right hands over Floyd's left jab. After getting up from the second knockdown, Floyd abandoned his jab and connected with a left hook that knocked down Johansson. After that, Patterson came on with a strong body attack. In the 6th round, Johansson caught Patterson with a solid right, but the power in Ingemar's punches was gone. Patterson won the fight in the 6th round by knockout. After the third Johansson fight, Patterson defended the title on December 4, 1961 against Tom McNeeley and retained the title with a fourth-round knockout; however he did not fight number-one contender Sonny Liston. This was due in part to Cus D'Amato, who did not want Patterson in the ring with a boxer with mob connections; as a result, D'Amato turned down any challenges involving the IBC. Due to a monetary dispute with Jimmy Jacobs, Patterson removed D'Amato from handling his business affairs and agreed to fight Liston. Leading up to the fight, Sonny Liston was the major betting-line favorite, though Sports Illustrated predicted that Patterson would win in 15 rounds.
Jim Braddock, Jersey Joe Walcott, Ezzard Charles, Rocky Marciano and Ingemar Johansson picked Patterson to win. The fight carried a number of social implications. Liston's connections with the mob were well known and the NAACP was concerned about having to deal with Liston's visibilit
Tribeca Film Festival
The Tribeca Film Festival is a prominent film festival held in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan, showcasing a diverse selection of independent films. Since its inaugural year in 2002, it has become a recognized outlet for independent filmmakers in all genres to release their work to a broad audience. In 2006 and 2007, the Festival held 1,500 screenings; the Festival's program line-up includes a variety of independent films including documentaries, narrative features and shorts, as well as a program of family-friendly films. The Festival features panel discussions with personalities in the entertainment world and a music lounge produced with ASCAP to showcase artists. One of the more distinctive components of the Festival is its Artists Awards program in which emerging and renowned artists celebrate filmmakers by providing original works of art that are given to the filmmakers' competition winners. Past artists of the Artists Award Program have included Chuck Close, Alex Katz, Julian Schnabel.
The festival now draws an estimated three million people—including often-elusive celebrities from the worlds of art and music—and generates $600 million annually. The Tribeca Film Festival was founded in 2002 by Jane Rosenthal, Robert De Niro and Craig Hatkoff in response to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the consequent loss of vitality in the Tribeca neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, although there are reports that its founding was underway prior to the events of 9/11; the inaugural festival launched after 120 days of planning with the help of more than 1,300 volunteers. It was featured several up-and-coming filmmakers; the festival included juried narrative and short film competitions. The 2003 festival brought more than 300,000 people; the festival showcased an expanded group of independent features and short films from around the world, coupled with studio premieres, panel discussions and comedy concerts, a family festival, sports activities, outdoor movie screenings along the Hudson River.
The family festival featured children's movie screenings, family panels and interactive games culminating in a daylong street fair that drew a crowd estimated at 250,000 people. At the end of 2003, De Niro purchased the theater at 54 Varick Street which had housed the closed Screening Room, an art house that had shown independent films nightly, renaming it the Tribeca Cinema, it became one of the venues of the festival. In an effort to serve its mission of bringing independent film to the widest possible audience, in 2006, the Festival expanded its reach in New York City and internationally. In New York City, Tribeca hosted screenings throughout Manhattan as the Festival's 1,000-plus screening schedule outgrew the capacity downtown. Internationally, the Festival brought films to the Rome Film Fest; as part of the celebrations in Rome, Tribeca was awarded the first "Steps and Stars" award, presented on the Spanish Steps. A total of 169 feature films and 99 shorts were selected from 4,100 film submissions, including 1,950 feature submissions—three times the total submissions from the first festival in 2002.
The festival featured 90 world premieres, nine international premieres, 31 North American premieres, 6 U. S. premieres, 28 New York City premieres. In 2009, Hatkoff and De Niro were named number 14 on Barron's list of the world's top 25 philanthropists for their role in regenerating TriBeCa's economy after September 11; as of 2010, the festival is run as a business by Tribeca Enterprises. Andrew Essex has been the CEO of Tribeca Enterprises since January, 2016. In 2011, L. A. Noire became the first video game to be recognized by the Tribeca Film Festival. In 2013, Beyond: Two Souls, featuring Ellen Page and Willem Dafoe, became only the second game to be premiered at the festival. 2018 – Diane and directed by Kent Jones. 2017 – Keep the Change written and directed by Rachel Israel 2016 – Dean, directed by Demetri Martin 2018 – Jeffrey Wright in O. G. 2017 – Alessandro Nivola in One Percent More Humid 2016 – Dominic Rains for Burn Country 2018 – Alia Shawkat in Duck Butter 2017 – Nadia Alexander in Blame 2016 – Mackenzie Davis for Always Shine 2018 – Wyatt Garfield for Diane 2017 – Chris Teague for Love After Love 2016 – Michael Ragen for Kicks 2018 – Diane, written by Kent Jones 2017 – Abundant Acreage Available, written by Angus MacLachlan 2017 – Son of Sofia written and directed by Elina Psykou 2016 – Junction 48, directed by Udi Aloni 2015 – Virgin Mountain, directed by Dagur Kári 2014 – Zero Motivation, directed by Talya Lavie 2013 – The Rocket, directed by Kim Mordaunt 2012 – War Witch, directed by Kim Nguyen 2011 – She Monkeys, directed by Lisa Aschan 2010 – When We Leave, directed by Feo Aladag 2009 – About Elly, directed by Asghar Farhadi 2008 – Let the Right One In, directed by Tomas Alfredson 2007 – My Father My Lord, directed by David Volach 2006 – Iluminados por el fuego, directed by Tristán Bauer 2005 – Stolen Life, directed by Li Shaohong 2004 – Green Hat, directed by Liu Fendou 2003 – Blind Shaft, directed by Li Yang 2002 – Roger Dodger, directed by Dylan Kidd 2017 – Rachel Israel, director of Keep the Change 2015 – Zachary Treitz for Men Go to Battle 2014 – Josef Wladyka for Manos Sucias 2013 – Emanuel Hoss-Desmarais for Whitewash 201