Leintz Gatzaga is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The municipality's population is 251; the first part of the name, comes from the name of the valley, the village being located in the Valley of Leintz. The second part is linked to the saltmine located in the village, part of the reason for the village's existence. Salt is no longer used to be a mainstay of the village's economy. Leintz-Gatzaga covers 14.7 km² and is located in the province of Gipuzkoa close to Araba/Álava. It is situated in a mountainous area with steep hillsides and with no flat agricultural land, it is in the region of Alto Deva. Leintz-Gatzaga has a small old part that consisting of four streets walled. Most of the residents live in this part, the rest spread over some 35 Basque farmhousess around the village; the history of this village is linked to two factors: the road. Salt mines have operated in the area since the Iron Ages. Before the village was formed, there were some farmhouses and small towns that were protected by the Castle of Aitzorrotz.
Although the salt mines were owned by the royalty, the residents of the village had some privileges to develop trade and exploit the salt. The salt mines were of major economic importance and led to some disputes. For example, in 1374 the Count of Oñati appropriated the village and Leintz Gatzaga has been burnt down several times, in 1334, 1371, 1492 and 1498. Following the last burning, it was ordered. Whereas in most places the vaporization system was used in salt mining, in Leintz Gatzaga, due to its cold and wet climate, salt miners would use fire to evaporate the water; the machinery used changed throughout the centuries. Until the 19th century the work was done without machinery, but when a company called Productos Leniz bought the salt mine, new machinery was introduced in 1920 and production increased. However, the quality of the salt was not as high as that of sea salt and after 1500 years, in 1972, the salt mine was closed. In the 17th century the Royal Road was built; this road joins the coast of Gipuzkoa with the interior.
So this village became part of the route. For this reason, the economy of the village grew but this prosperity was affected by wars, such as the War of Spanish Independence, the War of the Pyrenees or the Carlist Wars; the decline of the village began in the middle of the 19th century. On the one hand, the opening of a new road between Idiazabal and Altsasu in 1851 reduced the importance of the Royal Road, and on the other hand was the construction of the rail line between Irun. These two facts reduced its importance gradually. Apart from that, the salt mines grew less profitable and were closed; these factors combined plunged the village into a serious demographic downturn. There is little economic activity in the village. Of the 125 people in employment, only 50 work locally. Although the municipality has an important rural stamp half of the population works in the industrial sector of surrounding municipalities. Few people are dedicated to agricultural and livestock tasks. Salinas de Leniz tries to promote tourism with a tourism office, 5 restaurants and several rural guesthouses.
As of 2015 the population was 251 and while the village has never been large in 1950 the population shrank because Leintz Gatzaga was the only village of the region which did not take part in industrialization. The population is ageing. Despite being a small town, Salinas de Leniz has an architectural heritage, it is still possible to glimpse the old medieval urban layout, which originated from the reconstruction of the town after the fire of 1371. Although the ramparts disappeared it is still possible to see the five door entrances as well as numerous palatial houses of interest with their shields and coats of arms on the facades. There are several religious monuments as Dorleta sanctuary, located outside the village next to the salt mine, The Church of San Millan, built in the fourteenth century and reconstructed in the sixteenth. Civil monuments are numerous as well in the old town of Salinas de Leniz: Torrekua, Olaso, Indianokua and Garro palaces are some of the most important There is a Salt Museum, which shows how the salt extraction process was performed in the old salt mine and the importance in the local economy.
The salt facilities have been equipped as a museum. Official Website Information Basque. LEINTZ-GATZAGA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. It lies on the coast of the Bay of 20 km from the French border; the capital city of Gipuzkoa, the municipality's population is 186,095 as of 2015, with its metropolitan area reaching 436,500 in 2010. Locals call themselves donostiarra, both in Basque; the main economic activities are commerce and tourism, it is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Spain. Despite the city’s small size, events such as the San Sebastián International Film Festival have given it an international dimension. San Sebastián, along with Wrocław, was the European Capital of Culture in 2016. In spite of appearances, both the Basque form Donostia and the Spanish form San Sebastián have the same meaning of Saint Sebastian; the dona/done/doni element in Basque place-names is derived from Latin domine. There are two hypotheses regarding the evolution of the Basque name: one says it was *Done Sebastiáne > Donasaastiai > Donasastia > Donastia > Donostia, the other one says it was *Done Sebastiane > *Done Sebastiae > *Done Sebastie > *Donesebastia > *Donasastia > *Donastia > Donostia.
The city is located in the north of the Basque Autonomous Community, on the southern coast of the Bay of Biscay. San Sebastián's three picturesque beaches, Concha and Zurriola, make it a popular resort; the town is surrounded by accessible hilly areas: Urgull, Mount Ulia, Mount Adarra and Igeldo. The city sits at the mouth of the River Urumea, Donostia was built to a large extent on the river's wetlands over the last two centuries. In fact, the city centre and the districts of Amara Berri and Riberas de Loiola lie on the former bed of the river, diverted to its current canalized course in the first half of the 20th century. San Sebastián features an oceanic climate with cool winters. Like many cities with this climate, San Sebastián experiences cloudy or overcast conditions for the majority of the year with some precipitation; the city averages 1,650 mm of precipitation annually, evenly spread throughout the year. However, the city is somewhat drier and noticeably sunnier in the summer months, experiencing on average 100 mm of precipitation during those months.
Average temperatures range from 8.9 °C in January to 21.5 °C in August. The first evidence of human stationary presence in the current city is the settlement of Ametzagaña, between South Intxaurrondo and Astigarraga; the unearthed remains, such as carved stone used as knives to cut animal skin, date from 24,000 to 22,000 BC. The open-air findings of the Upper Paleolithic have revealed that the settlers were hunters and Homo sapiens, besides pointing to a much colder climate at the time. San Sebastián is thought to have been in the territory of the Varduli in Roman times. 10 km east of the current city lay the Basque Roman town of Oiasso, for a long time wrongly identified with San Sebastián. After a long period of silence in evidence, in 1014 the monastery of St. Sebastián with its apple orchards, located in the term of Hernani, is donated to the Abbey of Leire by Sancho III of Pamplona. By 1181, the city is chartered by king Sancho VI of Pamplona on the site of Izurum, having jurisdiction over all the territory between the rivers Oria and Bidasoa.
In 1200, the city was conquered by Castile, whose king Alfonso VIII, confirmed its charter, but the Kingdom of Navarre was deprived of its main direct access out to the sea. As soon as 1204, the city nucleus at the foot of Urgull started to be populated with Gascon-speaking colonizers from Bayonne and beyond, who left an important imprint in the city's identity in the centuries to come. In 1265, the use of the city as a seaport is granted to Navarre as part of a wedding pact; the large quantity of Gascons inhabiting the town favoured the development of trade with other European ports and Gascony. The city steered clear of the destructive War of the Bands in Gipuzkoa, the only town in doing so in that territory. In fact, the town only joined Gipuzkoa in 1459. Up to the 16th century, Donostia remained out of wars, but by the beginning of the 15th century, a line of walls of simple construction is attested encircling the town; the last chapter of the town in the Middle Ages was brought about by a fire that devastated Donostia in 1489.
After burning to the ground, the town began a new renaissance by building up with stone instead of bare timber. The advent of the Modern Age brought a period of war for the city. New state boundaries were drawn; the town provided critical naval help to Emperor Charles V during the siege of Hondarribia, which earned the town the titles "Muy Noble y Muy Leal", recorded on its coat of arms. The town aided the monarch by sending a party to the Battle of Noain and providing help to quash the Revolt of the Comuneros in 1521. After these events, who had played a leading role in the political and economic life of the town since its foundation, began to be excluded from influential public positions by means of a string of regional sentences uphe
Eibar is a city and municipality within the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country of Spain. It is the head town of one of the comarcas of Gipuzkoa. Eibar has 27,138 inhabitants, its chief industry is metal manufacturing, has been known since the 16th century for the manufacture of armaments finely engraved small arms. It was the home of Serveta scooters, it is home to the SD Eibar football team in La Liga. Eibar lies at an altitude of 121m above sea level, in the west of the province of Gipuzkoa, right next to Biscay. Eibar has an oceanic climate; the town lies in a narrow valley in a mountainous area, the highest mountains are between 700 and 800 metres high. Eibar is traversed by river Ego, a tributary of the Deba. Apart from the urban area, the municipality consists of five rural neighbourhoods: Otaola-Kinarraga, Arrate and Gorosta; the city was chartered by Alfonso XI of Castile in 1346, receiving the name of Villanueva de San Andrés de Heybar. The feudal families that dominated the territory engaged in the War of the Bands.
Eibar, like the rest of settlements in the valley, had an industry based on finery forges and the manufacture of arms. In 1766, Eibar got engaged in a social revolt known as the Machinada, years in 1794, it was attacked by the French, who destroyed the town. In the 19th century, industrialisation transformed the production systems in the city and was accompanied by an important social movement. In the Carlist Wars, Eibar sided with the Liberals. Labour movement and socialism became strong in Eibar. In 1931, Eibar was the first city in Spain to proclaim the Second Spanish Republic. In the Spanish Civil War, Eibar was destroyed; the rebuilding brought important industrial development and a demographic increase, as Eibar reached nearly 40,000 inhabitants in a few years. Due to the lack of space for enlargements, several factories moved to Álava; the industrial crisis in the 1980s made Eibar lose a great part of its population. At the beginning of the 21st century, Eibar's economy is based on industry and services.
Church of San Andrés, built during the 16th and 17th centuries, it has a Gothic style with Renaissance and Baroque elements. Sanctuary of the Virgin of Arrate, from the beginning of the 17th century. Hermitage of Azitain, it contains an odd 17th-century beardless Christ. Palace of Unzueta, from the 17th century. Palace of Aldatze, from the 17th century. Palace of Markeskua, from the 16th century. City Hall, built in concrete over the river Ego, designed by architect Ramón Cortázar and inaugurated on 14 September 1901. Coliseo Theatre, inaugurated in 1947 and refurbished in 2007. RoadEibar is traversed by the AP-8 motorway connecting Bilbao and the French border, the N-634 road running pararell to it; the AP-1 motorway connects Vitoria-Gasteiz. AP-8 and AP-1 meet at the Maltzaga motorway junction located in the east of Eibar. Regular and frequent bus services under Lurraldebus connect Eibar to neighbouring towns, San Sebastián, Vitoria-Gasteiz and Bilbao Airport. BizkaiBus provides frequent bus services to and from Bilbao.
ALSA runs a daily service to and from Madrid-Barajas Madrid. Eibar has an urban bus service called Udalbus. Railway Eibar is located on the Bilbao-San Sebastián narrow gauge railway line. Trains operated by Euskotren run and to Bilbao-Matiko station and Donostia-Amara station. Services are more frequent in the Ermua-Eibar-Elgoibar section; the Industrial Technical Engineering School of Eibar is part of the University of the Basque Country. The Escuela de Armería, founded in 1913, is the oldest vocational training school in Spain. FootballEibar is home to SD Eibar; the team plays at the Ipurua Municipal Stadium. Basque pelotaThe Astelena fronton, nicknamed the Cathedral of Basque Hand-pelota, is a regular venue of the hand-pelota professional circuit competitions the Bare-handed Pelota First League, the Bare-handed Pelota First League Doubles and the Cuatro y Medio Euskadi Championship. CyclingSince 2009, the city hosts an annual stage finish in the Tour of Basque Country after the riders have climbed the Alto de Arrate.
Before 2009, this was a traditional finish in the Euskal Bizikleta, which originated in Eibar as Bicicleta Eibarresa. The Arrate-finish has been included in the Vuelta a España in 1972, 1974 and 2012. Francisco de Ibarra and conqueror Martín Ignacio de Loyola and navigator Ignacio de Soroeta, Governor of Paraguay Juan Antonio Mogel, writer Ignacio Zuloaga, painter Ciriaco Errasti, footballer Baltasar Albéniz, football manager Roberto Etxebarria Arruti, footballer Miguel Gallastegui, Basque pelotari Alberto Ormaetxea and football manager Luis Aranberri and journalist Javier Aguirresarobe, cinematographer Koldo Zuazo, linguist Enrique Zuazua, mathematician Maite Zúñiga, athlete Pedro Horrillo, cyclist Markel Susaeta, footballer Jon Errasti, footballer Markel Alberdi, swimmer Mikel Oyarzabal, footballer Official website eibar.org Eibar's pages EIBAR in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Deba is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. The town centre is right on the sea, the municipal district includes a series of charming country villages, such as Itziar and Elorriaga; the natural setting is a perfect combination of green mountains. Traditionally, the attraction of Deba is based on the beauty of the landscape, its rich heritage, centuries-old culture and exquisite gastronomy. Today, it is reinforced with modern facilities, entertainment and leisure facilities that meet all visitors' needs. Deba is a town of summer residents, but it is on the St James’s Way. Thousands of years before Deba was founded, the town's relationship with sea and water formed an indelible part of its history; the shell deposits and bone harpoons found in many caves in the Deba municipal districts and some of the figures in the Palaeolithic shrine at Ekain are testimonies of that relationship. Curiously, thousands of year Roman chronicles cite the coast and the Deba, a river that would lend its name to the town.
The town's origins date back to 1343. History tells that Sancho IV of Castile granted the citizens of "Monte-Real", in Itziar, a charter as a township in 1294. Subsequently, they moved closer to the coast and founded a new settlement that they called Monreal de Deba. In the 15th century, Deba enjoyed a period of splendour due to shipping with the export of wool from Castile and Aragón to various European countries. In the 19th century the port declined and a new activity began: tourism. Deba's relationship with the sea changed when the town became one of the pioneers of tourism in Europe. Deba still faces the sea with a taste of salt in the air; the town offers visitors the opportunity to enjoy a unique coast and a modern spa, thus combining fun with therapy. It has an annual festival called "San Roke festivities". Http://ocio.diariovasco.com/fotos-fiesta/deba-sanroke1.php?foto=11 Official Website Information available in Spanish and Basque. DEBA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Aia is a village situated on the slopes of Mount Pagoeta in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. It is located 30 km to the west of Donostia-San Sebastián and about 10 km inland from the coastal town of Zarautz. Aia is set amongst hills and forests, surrounded by mountains; the town has the Church of San Esteban, which includes a notable centrepiece. The population of Aia has declined since the 1950s, to a population of 1,750 in 2005. Based on cave paintings and engravings and stone implements that have been found in the Aia district, it is believed that human habitation of the area dates back to over 10,000 years ago; the town of Aia itself was mentioned in one of the oldest documents of Gipuzkoa dated 1025. The town was mentioned as being part of the Union of Sayaz in the Decree of the Brotherhood of the Province of Gupuzkoa in 1375. Farming was the main economic activity in the Aia district, with families of the small villages living within closed, self-sufficient economic systems. Land was owned by the municipality and rented to the farmers to work.
Specialised crafts began to develop, in particular Aia became a main centre for the production of iron. This was due to the abundance of natural deposits of iron in the area. Numerous foundries were established in the area, which had a significant impact on the growth of the local population, it was from these foundries. The demise of these old forges in Guipúzcoa was brought about by the introduction of blast furnaces that ran on coal. Aia is situated within Basque farmlands, unchanged over several hundred years, it has several tourist attractions, including the 1,335-acre Pagoeta Nature Reserve which sits to the west of the town of Aia and preserves the natural environment of the area, as well as the district's cultural heritage. The park contains a number of ruins of old mills and farmhouses, some ancient burial mounds dating back 5,000 years; the Agorregi Forge, located within the park, is one of the best preserved examples of a foundry in Gipuzkoa province. The forge which can be seen today was built in 1754 by the Lord of Laurgain Palace over the ruins of an earlier version.
Lying at the bottom of a deep valley near Manterola farmhouse, it used the river's hydraulic energy to power its bellows and turn its waterwheels. Situated near Aia and within the Pagoeta Nature Reserve is the Iturraran Botanic Garden; the garden was established in 1986 and includes more than 1,000 species of plants and shrubs from all over the world. It includes some endangered flora of the Basque Country. Aia is a municipality formed by a principal nucleus – the town of Aia – and its neighbourhoods, which resemble small villages, it comprises eleven neighbourhoods: Alzola: A parish with 11 inhabitants. Andatza o San Pedro: 249 inhabitants. Arratola Aldea: 38 inhabitants. Arrutiegia: 106 inhabitants. Elcano: 100 inhabitants; this neighbourhood is shared with Zarauz. Etxetaballa: 45 inhabitants. Iruretaegia: 97 inhabitants. Kurpidea: 59 inhabitants. Laurgain: 78 inhabitants. Olaskoegia: 202 inhabitants. Santio Erreka: 254 inhabitants. Urdaneta: 78 inhabitantsThe urban nucleus of Aia has about 470 inhabitants.
Aia official website Information available in Spanish and Basque. 360 degree view of Aia AIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Gipuzkoa is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is Donostia-San Sebastián. Gipuzkoa shares borders with the French department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques at the northeast, with the province and autonomous community of Navarre at east, Biscay at west, Álava at southwest and the Bay of Biscay to its north, it is located in the Bay of Biscay. It has 66 kilometres of coast land. With a total area of 1,980 square kilometres, Gipuzkoa is the smallest province of Spain; the province has 89 municipalities and a population of 720,592 inhabitants, from which more than half live in the Donostia-San Sebastián metropolitan area. Apart from the capital, other important cities are Irun, Zarautz, Mondragón, Hondarribia, Oñati, Tolosa and Pasaia; the oceanic climate gives the province an intense green colour with little thermic oscillation. Gipuzkoa is the province of the Basque Country where the Basque language is most extensively used: 49.1% of the population spoke Basque in 2006.
The first recorded name of the province was Ipuscoa in a document from the year 1025. During the following years, in various documents, several similar names appear, such as Ipuzcoa, Ipuçcha, among others; the full etymology the word Gipuzkoa has not been ascertained, but links have been made with the Basque word Giputz, containing the root ip-, related to the word ipar and ipuin. According to this, ipuzko might refer to something "to the north" or "in the north". Gipuzkoa is the Basque spelling recommended by the Royal Academy of the Basque language, it is used in official documents in that language; the Basque spelling is mandatory in official texts from the various Spanish public administrations in documents written in Spanish. It is the spelling most used by the Spanish-language media in the Basque Country, it is the spelling used in the Basque version of the Spanish constitution and in the Basque version of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country. Gipuzkoa is the only official spelling approved for the historical territory by the Juntas Generales of the province.
Guipúzcoa is the spelling in Spanish, it has been determined by the Association of Spanish Language Academies as being the only correct use outside official Spanish documents, where the use of the Basque spelling is mandatory. It is the Spanish spelling used in the Spanish version of the Constitution and in the Spanish version of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country. At 1,980 km2 Gipuzkoa is the smallest province in Spain; the province has 88 municipalities and 709,607 inhabitants, a quarter of whom live in the capital, San Sebastián. Other important towns are Irun, Zarautz, Arrasate, Oñati with an old university, Tolosa, the provincial capital for a short time, Pasaia, the main port and Hondarribia, an old fort town across from the French Atlantic coast. Gipuzkoa is hilly and green linking mountain and sea, populated with numerous urban nuclei that dot the whole territory; the conspicuous presence of hills and rugged terrain has added to a special leaning towards hiking and mountains on the part of Gipuzkoans.
Some mountains have an emblematic or iconic significance in the local tradition, their summits being topped with crosses and mountaineer postboxes. In addition, pilgrimages which have lost their former religious zeal and taken on a more secular slant are sometimes held to their summits; some renowned mountains are Aiako Harria, Txindoki and Izarraitz, amongst others. The Aralar Natural Park is a conservation area on the border of Gipuzkoa and Navarre in the Aralar Range; the rivers of Gipuzkoa are distinctly different from other Bay of Biscay rivers. They arise in the hilly Basque inland landscape, flow in a south- north direction, forming close, narrow valleys before joining the ocean; the rivers extend for a short length with only a small fluctuation in the volume of water thanks to the stable rainfall all year round, they show an abrupt drop between origin and mouth as far as the length of the river is concerned. From west to east the rivers are the Deba, Oria, Urumea and Bidasoa. Except for a narrow strip extending east from the hamlet Otzaurte and the tunnel of San Adrian, the province drains its waters to the Atlantic basin.
The region's communication layout is in step with its geographical features, with the main lines of infrastructure along a north -south axis up to recent times along the rivers heading to the ocean. Accordingly, the inland Way of St. James, i.e. the Tunnel Route penetrated the province via Irun and turned south-west along the Oria River towards the provincial limits at the tunnel of San Adrian. This stretch was in operation up to 1765. A minor St. James route crossed Gipuzkoa east to west along the coast; the main road cutting through Gipuzkoa follows that layout, i.e. the N-1 E-5 from Irun to Donostia and on to Altsasu all along the Oria River for the most part. The major Irun-Madrid railway runs close to the river up to its origin on the slopes of Aizkorri at train stop Otzaurte in Zegama. By 1973 engineering works for the Bilbao-Behobia A-8 E-70 motorway had been completed, with the new road cutting across the valleys east to west and turning into the main axis between Donostia and Bilbao, beside