SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gayssot Act

The Gayssot Act or Gayssot Law, enacted on 13 July 1990, makes it an offense in France to question the existence or size of the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg in 1945-46. Communist member of Parliament Jean-Claude Gayssot proposed the law, it is one of several European laws prohibiting Holocaust denial. Its first article states that "any discrimination founded on membership or non-membership of an ethnic group, a nation, a race or a religion is prohibited." The law requires the Commission nationale consultative des droits de l'homme, created in 1947, to publish an annual report on relations between ethnicities in France. At the request of the International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism, Paul Marchandeau, center-right Justice Minister in the 1938-1939 third and fourth Daladier governments, issued the decree of 21 April 1939 amending the Law on the Freedom of the Press of 29 July 1881 by providing prosecution "when defamation or insult committed against a group of persons, by their origin, race or religion, will have been designed to arouse hatred among citizens or residents".

This decree was repealed by the law of the Vichy collaborationist government of 16 August 1940. The decree came again into force after the Liberation of France in 1944 by an ordinance of 9 August 1944 repealing most of the Vichy legislation. René Pleven, center-right Justice Minister in the Chaban-Delmas and Messmer governments in 1969-1973, proposed in 1972 a new law against racism, unanimously adopted by the National Assembly, the 72-546 1 July 1972 Law pertaining to the fight against racism; this law came as a requisite after France's ratification in 1971 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. It differed from the 1939 decree which gave to the sole prosecutor's office the right to initiate a procedure, whereas the 1972 law allowed any representative organization to initiate a legal procedure. After Robert Faurisson was removed from his university chair under the Gayssot Act, he challenged it as a violation of his right to freedom of expression under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

The Human Rights Committee upheld the condemnation of Faurisson, but mentioned that the Gayssot Act may be too broad. The French Constitutional Court's ruling that the Gayssot Act is constitutional but that the 2012 Armenian Genocide Denial Law was unconstitutional because it violated freedom of speech, has been challenged. Expulsion of Romani people from France Robert Faurisson Historical revisionism Laws against Holocaust denial Text of the law, Légifrance

Llobregat Delta

The Llobregat Delta is the delta of the Llobregat river, located near the city of Barcelona, northeastern Spain. The current delta has been altered by farming, urban development, industrialisation and transport infrastructures such as the Port of Barcelona and the Barcelona El Prat Airport; the Natural Areas of the Llobregat Delta is a network of protected areas established in 1987 that belongs to the municipalities of El Prat de Llobregat, Gavà and Sant Boi de Llobregat. It encompasses more than 900 hectares over the right margin of the river that have been declared a Special Protection Area as a designation under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. Consortium of the Natural Areas of Delta del Llobregat Government of Catalonia website

Wyoming Cavalry

The Wyoming Cavalry were an American professional indoor football team based in Casper, Wyoming. They were most members of the Intense Conference in the Indoor Football League; the Cavalry began play in 2000 as an expansion member of the original Indoor Football League as the Casper Cavalry. The Cavalry became a charter member of the National Indoor Football League in 2001 following the original IFL's purchase by the Arena Football League's Orlando Predators; the move in 2001 brought a franchise name change to the current Wyoming Cavalry. The team joined the American Indoor Football Association in 2008 after the NIFL's demise. With the AIFA's presence in the Western United States dwindling, the Cavalry joined the IFL in 2011. In September, 2014, majority owner Mitch Zimmerman announced; the Cavalry played their home games at the Casper Events Center. The team began play in 2000 as an expansion member of the original Indoor Football League as the Casper Cavalry. Despite a successful inaugural season, they fell in the playoffs to the Black Hills Machine.

When the original IFL folded, the Cavalry moved to the newly formed National Indoor Football League as the "Wyoming Cavalry" and became a charter member. The team saw front office changes, as they were purchased by a local ownership group, headed by Mike Argeri Layton; the team was decently successful, making the playoffs in four of their seven overall seasons, as well as making it to the inaugural Indoor Bowl, losing to the Mississippi Fire Dogs. On July 14, 2007, Wyoming was scheduled to play an Indoor Football Championship of sorts against the Fayetteville Guard. Both franchises received letters on July 7, 2007, telling them they have been kicked out of the National Indoor Football League. On August 18, 2007, the Cavalry announced they would join the American Indoor Football Association as a flagship team of the league's new Western Division. On July 26, 2009, the Cavalry hosted the Reading Express in AIFA Bowl III and were defeated 65-42. On July 25, 2010, the Cavalry traveled to Baltimore to take on the Mariners in AIFA Bowl IV and would go on to lose 57-42.

As of the end of the 2010 season, the Cavalry are 0-5 in championship games. On September 1, 2010, the Cavalry announced they would be joining the Indoor Football League as an expansion member for the 2011 season. For the 2013 season, its third in the IFL, the Cavalry hired rookie head coach Ryan Lingenfelder to replace longtime head coach Dan "Majic" Maciejczak. Lingenfelder, a former AFL player, served as defensive coordinator of the Tri-Cities Fever for the previous three seasons. Shortly before the 2013 season began, the owner of the Cheyenne Warriors died and the IFL revised its schedule to accommodate the now 9-team league; the Cavalry had been scheduled to play two games against the projected in-state rival. Barney O'Donnell III joined the team as the new starting quarterback. After compiling a 2-24 record in 2 seasons, Lingenfelder was relieved of his coaching duties; the following is a list of all Cavalry players who have won league Awards The following Cavalry players have been named to All-IFL Teams: WR Jasonus Tillary, Troy Evans, Samuel Charles K Travis Atter Note: Statistics are correct through the end of the 2014 Indoor Football League season.

Official website The NIFL schedule page taken May 13, 2007. Cavalry's 2008 Stats Cavalry's 2009 Stats Cavalry's 2010 Stats