Dehumanizer is the 16th studio album by English rock band Black Sabbath, released in June 1992. It was Sabbath's first studio album in over a decade to feature vocalist Ronnie James Dio and drummer Vinny Appice, their first in nine years to feature original bassist Geezer Butler. Initial writing and demo sessions at Rich Bitch Studios in Birmingham featured drummer Cozy Powell; the album's lineup – Dio, Appice and guitarist Tony Iommi – reunited in 2006 for a greatest hits set, Black Sabbath: The Dio Years, a new studio album in 2009, The Devil You Know. The album was re-released, with bonus content, on 7 February 2011. Lyrically and musically, Dehumanizer is considered one of Sabbath's heaviest albums. Lyrical themes vary from a computer worshipped as a god, to televangelists, to individualism and doubts about the afterlife; the album was recorded at Rockfield Studios. It was intended to feature Cozy Powell Sabbath's drummer, but he was immobilised by a broken pelvic bone sustained in a horse riding accident.
Dio wanted to replace Powell with Simon Wright, from AC/DC and his own band, but Butler and Iommi rejected him. They instead recruited Vinny Appice, who had served as Sabbath's drummer during most of Dio's previous tenure with the band, from 1980–1982. During sessions for the album, Tony Martin made a short comeback when invited by the band to try the songs out, he stayed for just a couple of the band continued with Dio. Martin stated: "I had started my first solo album Back Where I Belong – so, when I got the call to go back, I was committed by that point, and in fact it was just a couple of months. I so turned them down at that point. We did keep in touch though and I went to some shows. Ronnie wasn’t too pleased, but they had enough and asked me to rejoin again so it felt like I hadn’t left. In fact, I was never formally fired. Ian Gillan asked me once if I had been fired and I said,'No.' He said,'Neither have I.' We should just turn up one day and walk on stage!"Demo sessions with Powell yielded numerous recordings, including two unreleased songs – "The Night Life", whose riff was used for "Psychophobia" on Cross Purposes, "Bad Blood", which sounds similar to "I" on Dehumanizer.
These songs can be found, along with other demos and untitled songs, on the Complete Dehumanizer Sessions bootleg. "Computer God" was the title of an unreleased song by The Geezer Butler Band, in 1986 – only the title made it to Dehumanizer. The Butler version is available as a download on his website. "Master of Insanity" was an unreleased Geezer Butler Band track, of which the Dehumanizer version is a rerecording. "We wanted it to be real rock'n' roll: real basic," Dio told WERS' Nasty Habits show. "We wanted to capture what we are live and that's what I think we did. We didn't do a lot of chorus-y kind of things. I think the important thing is that a band should be able to do all the things they do on record live, without any kind of sampling crap or that rubbish – so, of course, we didn't. We recorded it true to what the band is: just guitar, bass and vocals, y'know – a couple of keyboard things here and there."Although the Sabbath lineup was the same as 1981's Mob Rules, the musical direction is different, a marked change from their previous material the preceding Tyr.
Much of the album anticipates the directions taken by Dio in his eponymous solo band's next two records, Strange Highways and Angry Machines. Commercially, the album marked a resurgence for Sabbath, it reached the Top 40 in the UK, peaked at number 44 on the Billboard 200 chart. "It was good to try that with Ronnie…" Iommi reflected in 1997. " we lost millions on it… because of the time we took to record it, fly backwards and forwards to the States with everything, all the gear. Cozy was involved he wasn't."This incarnation of Sabbath ended when Dio's contract with the band ended several days before the Costa Mesa reunion shows in November 1992. According to Iommi, Dio quit because he was asked to support Ozzy Osbourne's final shows at Costa Mesa, referring to Ozzy as a "clown". Dio would not record or perform with the band again until 2006. For the two Costa Mesa shows, the band replaced Dio with Judas Priest frontman Rob Halford. Halford and Dio were friends and Halford would only do the Costa Mesa shows with Dio's blessing, which he received when he spoke with Dio by phone.
Both shows were unofficially recorded in their entirety and are now circulated as audio and video bootlegs. Dehumanizer is included in the Black Sabbath box set The Rules of Hell; the album was rereleased on 7 February 2011. This version includes a bonus disc with alternate recordings of several songs and several other songs recorded on 25 July 1992 in Tampa
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.
It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.
Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.
Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body. Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented by Doc Kauffman.
It is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937. The solid-body electric guitar is made without functionally resonating air spaces; the first solid-body Spanish standard guitar was offered by Vivi-Tone no than 1934. This model featured a guitar-shaped body of a single sheet
Born Again (Black Sabbath album)
Born Again is the 11th studio album by English heavy metal band Black Sabbath, released in August of 1983. It is the only album the group recorded with lead vocalist Ian Gillan, best known for his work with Deep Purple, it was the last Black Sabbath album for nine years to feature original bassist Geezer Butler, the last to feature drummer Bill Ward until he played the studio tracks on their 1998 live album Reunion. The album has received mixed to negative reviews from critics, but it was a commercial success upon its 1983 release, reaching No. 4 in the UK charts. The album hit the top 40 in the United States. Following the departure of vocalist Ronnie James Dio and drummer Vinny Appice in 1982, Sabbath's future was in doubt; the band switched management to Don Arden and he suggested Ian Gillan as the new vocalist. "That band was put together on paper," guitarist Tony Iommi revealed in the 1992 documentary Black Sabbath: 1978–1992. "We'd never rehearsed." The band had considered vocalists such as Robert Plant and David Coverdale before settling on Gillan.
They received an audition tape from the then-unknown Michael Bolton. Iommi told Hit Parader magazine in 1983 that Gillan was the best candidate, saying "His shriek is legendary." Gillan was at first reluctant, but his manager convinced him to meet with Iommi and Butler at The Bear pub in Oxford. After a night of heavy drinking, Gillan committed to the project in February 1983; the project was intended to be a supergroup, not billed as Sabbath but Arden insisted they use the name. "We thought we were doing a kind of Gillan-Iommi-Butler-Ward album…" recalled bassist Geezer Butler. "That is the way. When we had finished the album, we took it to the record company and they said,'Well, here's the contract: it is going to go out as a Black Sabbath album."Born Again featured the return of founding member Bill Ward on drums, who had left the band in 1980 and was newly sober. Ward has said, it was his final studio album with the band. Sabbath began recording in May 1983 at Richard Branson's Manor Studio, in the Oxfordshire countryside.
Producer Robin Black had worked as engineer on Sabotage. In his autobiography, Iommi recounts Gillan informing him that, during sessions, he planned to live outside the house in a marquee tent: "I thought he was joking, but when I arrived at the Manor I saw this marquee outside and I thought, fucking hell, he's serious. Ian had put up this huge tent, it had a cooking area and a bedroom and whatever else." Gillan brought an immediacy to the songwriting, uncommon for Sabbath: "Ian's lyrics were about sexual things or true facts about stuff that happened at The Manor there and then," Iommi recalls in his memoir. "They were good, but quite a departure from Geezer's and Ronnie's lyrics." For example, Gillan returned from a local pub one evening, took a car belonging to drummer Ward, commenced racing around a go-cart track on the Manor Studio property. He crashed the car, he wrote the album's opening "Trashed" about the experience. "Disturbing the Priest" was written after a rehearsal space set up by Iommi in a small building near a local church received noise complaints from the resident priests."We wanted this effect on'Disturbing the Priest'," recalled Iommi, "and Bill got this big bucket of water and he got this anvil.
It was heavy, he'd got it hanging on a piece of rope and lower it in to get this effect: hit it and lower it in, lift it out again. It was a great effect, but it took hours to do."Although the band got along well, it became apparent to all involved that Gillan's style did not quite mesh with the Sabbath sound. In 1992, Gillan told director Martin Baker, "I was the worst singer Black Sabbath had, it was totally incompatible with any music they'd done. I didn't wear leathers, I wasn't of that image... I think the fans were in a total state of confusion." In 1992, Iommi admitted to Guitar World, "Ian is a great singer, but he's from a different background, it was difficult for him to come in and sing Sabbath material." When the band heard the final product they were horrified at the muffled mix. In his autobiography, Iommi explains that Gillan inadvertently blew a couple of tweeters in the studio speakers by playing the backing tracks too loud and nobody noticed. "We just thought it was a bit of a funny sound, but it went wrong somewhere between the mix and the mastering and the pressing of that album...the sound was dull and muffly.
I didn't know about it, because we were out on tour in Europe. By the time we heard the album, it was out and in the charts, but the sound was awful." For all his misgivings, Gillan remembers the period fondly, stating in the Black Sabbath: 1978–1992 documentary, "But by God, we had a good year... And the songs, I think, were quite good." The album's cover was cursorily by Steve'Krusher' Joule, based on a black-and-white photocopy of a baby photo published in a 1968 magazine. Martin Popoff described the creature on the cover as a "garish red devil-baby". Bill Ward has said that he hated the album's cover and according to him, Ian Gillan told the press that he vomited when he first saw it. However, Tony Iommi approved the album cover, considered one of the worst ever. Ben Mitchell of Blender called the cover "awful"; the British magazine, Kerrang!, ranked the cover in second place, behind only the Scorpions' Lovedrive, on their list of "10 Worst Album Sleeves in Metal/Hard Rock". The list was based on votes from the magazine's readers.
NME included the sleeve on their list of the "29 sickest album covers ever". Black Sabbath's mana
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Krokus are a hard rock and heavy metal band from Switzerland. They enjoyed great success in North America during the 1980s. Krokus were founded in Solothurn in 1975 by bassist/keyboardist/percussionist Chris von Rohr and guitarist Tommy Kiefer. Former TEA vocalist Marc Storace joined the band as frontman in time for their Metal Rendez-vous album in 1979. Krokus was formed in 1975 as a progressive rock act; the group's original lead singer, Peter Richard left before the first album was recorded, leaving lead guitarist Tommy Kiefer to handle lead vocal duties for the band's self-titled debut album. However, Chris von Rohr the drummer, switched to lead vocals for the follow-up record, remaining in this capacity into the late 1970s, with several new members from the band Montezuma joining the lineup. With this incarnation, Krokus became successful in Switzerland. After seeing AC/DC in concert in the late 1970s, they decided to change their musical direction and adopted a new sound, influenced by that band.
Since von Rohr possessed limited vocal abilities and was not capable of hitting the third octave, the band decided to hire a new lead vocalist. After trying out several other frontmen, Marc Storace of TEA and Eazy Money, was hired in 1979. With the new line-up in place, the band recorded and released the album Metal Rendez-vous in 1980, Krokus' first hit and brought the band international recognition; the 1981 follow-up album, was recorded at the Roundhouse Studios in London and featured such songs as "Easy Rocker" and "Rock City", which are still a part of the band's live repertoire today. Lead guitarist Tommy Kiefer was forced to leave the band due to a heroin addiction early into the tour supporting Hardware and was replaced by newcomer Mandy Meyer. Kiefer died on December 24, 1986. Meyer soon left, replaced by Mark Kohler, teamed up with bassist Tommy Keiser of fellow Swiss rockers Roxane to start his own band. Setting up headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee under the guidance of Krokus manager Butch Stone, the duo would recruit former Target vocalist Jimi Jamison, guitarist/keyboardist Jack Holder, drummer Jeff Klaven and issued their sole album, First Strike, under the name Cobra in 1983.
Klaven and Keiser would both subsequently join Krokus. Meyer went on to join Asia. Jamison would provide backing vocals on several Krokus albums before going on to join the massively successful band, Survivor. In 1982, with new American management, Krokus recorded One Vice at a Time, which features the hits, "Long Stick Goes Boom," and the Guess Who cover, "American Woman". Chris von Rohr described the album at the time as "the album AC/DC never made", as the influence of the Australian band is difficult to ignore; the comparisons cast doubt on the creativity of the band, as many listeners now, in spite of the Swiss band's much wider musical-spectrum, began to regard Krokus as AC/DC imitators. Krokus became popular in Europe and began to receive attention and success in the United States. 1983's Headhunter was awarded Platinum album status in the United States and hit number 25 in the 1983 Billboard 200 album chart. The album was Krokus' most successful album to date, both critically, it boasted the hit power ballad "Screaming in the Night", which saw heavy rotation on MTV and would become one of the band's most recognizable songs.
Judas Priest's Rob Halford contributed backing vocals on the song "Ready to Burn". Bassist/keyboardist/percussionist Chris von Rohr was fired in late 1983 due to his extroverted article published in a main Swiss Newspaper exposing the band's rock'n`roll habits, prior to the band's appearance at the RockPop Festival in Dortmund, with rhythm guitarist Mark Kohler switching over to bass and Patrick Mason, aka Patrick Mahassen, who had played in the Swiss band Crown, taking over rhythm guitar duties for the remainder of the Headhunter tour; the tour for this album featured Mark Kohler returning to his main instrument, with Andy Tanas joining on the bass. These shows featured Loverboy's Doug Johnson on keyboards. Meanwhile, von Rohr would go on to release a solo album in 1987 entitled Hammer and Tongue, which featured contributions from his former Krokus bandmates. Pushed into a corner by their own management and record company, 1984 saw the band move in a Glam-Rock direction with The Blitz, which featured a cover of Sweet's 1973 hit "The Ballroom Blitz".
Though a commercial success, the album was panned critically. The band hit the Billboard Hot 100 with "Midnite Maniac" from that album, becoming the first Swiss act to do so. Capitalizing on the wave of success enjoyed by heavy metal in the mid-1980s, the band released Change of Address in 1986, which featured a cover of the Alice Cooper standard "School's Out"; the album production was way too clean and polished for Krokus and it became a commercial failure. To counterbalance this, Krokus soon released a live album entitled Alive and Screamin' while the band transitioned from Arista Records to MCA for the release of their Heart Attack album in 1988. Heart Attack was a last desperate attempt to keep the band together, it saw the return of bassist/keyboardist/percussionist Chris von Rohr with Dani Crivelli on drums and was written and produced in the band's early 80's style. However the Swiss flagship of international-heavy-rock needed time ou
Robert Anthony Plant is an English singer and musician, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of the rock band Led Zeppelin. Plant is regarded as one of the greatest vocalists in the history of rock music. Plant enjoyed great success with Led Zeppelin throughout the 1970s and developed a compelling image as the charismatic rock-and-roll front man, similar to contemporaries such as Roger Daltrey of the Who, Freddie Mercury of Queen, Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones and Jim Morrison of the Doors. With his mane of long blond hair and powerful, bare-chested appearance, Plant helped to create the "god of rock and roll" or "rock god" archetype. Although Led Zeppelin dissolved in 1980, Plant collaborated with Jimmy Page on various projects through this period, including forming a short-lived all-star group with Page and Jeff Beck in 1984, called the Honeydrippers, they released an album called The Honeydrippers: Volume One, the band had a No. 3 hit with a remake of the Phil Phillips' tune "Sea of Love", plus a follow-up hit with a cover of Roy Brown's "Rockin' at Midnight".
A powerful and wide vocal range has given him a successful singing career spanning over 50 years. In 2008, Rolling Stone editors ranked him number 15 on their list of the 100 best singers of all time. In 2011, Rolling Stone readers ranked Plant the greatest of all lead singers. In 2006, magazine Hit Parader named Plant the "Greatest Metal Vocalist of All Time". In 2009, Plant was voted "the greatest voice in rock" in a poll conducted by Planet Rock. Robert Anthony Plant was born on 20 August 1948, in the Black Country town of West Bromwich, England, to Robert C. Plant, a qualified civil engineer who worked in the Royal Air Force during World War II, Annie Celia Plant, a Romanichal woman, he grew up in Worcestershire. Plant gained an interest in roll music at an early age; when I was a kid I used to hide behind the curtains at home at Christmas and I used to try and be Elvis. There was a certain ambience between the curtains and the French windows, there was a certain sound there for a ten-year-old.
That was all the ambience I got at ten years old... I think! And I always wanted to be a curtain, a bit similar to that, he left King Edward VI Grammar School for Boys in Stourbridge in his mid-teens and developed a strong passion for the blues through his admiration for Willie Dixon, Robert Johnson and early rendition of songs in this genre. I suppose I was quite interested in Romano-British history. I was a little grammar school boy and I could hear this kind of calling through the airwaves, he abandoned training as a chartered accountant after only two weeks to attend college in an effort to gain more GCE passes and to become part of the English Midlands blues scene. "I left home at 16", he said, "and I started my real education musically, moving from group to group, furthering my knowledge of the blues and of other music which had weight and was worth listening to". Plant's early blues influences included Johnson, Bukka White, Skip James, Jerry Miller, Sleepy John Estes. Plant had various jobs while pursuing his music career, one of, working for the major British construction company Wimpey in Birmingham in 1967 laying tarmac on roads.
He worked at Woolworth's in Halesowen town for a short period of time. He cut three obscure singles on CBS Records and sang with a variety of bands, including the Crawling King Snakes, which brought him into contact with drummer John Bonham, they both went on merging blues with newer psychedelic trends. In 1968, guitarist Jimmy Page was in search of a lead singer for his new band and met Plant after being turned down by his first choice, Terry Reid, who referred him to a show at a teacher training college in Birmingham. In front of Page, Plant sang Jefferson Airplane's "Somebody to Love", leading Page to the end of his search; as recalled by Plant and Page:Plant: I was appearing at this college when Peter and Jimmy turned up and asked me if I'd like to join the Yardbirds. I knew the Yardbirds had done a lot of work in America – which to me meant audiences who would want to know what I might have to offer – so I was interested. Page: When I auditioned him and heard him sing, I thought there must be something wrong with him personality-wise or that he had to be impossible to work with, because I just could not understand why, after he told me he'd been singing for a few years he hadn't become a big name yet.
So I had him down to my place for a little while, just to sort of check him out, we got along great. No problems. With a shared passion for music and Page developed a strong relationship, began their writing collaboration with reworkings of earlier blues songs. Plant received no songwriting credits on the band's first album because he was still under contract to CBS Records at the time. Plant brought along John Bonham as drummer, they were joined by John Paul Jones, who had worked with Page as a studio musician. Jones called Page on the phone before they checked out Plant, Page hired Jones immediately. Dubbed the "New Yardbirds" in 1968, the band soon came to be known as Led Zeppelin; the band's eponymous debut album hit the charts in 1969 and is credited as a catalyst for the heavy metal genre. Plant has commented that it is unfair for people to think of Zeppelin as heavy metal, as a third of their music was acoustic. In 1969, Led Zeppelin I was released; this was the bands' first album. Plant stated that "During Led Zeppelin I, as far as I was concerned I thought that I was g