A community is a small or large social unit that has something in common, such as norms, values, or identity. Communities share a sense of place, situated in a given geographical area or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties define a sense of community. People tend to define those social ties as important to their identity and roles in social institutions. Although communities are small relative to personal social ties, "community" may refer to large group affiliations, such as national communities, international communities, virtual communities; the English-language word "community" derives from the Old French comuneté, which comes from the Latin communitas "community", "public spirit". Human communities may share intent, resources, preferences and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. In archaeological studies of social communities the term "community" is used in two ways, paralleling usage in other areas.
The first is an informal definition of community as a place. In this sense it is synonymous with the concept of an ancient settlement, whether a hamlet, town, or city; the second meaning is similar to the usage of the term in other social sciences: a community is a group of people living near one another who interact socially. Social interaction on a small scale can be difficult to identify with archaeological data. Most reconstructions of social communities by archaeologists rely on the principle that social interaction is conditioned by physical distance. Therefore, a small village settlement constituted a social community, spatial subdivisions of cities and other large settlements may have formed communities. Archaeologists use similarities in material culture—from house types to styles of pottery—to reconstruct communities in the past; this is based on the assumption that people or households will share more similarities in the types and styles of their material goods with other members of a social community than they will with outsiders.
In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. Community ecology is the branch of ecology that studies interactions among species, it considers how such interactions, along with interactions between species and the abiotic environment, affect community structure and species richness and patterns of abundance. Species interact in three ways: competition and mutualism. Competition results in a double negative—that is both species lose in the interaction. Predation is a win/lose situation with one species winning. Mutualism, on the other hand, involves both species cooperating in some way, with both winning; the two main types of communities are major which are self-sustaining and self-regulating and minor communities which rely on other communities and are the building blocks of major communities. In Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies described two types of human association: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
Tönnies proposed the Gemeinschaft–Gesellschaft dichotomy as a way to think about social ties. No group is one or the other. Gemeinschaft stress personal social interactions, the roles and beliefs based on such interactions. Gesellschaft stress indirect interactions, impersonal roles, formal values, beliefs based on such interactions. In a seminal 1986 study, McMillan and Chavis identify four elements of "sense of community": membership, influence and fulfillment of needs, shared emotional connection. A "sense of community index was developed by Chavis and colleagues, revised and adapted by others. Although designed to assess sense of community in neighborhoods, the index has been adapted for use in schools, the workplace, a variety of types of communities. Studies conducted by the APPA indicate that young adults who feel a sense of belonging in a community small communities, develop fewer psychiatric and depressive disorders than those who do not have the feeling of love and belonging; the process of learning to adopt the behavior patterns of the community is called socialization.
The most fertile time of socialization is the early stages of life, during which individuals develop the skills and knowledge and learn the roles necessary to function within their culture and social environment. For some psychologists those in the psychodynamic tradition, the most important period of socialization is between the ages of one and ten, but socialization includes adults moving into a different environment, where they must learn a new set of behaviors. Socialization is influenced by the family, through which children first learn community norms. Other important influences include schools, peer groups, mass media, the workplace, government; the degree to which the norms of a particular society or community are adopted determines one's willingness to engage with others. The norms of tolerance and trust are important "habits of the heart," as de Tocqueville put it, in an individual's involvement in community. Community development is linked with community work or community planning, may involve stakeholders, governments, or contracted entities incl
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Venstre, full name Venstre, Danmarks Liberale Parti, is a conservative-liberal, agrarian political party in Denmark. Founded as part of a peasants' movement against the landed aristocracy, today it espouses an economically liberal pro-free market ideology. Venstre is the major party of the centre-right in Denmark, the third largest party in the country; the party has produced many Prime Ministers. Denmark's current government is a minority government consisting of Venstre, the Liberal Alliance, the Conservative People's Party, with external support from the Danish People's Party. In the 2015 parliamentary elections, Venstre received 19.5% of the vote, 34 out of 179 seats. It is led by Lars Løkke Rasmussen, who took over as party leader and Prime Minister from Anders Fogh Rasmussen when the latter became Secretary General of NATO in 2009; the party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. One of Denmark's thirteen MEPs are from Venstre in the 2014-19 term of office, they sit with the ALDE Group in the European Parliament.
Venstre is categorised as centre-right on the political spectrum. It is a market liberal party within the Nordic agrarian tradition, today is notably more pro-free market than its sister parties; some describe it as classical liberal, since its leader from 1998 to 2009, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, is known for his authorship of the book From Social State to Minimal State. His book advocated an extensive reform of the Danish welfare state along classical liberal lines, including lower taxes and less government interference in corporate and individual matters. Since the elections in 2001, Venstre has enacted a so-called "tax stop" in order to halt the growth in taxes seen during the previous eight years under the Social Democrats; this tax stop has been under heavy fire from the parties on the left wing of Danish politics for being "asocial" and "only for the rich." Venstre, or "the Left" in English, was founded in 1870 under the name Det Forenede Venstre. It was formed through the merger of three parliamentary factions, all of whom had identified as leftist in the context of the time.
From 1895 to 1910 it was known as Venstrereformpartiet, after that as Venstre. Venstre was traditionally a party advocating free trade and farmers' interests as opposed to the interests of the aristocracy which were the platform of the conservative party, Højre; this traditional landed basis resulted in a relative decline in influence due to the accelerating urbanisation of Danish society. Starting in the 1880s, the party began expanding into urban regions as well. By the 1910s, the splitting off of the Social Liberals and the appearance of the Social Democrats had pushed Venstre toward the centre, it relied on its former conservative adversaries for parliamentary support. After the 1960s these developments reoriented Venstre from a classical liberal party to conservative liberalism. During the leadership of Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the party turned further to the right. 1901–1909 1910–1913 1920–1924 1926–1929 1945–1947 1950–53 with the Conservative People's Party 1968–71 with the Conservative People's Party and the Danish Social Liberal Party 1973–75 1978–79 with the Social Democratic Party 1982–88 with the Conservative People's Party, Centre Democrats, the Christian People's Party 1988–90 with the Conservative People's Party and Social Liberal Party 1990–93 with the Conservative People's Party 2001–11 with the Conservative People's Party 2015–16 2016– with the Liberal Alliance and the Conservative People's Party Johan Henrik Deuntzer Jens Christian Christensen Niels Neergaard Ludvig Holstein-Ledreborg Klaus Berntsen Niels Neergaard Thomas Madsen-Mygdal Knud Kristensen Erik Eriksen Poul Hartling Anders Fogh Rasmussen Lars Løkke Rasmussen The fact that the major centre-right political party in a country calls itself'Left' is confusing to foreign observers.
The name has, its historical explanation. At the time of its foundation, Venstre affirmed then-progressive ideas in the Danish parliament, their opponents, Højre, the forerunner of the present-day Conservative People's Party, advocated for established interests the Church of Denmark and the landed gentry. In current Danish politics there is a clear distinction between the concepts of Venstre and venstrefløj; the use of the word for "left" in the name of the Danish political party Radikale Venstre and the Norwegian party Venstre is meant to refer to liberalism and not socialism. Members of the party are referred to as venstremænd and venstrekvinder "Venstre men" and "Venstre women". Venstres Ungdom Liberal Students of Denmark Liberalism Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Liberalism and radicalism in Denmark Nordic agrarian parties Tom Matz, Venstre ved du hvor du har. ForlagsKompagniet: Nørhaven Book. Venstre official site Denmark's Li
Amager in the Øresund is Denmark's most densely populated island, with 200,000 inhabitants on the small appendix to Zealand. The protected natural area of Naturpark Amager makes up more than one-third of the island's total area of 96 km2; the Danish capital, Copenhagen, is situated on Amager, connected to the much larger island of Zealand by eight bridges and a metro tunnel. Amager has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge, its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km from Copenhagen city centre. Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, the only one with a large population; as of 2017, 196,045 people lived on the island, including its northern tip, Christianshavn. The northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality; the middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island. Most of the western part is land, claimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s.
This enlargement, from the shallow sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isn't suitable for agricultural use; however the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality. Amager has in the past been referred to as the "kitchen of Copenhagen". At the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden. Amager has long been populated, well used, thanks to its rich soil and proximity to Copenhagen. In 1521, Christian II invited some Dutch farmers to move to Amager and grow vegetables to supply the Danish Court and Copenhagen, it was only in the late 19th century that Copenhagen began to expand onto the island, in 1902 these built-up areas were incorporated into Copenhagen. During the Second World War, high unemployment in Copenhagen led authorities to drain a large part of the sea, west of the island, build a dam to hold out the water adding one half of Amager's previous area to the island.
The claimed area is known as Kalvebod Fælled, was a military area, but today it is part of a major construction area called the Ørestad, being thought of as an extension to central Copenhagen. The area houses major facilities such as: Bella Center, a convention and exposition center Field's, the second-largest shopping center in Scandinavia Royal Arena, a multi-use indoor arenaThis project was initiated by the Danish government; the beach area to the east of the island, known as Amager Strandpark, which had fallen into disrepair since its inception in the 1930s, was extensively redeveloped between May 2004 and August 2005. A 2-km-long artificial island was constructed just off the mainland, from which it is separated by a small lagoon; until the 1970s, Amager was used as a place to dump litter. See Renholdningsselskabet af 1898. Large parts of Kalvebod Fælled are rich in nature and have many grazing cows and horses; this area allows the citizens of Copenhagen to experience nature, without travelling far from the city.
Amager is home to the Amager Bio, a cinema and cultural venue. Top bands from the last 40 years have played there, both those of international origin and from Denmark. Various communities are located on Amager, including Islands Brygge, the towns of Dragør, Tårnby. Amager is connected by tunnel to the artificial island Peberholm from which Øresund Bridge connects Denmark to Sweden; the construction of the bridge has had a significant impact on the physical geography of the island due to the construction of new highways. The Copenhagen Metro connects Amager to central Copenhagen; the metro line from Vanløse to Amager divides into M1 and M2 lines at Christianshavn and continue to Vestamager and Lufthavnen. Copenhagen Airport is in the eastern part of Amager, it is linked by train and bus services. Christiane Koren a Danish-Norwegian writer Klaus Rifbjerg a Danish writer Ole Rasmussen a Danish former football player Frank Arnesen a former Danish footballer Morten Stig Christensen a former Danish handball player Brian Holm a retired Danish professional rider in road bicycle racing Peter Frödin a Danish actor and singer Linse Kessler a Danish television personality and businesswoman Jacob Moe Rasmussen a Danish former cyclist Mikkel Kessler a Danish former professional boxer Christine Milton a Danish pop singer and professional dancer Martin Bernburg a Danish professional footballer Joey Moe a Danish-Hawaiian hip hop pop singer and producer Nicklas Bendtner a Danish professional footballer Christopher known as Christopher Nissen, is a Danish singer Cisilia known as Cisilia Ismailova, is a Danish singer Amager portalList of islands of Denmark Amager Beach Park Amager Bio Paintings from Amager
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Ringsted is a city located centrally in the Danish island of Zealand. It is the seat of a municipality of the same name. Ringsted is 60 km from Copenhagen. Ringsted Station is the last station before trains bound for Funen and Jutland diverge from trains bound for Lolland-Falster and Puttgarden/Hamburg. Ringsted is one of Denmark's busiest transit cities; the city is located in the middle of Zealand, connecting both the southern parts of Zealand as well as Funen and Jutland with the Copenhagen area. Danish Tramway Museum of Skjoldenæsholm, near Jystrup. Ringsted Station, served by both DSB domestic trains and international services to Hamburg: frequent services to Copenhagen, Nykøbing Falster and Odense, although not all trains to Jutland stop at Ringsted — the bus station is in front of the railway station. St. Bendt's Church — a Romanesque, former Benedictine, abbey church containing numerous tombs of medieval Danish royalty. Ringsted was the site of Sjællands Landsting during the Middle Ages, which in 1584 moved to St. Bendt's church and became known as Sjællandsfar Landsting.
In 1805 it moved to Copenhagen and was renamed Østre Landsret, is still active under this name. In 1131, Canute Lavard was killed in Haraldsted forest; the town arms goes back to 1421. There has been much discussion about; the traditional answer is at the top the hand of God and under that Virgin Mary with Jesus surrounded by three figures that worship her. The city interprets the three figures as Saint Canute Lavard, King Eric Plovpenning, Saint Benedict of Nursia; the church was consecrated in 1170. In front of the church is the spacious town square leading to the shopping streets with shops and boutiques for every taste. Ringsted features two shopping centers named Ringsted Outlet Center. Ringsted has a wide selection of cafes and restaurants, as well as two local breweries. During the summer months, a mobile tourist office is opened in the town square. Jørgen Roed Danish portrait and genre painter of the Golden Age of Danish Painting P. C. Skovgaard a Danish national romantic landscape painter Frederik Vermehren a genre and portrait painter in the realist style Sophus Schandorph 1836–1901) a Danish poet and novelist, one of the men of the Modern Break-through Per Gundmann a Danish stage and film actor Jette Baagøe the director of the Danish Museum of Hunting and Forestry Poul Ruders a Danish organist and composer Michael Brockenhuus-Schack a Danish count and landowner of Giesegaard and Juellund Dominus a death metal band from Ringsted Fritz Tarp a Danish football player, with 250 caps with B93 and 44 caps for Denmak, 26 as captain Omar Hermansen a Danish boxer who competed in the 1936 Summer Olympics Jan Wiktor Wiśniewski a Polish footballer who competed in the 1952 Summer Olympics Ulrich Vinzents a Danish retired footballer, over 450 team caps Henrik Hansen a Danish cricketer Anders Oechsler a retired Danish handball player Kristian Pedersen a Danish footballer who plays for Birmingham City Gyöngyös - Hungary Halden - Norway Kutná Hora - Czech Republic Ringsted, United States Skövde Municipality - Sweden Vammala - Finland Statistics and Figures Ringsted municipality Visitringsted
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism. With his writings, many composed while exiled in London, he attempted to influence the situation in Russia, contributing to a political climate that led to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, he published the important social novel Who is to Blame?. His autobiography, My Past and Thoughts, is considered the best specimen of that genre in Russian literature. Herzen was born out of wedlock to a rich Russian landowner, Ivan Yakovlev, a young German Protestant woman, Henriette Wilhelmina Luisa Haag from Stuttgart. Yakovlev gave his son the surname Herzen because he was a "child of his heart", he was first cousin to Count Sergei Lvovich Levitsky, considered the patriarch of Russian photography and one of Europe's most important early photographic pioneers and innovators. In 1860, Levitsky would immortalize Herzen in a famous photo capturing the writer's essence and being.
Herzen was born in Moscow, shortly before Napoleon's invasion of Russia and brief occupation of the city. His father, after a personal interview with Napoleon, was allowed to leave Moscow after agreeing to bear a letter from the French to the Russian emperor in St. Petersburg, his family accompanied him to the Russian lines. A year the family returned to Moscow, remaining there after Herzen had completed his studies at Moscow University. In 1834, Herzen and his lifelong friend Nikolay Ogarev were arrested and tried on charges of having attended a festival during which verses by Sokolovsky that were uncomplimentary to the tsar, were sung, he was found guilty, in 1835 banished to Vyatka, now Kirov, in north-eastern European Russia. He remained there until 1837, when the tsar's son, Grand Duke Alexander, accompanied by the poet Zhukovsky, visited the city and intervened on his behalf. Herzen was allowed to leave Vyatka for Vladimir, where he was appointed editor of the city's official gazette. In 1837, he eloped with his cousin Natalya Zakharina, secretly marrying her.
In 1839 he was set free and returned to Moscow in 1840, where he met literary critic Vissarion Belinsky, influenced by him. Upon arrival he was appointed as secretary to Count Alexander Stroganov in the ministry of the interior at St Petersburg. In 1846, his father died. In 1847, Herzen emigrated with his wife and children, never to return to Russia. From Italy, on hearing of the revolution of 1848, he hastened to Paris and to Switzerland, he supported the revolutions of 1848, but was bitterly disillusioned with European socialist movements after their failure. It was as a political writer, his assets in Russia were frozen because of his emigration, however Baron Rothschild with whom his family had a business relationship negotiated the release of the assets, which were nominally transferred to Rothschild. Herzen and his wife Natalia had four children together, his mother and one of his sons died in a shipwreck in 1851. His wife carried on an affair with the German poet Georg Herwegh and died from tuberculosis in 1852.
That same year, Herzen left Geneva for London. He hired Malwida von Meysenbug to educate his daughters. With the publications of his Free Russian Press, which he founded in London in 1853, he attempted to influence the situation in Russia and improve the situation of the Russian peasantry he idolized. In 1856 he was joined in London by his old friend Nikolay Ogarev; the two worked together on their Russian periodical Kolokol. Soon Herzen began an affair with Ogarev's wife Natalia Tuchkova, daughter of the war hero general Tuchkov. Tuchkova bore Herzen three more children. Ogarev found the friendship between Herzen and Ogarev survived. Herzen spent time in London organising with the International Workingmen's Association, becoming well acquainted with revolutionary circles including the likes of Bakunin and Marx, it was during his time in London that Herzen began to make a name for himself for "scandal-mongering" when he told Bakunin, freshly arrived having escaped imprisonment in Siberia, that Marx had accused him of being a Russian agent.
In 1864, Herzen returned to Geneva, after some time went to Paris, where he died in 1870 of tuberculosis complications. Buried in Paris, his remains were taken to Nice. Herzen was disillusioned with the Revolutions of 1848 but not disillusioned with revolutionary thought, he became critical of those 1848 revolutionaries who were "so revolted by the Reaction after 1848, so exasperated by everything European, that they hastened on to Kansas or California". Herzen had always broadly adopted its values. In his early writings, he viewed the French Revolution as the end of history, the final stage in social development of a society based on humanism and harmony. Throughout his early life, Herzen saw himself as a revolutionary radical called to fight the political oppression of Nicholas I of Russia. Herzen fought against the ruling elites in Europe, against Christian hypocrisy and for individual freedom and self-expression, he promoted both socialism and individualism and ar