An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
Geelong is a port city located on Corio Bay and the Barwon River, in the state of Victoria, Australia,75 kilometres south-west of the state capital, Melbourne. It is the second largest Victorian city, with an urban population of 191,440 as at June 2016. Geelong runs from the plains of Lara in the north to the hills of Waurn Ponds to the south, with Corio Bay to the east. Geelong is the centre for the City of Greater Geelong municipality. Geelong was named in 1827, with the derived from the local Wathaurong Aboriginal name for the region, Jillong. The area was first surveyed in 1838, three weeks after Melbourne, the post office was open by June 1840. The first woolstore was erected in this period and it became the port for the industry of the Western District. During the gold rush, Geelong experienced a boom as the main port to the rich goldfields of the Ballarat district. The city diversified into manufacturing, and during the 1860s, it one of the largest manufacturing centres in Australia with its wool mills, ropeworks.
Population increases over the last decade were due to growth in service industries, redevelopment of the inner city has occurred since the 1990s, as well as gentrification of inner suburbs, and currently has a population growth rate higher than the national average. It is known for being home to the Geelong Football Club, Geelong stands as an emerging health and advanced manufacturing hub. The area of Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula was originally occupied by the Wathaurong Indigenous Australian tribe, the first nonindigenous person recorded as visiting the region was Lt. John Murray, who commanded the brig HMS Lady Nelson. After anchoring outside Port Phillip Heads, on 1 February 1802, led by John Bowen, they explored the immediate area, returning to the Lady Nelson on 4 February. On reporting favourable findings, the Lady Nelson entered Port Phillip on 14 February, during this time, Murray explored the Geelong area and, whilst on the far side of the bay, claimed the entire area for Britain.
He named the bay Port King, after Philip Gidley King, Governor King renamed the bay Port Phillip after the first governor of New South Wales, Arthur Phillip. Arriving not long after Murray was Matthew Flinders, who entered Port Phillip on 27 April 1802, in October of the same year, the HMS Calcutta led by Lieutenant Colonel David Collins arrived in the bay to establish the Sullivan Bay penal colony. Collins was dissatisfied with the chosen, and sent a small party led by First Lieutenant J. H. Tuckey to investigate alternate sites. The party spent 22 October to 27 October on the shore of Corio Bay
City of Geelong
The City of Geelong was a local government area about 75 kilometres southwest of Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia. The city covered an area of 13.4 square kilometres, Geelong was the second municipality in Victoria, behind the City of Melbourne. It was established under the Geelong Incorporation Act in October 1849, on 8 December 1910, it was proclaimed a city. The City of Geelong was divided into five wards, each of which elected three councillors, Barwon Ward Bellarine Ward Fidge Ward Kardinia Ward Ormond Ward The city consisted of two parts. An additional section further to the north, between Victoria Street, Bell Parade and Thomson Road, included the suburb of Rippleside and part of Geelong North, * Estimate in the 1958 Victorian Year Book
Geelong Grammar School
Geelong Grammar School is an independent Anglican co-educational boarding and day school. The schools main campus is located in Corio on the outskirts of Geelong, Australia, overlooking Corio Bay. The schools fees are the most expensive in Australia based on a comparison of Year 12 student fees, in 2010 The Age reported that Geelong Grammar School ranked second among Australian schools based on the number of alumni who had received a top Order of Australia honour. The school is a member of the G20 Schools Group, the school has offered the International Baccalaureate since February 1997. The school was founded in 1855 as a diocesan school with the blessing of Bishop Perry by the Venerable Theodore Stretch, Archdeacon of Geelong. The school closed due to difficulties in 1860, only to reopen in 1863 with John Bracebridge Wilson. For many years Bracebridge Wilson ran the school at his own expense, in 1875, James Lister Cuthbertson joined the staff as Classics master. He had an influence upon the boys of the school and was much admired and loved by them in spite of his alcoholism.
Upon the death of Bracebridge Wilson in 1895, Cuthbertson became acting head master until the appointment of Leonard Harford Lindon early in the next year. Lindon ran the school for 15 years, but was never accepted by the old boys because he lacked the personal warmth with the boys that had been seen with Bracebridge Wilson and Cuthbertson. By the turn of the century the school was outgrowing its buildings in the centre of Geelong, the school council chose to open the head mastership to new applicants. Lindon reapplied but was rejected and the Revd Francis Ernest Brown was chosen as the new head master, in 1909, the school purchased a substantial amount of land in the rural Geelong suburb of Belmont, bounded by Thomson and Scott Streets, and Roslyn Road. On 21 October 1910, chairman of the school, W. T, manifold turned the first sod at the site of what was expected to be a new era for the school. These plans had faded by August 1911, when adjoining rural land was offered for sale as the Belmont Hill Estate, the school council judged that the adjacent suburban subdivision would work against their plans for a boarding school, not one catering for day boys.
The decision was made to buy land on the opposite side of Geelong at Corio. At the end of 1913 the school left its old buildings near the centre of Geelong, Brown put a greater emphasis on religion than his predecessors, and the new isolated location with its own chapel was ideal for this. Darlings boldest initiative was the starting of the Timbertop annexe, in the foothills of the Victorian Alps near Mansfield, in 1953. He attracted many acclaimed in their fields to work as masters at the school, including the historian Manning Clark, the musician Sir William McKie, thomas Ronald Garnett succeeded Darling in 1961
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Seat of local government
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, a guildhall, a Rathaus, or a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It usually houses the city or town council, its associated departments and it usually functions as the base of the mayor of a city, borough, or county / shire. By convention, until the mid 19th-century, a large open chamber formed an integral part of the building housing the council. The hall may be used for meetings and other significant events. This large chamber, the hall, has become synonymous with the whole building. The terms council chambers, municipal building or variants may be used locally in preference to town hall if no such large hall is present within the building, the local government may endeavor to use the town hall building to promote and enhance the quality of life of the community. In many cases, town halls serve not only as buildings for government functions and these may include art shows, stage performances and festivals.
Modern town halls or civic centres are designed with a great variety and flexibility of purpose in mind. As symbols of government and town halls have distinctive architecture. City hall buildings may serve as icons that symbolize their cities. The term town hall may be a one, often applied without regard to whether the building serves or served a town or a city. This is generally the case in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Hong Kong, english-speakers in some regions use the term city hall to designate the council offices of a municipality of city status. This is the case in North America, where a distinction is made between city halls and town halls, and is the case with Brisbane City Hall in Australia. The great hall of the town-house or municipal building, now commonly applied to the whole building city hall. Conversely, cities that have subdivisions with their own councils may have borough halls, in Scotland, local government in larger cities operates from the City Chambers, otherwise the Town House.
Elsewhere in English-speaking countries, other names are occasionally used, in London, the official headquarters of administration of the City of London retains its Anglo-Saxon name, the Guildhall, signifying a place where taxes were paid. In a small number of English cities the preferred term is Council House, this was the case in Bristol until 2012, when the building was renamed City Hall. In Birmingham, there is a distinction between the Council House, the seat of government, and the Town Hall, a concert
City of Greater Geelong
The City of Greater Geelong is a local government area in the Barwon South West region of Victoria, located in the western part of the state. It covers an area of 1,247 square kilometres and, the City is named after the main urban settlement located in the centre-west of the LGA, that is Geelong, which is the LGAs most populous urban centre with a population of 143,921. The Inquiry found that the council is riven with conflict, unable to manage Geelongs economic challenges, has dysfunctional leadership and has a culture of bullying. On the recommendation of the Commission, the Victorian Government dismissed the entire Greater Geelong City Council on 16 April 2016, on 25 May 2016, Dr Kathy Alexander, Peter Dorling and Laurinda Gardner were sworn in as administrators, replacing Yehudi Blacher. Likewise, the chairperson of the panel of administrators has the functions, powers. The council will be run by administrators until fresh council elections are held in 2017 and it provides customer services at its service centres in Belmont, Drysdale, Geelong West, Ocean Grove, Waurn Ponds and on Brougham St in Geelong
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
Joseph Reed (architect)
Joseph Reed, a Cornishman by birth, was probably the most influential Victorian era architect in Melbourne, Australia. He established a practice and Barnes in Melbourne in 1862, the practice now known as Bates Smart is one of the oldest continually operating in the world. Probably born in 1823 in Cornwall, Joseph Read arrived in Melbourne in 1853, the following year he won a design competition for the State Library of Victoria, designed the Bank of New South Wales in Collins Street and the Geelong Town Hall. In 1862 he partnered with Frederick Barnes, Sargoods Rippon Lea Estate at Elsternwick. His architecture remained however eclectic, including Italianate, Gothic, in 1883 Barnes retired from the partnership and Reed was joined by A. M. Henderson and F. J. Smart. In 1890 Henderson withdrew while N. B, the office became Bates and Smart. In 1890 Reed came into financial difficulties, and died of inanition and exhaustion, on 29 April, reeds buildings represent an impressive body of work much of which still exists today.
They include the classical State Library of Victoria, Collins Street Independent Church, Frederick Sargoods Rippon Lea Estate, the Trades Hall is grandly palatial, the worlds oldest and probably most splendid trades hall. Reed completed the building of St Pauls Anglican Cathedral to the designs of William Butterfield after that architect resigned the project in 1887, Reed was faithful to the original design, but provided most of the furnishings, including the elaborate pulpit. Melbourne Trades Hall Scots Church ANZ Bank, Collins Street Faraday School, Carlton Academy of Music, burnt down 1889. C Goode House Reed, Smart & Tappin Mutual Store, Flinders Street Metropolitan Gas Company Church of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Carlton Saunders, David