Botany Bay, an open oceanic embayment, is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia,13 km south of the Sydney central business district. The total catchment area of the bay is approximately 55 km2, despite its relative shallowness, the bay serves as greater metropolitan Sydneys main cargo seaport, located at Port Botany, with facilities managed by Sydney Ports Corporation. Two runways of Sydney Airport extend into the bay, Botany Bay National Park is located on the northern and southern headlands of the bay. The area surrounding the bay is generally managed by Roads and Maritime Services, the land adjacent to Botany Bay was settled for many thousands of years by the Tharawal and Eora Aboriginal peoples and their associated clans. On 29 April 1770, Botany Bay was the site of James Cooks first landing of HMS Endeavour on the mass of Australia. Later the British planned Botany Bay as the site for a penal colony, out of these plans came the first European habitation of Australia at Sydney Cove.
Archaeological evidence from the shores of Botany Bay has yielded evidence of Aboriginal settlement dating back 5,000 years, the Aboriginal people of Sydney were known as the Eora with sub-groups derived from the languages they spoke. The people living between the Cooks River and the Georges River were the Bidjigal clan, on the shores of the bay were the Gweagal clan. An artefact collected on Cooks first voyage in Botany Bay is the bark shield left behind by a member of a local Aboriginal tribe. This very rare object is now in the British Museums collection and was the subject of a programme in the BBC radio series A History of the World in 100 Objects. Lieutenant James Cook first landed at Kurnell, on the banks of Botany Bay, on Sunday 29 April 1770. Cooks landing marked the beginning of Britains interest in Australia and in the colonisation of this new ‘southern continent’. Initially the name Sting Ray Harbour was used by Cook and other journal keepers on his expedition and that name was recorded on an Admiralty chart.
Cooks log for 6 May 1770 records The great quantity of these sort of found in this place occasioned my giving it the name of Stingrays Harbour. Eighteen years later, in 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip sailed the armed tender HMS Supply into the bay on 18 January, two days the remaining ships of the First Fleet arrived to found the planned penal colony. However, the land was ruled unsuitable for settlement as there was insufficient fresh water. Phillip decided instead to move to the excellent natural harbour of Port Jackson to the north, on the morning of 24 January the French exploratory expedition of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse was seen outside Botany Bay. On 26 January, the Supply left the bay to move up to Port Jackson, on the afternoon of 26 January, the remaining ships of First Fleet arrived at Sydney Cove
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Mount Royal Range
The Mount Royal Range is a mountain range in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. The Mount Royal Range is a spur on the side of the Great Dividing Range. It diverges from the Liverpool Range at a point north of Scone, New South Wales, the range generally extends to the southeast for about 45 kilometres and generally to the south southwest for about 50 kilometres to Mount Royal. The range generally forms the divide between the Hunter River and Manning River drainage basins, both of which drain to the Tasman Sea. To provide water for the Bayswater Power Station, the Barnard River Scheme was constructed in the 1980s so water could be transported over the range into the Hunter River, the Mount Royal range forms the northern rim of the Hunter Region. The Barrington Tops, a plateau at the headwaters of the Barrington River, are part of the Mount Royal Range. The World Heritage listed Barrington Tops National Park includes this area
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Contact with the first white settlements bridgehead into Australia quickly devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases. Their descendants live on, though the language, social system, way of life and traditions are mostly lost. The language spoken by the Eora has, since the time of R. H. Mathews, been called Dharuk, the Australian bush term bogey comes from a Port Jackson Dharuk root buugi-. In terms of boundaries, the Kuringgai lay to the north, on the Western edges were the Darug, and to the south, around Kundul were the Gwiyagal. Eora is used specifically of the people around the first area of settlement in Sydney. The generic term Eora generally is used with a wider denotation to embrace some 29 bands, which in turn constituted clans that spoke several distinct languages. Thus, Eora is used collectively to refer to all tribes in the area of the settlement area, the Guringai to the north, the Tharawal people to the south. These have been classified into the language groups.
The sizes of bands, as opposed to clans, averaged around 50 members, -gal denominates the clan affixed to the place name. Muringong Camden Cattai Windsor Kurrajong Kurrajong Boo-bain-ora Wentworthville Mulgoa Penrith 4, dharawal South Gweagal Norongerragal Illawarra Threawal Tagary Wandeandegal The Cadigal people are the traditional owners of the inner Sydney city region. Their traditional land and waters are south of Port Jackson, stretching from South Head to Petersham, the people described by British settlers as the Eora people were probably Cadigal people, the Aboriginal tribe of the inner Sydney region in 1788 at the time of first European settlement. The Cadigal clan western boundary is approximately the Balmain peninsula, the traditional territory of the Wanegal people begins around Goat Island and runs west past Concord to what is now called Parramatta, and includes parts of Lane Cove River. The Cammeraygal peoples traditional territory is on the present-day lower North Shore of Port Jackson, the traditional Eora people were largely coastal dwellers and lived mainly from the produce of the sea.
They were expert in navigation, fishing and eating in the bays. The Eora people did not grow or plant crops, although the women picked herbs which were used in herbal remedies, the Eora placed a time limit on formal battles engaged in order to settle inter-tribal grievances. Such fights were regulated to begin late in the afternoon, the first contact occurred when James Cooks Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay. A drawing, thought recently to be the handiwork of the Polynesian navigator Turpaia who was on board Cooks ship, survives depicting Aboriginals in Botany Bay, around Kurnel. When the First Fleet of 1300 convicts and administrators arrived in January 1788, by early 1789 frequent remarks were made of great numbers of decomposed bodies of Eora natives which settlers and sailors came across on beaches, in coves and in the bays
Paterson River, a perennial river that is part of the Hunter River catchment, is located in the Hunter and Mid North Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Between Hinton and Duns Creek, the Paterson River forms the border between the Port Stephens and Maitland local government areas. The river system courses through fertile the farming land of the Paterson and Allyn River Valleys, the river is impounded by Lostock Dam, located 48 kilometres downstream from the source in the Barringtons. The embankment dam was constructed by the New South Wales Department of Water Resources to supply water for irrigation and was completed in 1971, the river is tidal to above the village of Paterson and below Vacy. Riverside towns within the Patersons catchment include Gresford, Paterson, colonel William Paterson surveyed the area along the river in 1801. Later Governor King named it in his honour
Charles Wilkes was an American naval officer, ships captain, and explorer. His behavior led to two convictions by court-martial, one stemming from the massacre of almost 80 Fijians on Malolo in 1840, Wilkes was born in New York City, on April 3,1798, as the great nephew of the former Lord Mayor of London John Wilkes. His mother was Mary Seton, who died in 1802 when Charles was just three years old. As a result, Charles was raised by his aunt, Elizabeth Ann Seton, when Elizabeth was left widowed with five children, Charles was sent to a boarding school, and attended Columbia College, which is the present-day Columbia University. He entered the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1818, in 1833, for his survey of Narragansett Bay, he was placed in charge of the Navys Department of Charts and Instruments, out of which developed the Naval Observatory and Hydrographic Office. Wilkes interdisciplinary expedition set a physical oceanography benchmark for the offices first superintendent Matthew Fontaine Maury, in 1838, although not yet a seasoned naval line officer, Wilkes was experienced in nautical survey work, and was working with civilian scientists.
Upon this background, he was given command of the government exploring expedition, for the purpose of exploring and surveying the Southern Ocean. Exploring Squadron was authorized by act of the Congress on May 18,1836, next the expedition visited Fiji and the Hawaiian Islands. In Fiji, the expedition kidnapped the chief Ro Veidovi, charging him with the murder of a crew of American whalers. And, in July 1840, two sailors, one of whom was Wilkes nephew, Midshipman Wilkes Henry, were killed while bartering for food on Fijis Malolo Island, Wilkes retribution was swift and severe. According to an old man of Malolo Island, nearly 80 Fijians were killed in the incident, from December 1840 to March 1841, he employed hundreds of native Hawaiian porters and many of his men to haul a pendulum to the summit of Mauna Loa to measure gravity. Instead of using the trail, he blazed his own way. The conditions on the mountain reminded him of Antarctica, many of his crew suffered snow blindness, altitude sickness and foot injuries from wearing out their shoes.
He explored the west coast of North America, including the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, the Columbia River, San Francisco Bay and he held the first American Independence Day celebration west of the Mississippi River in Dupont, Washington on July 5,1841. The United States Exploring Expedition passed through the Ellice Islands and visited Funafuti, the expedition returned by way of the Philippines, the Sulu Archipelago, Singapore and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on June 10,1842. After having completely encircled the globe, Wilkes had logged some 87,000 miles, a major witness against him was ship doctor Charles Guillou. He was acquitted on all charges except illegally punishing men in his squadron, for a short time, he was attached to the Coast Survey, but from 1844 to 1861, he was chiefly engaged in preparing the report of the expedition. His Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition were published in 1844 and he edited the scientific reports of the expedition and was the author of Vol.
XI and Vol. XXIII
Aberdeen, New South Wales
Aberdeen is a small town in the upper Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, in Upper Hunter Shire. It is 12 kilometres north of Muswellbrook on the New England Highway, Aberdeen is named after Aberdeen, Scotland. At the 2006 census, Aberdeen had a population of 1,791, Aberdeen Post Office opened on 1 August 1856. Aberdeen has its own pre-school, which was founded in 1977, Aberdeen has two churches - St Thomas Catholic Church, and St Marks Anglican Church. It once had a church, St Pauls Uniting Church. Next to St Thomas Catholic Church, is located St Josephs Aberdeen High School, the town has a local rugby league team, the Aberdeen Tigers. Aberdeen is on the Main North railway line, and is serviced by a daily service from Sydney. The Commercial Hotel is available for budget accommodation, hundreds of people were left without work, and despite promises from both the New South Wales and Federal governments to encourage new businesses to open up in the area, nothing of note eventuated. Media related to Aberdeen, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons
Horatio Emmons Hale was an American-Canadian ethnologist and businessman who studied language as a key for classifying ancient peoples and being able to trace their migrations. He was the first to discover that the Tutelo language of Virginia belonged to the Siouan family, in addition, he published a work Iroquois Book of Rites, based on interpreting the Iroquois wampum belts, as well as his studies with tribal leaders. After his marriage to a Canadian woman in 1855, Hale moved to Ontario and he continued to publish articles in American scholarly journals, while living in Canada for the rest of his life. Entering Harvard College in 1833, Hale showed a marked faculty for languages and his first essay in original work appeared the next year, and attracted the attention of the college authorities. It consisted of an Algonkin vocabulary, which he gathered from a band of Indians who had camped on the college grounds. From 1838 to 1842, he was employed in the work of the expedition, visiting South America, Polynesia, from this point he returned overland.
The Hale Passages of Puget Sound were named in recognition of his service to the expedition, the expedition went on to Polynesia. Of the reports of that expedition, Hale prepared the sixth volume and Philology and he continued to travel and study abroad. Having taken his degree of M. A, Hale made a short tour of Europe, and, on his return, studied law. He was admitted to the Chicago bar in 1855, in 1856, the Hales moved to Clinton, Canada, where he administered the estate of his father-in-law. He began to involve himself locally in real estate development and other business and he continued to reside in Clinton till his death, devoting much attention to the development of the Ontario school system. The vicinity of the Canadian reserves on the banks of the Thames and he discovered, and in 1883 published, under the title, The Iroquois Book of Rites, two Indian manuscripts, dating between 1714 and 1735, which is the only literary American-Indian work extant. His judicious introductions, careful translation and editing add much to the value of the work, in 1884, at its Montreal meeting, he reorganised the section of anthropology as an independent department of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
He had already done a service for the American Association. At the request of the British committee, he undertook the supervision of the anthropological work in the Canadian North-west. The reports, which are elaborate, appeared in the published Proceedings from 1885 to 1897. Continuing a member of the committee, he was asked to accept the position of vice-president at the meeting in Toronto. Among other learned bodies Hale was a fellow of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain