A number of flutes dating to the European Upper Paleolithic have been discovered. The undisputed claims are all products of the Aurignacian archaeological culture, beginning about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago and these flutes represent the earliest known musical instruments and provide valuable evidence of prehistoric music. The presence of these flutes demonstrates that a musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The artifact known as the Divje Babe flute, discovered in Slovenia in 1995, has claimed as the oldest flute. The artifact is a cave bear femur,43100 ±700 years old and its discoverer suggested the holes were man made and that there may have been four originally before the item was damaged. However, other scientists have argued that the holes are the result of the bone fragment having been chewed by a rather than by human design. Until 2012 the oldest undisputed musical instrument was the Hohle Fels Flute discovered in the Hohle Fels cave in Germanys Swabian Alb in 2008, the flute is made from a vultures wing bone perforated with five finger holes, and dates to approximately 35,000 years ago.
Several years before, two made of mute swan bone and one made of woolly mammoth ivory were found in the nearby Geisenklösterle cave. The team that made the Hohle Fels discovery wrote that these finds are the earliest evidence of humans being engaged in musical culture. They suggested music may have helped to maintain bonds between groups of humans, and that this may have helped the species to expand both in numbers and in geographical range. Art of the Upper Paleolithic 35.000 Jahre alte Flöten gefunden, swr. de, Retrieved on June 29,2009 Music played on Divje Babe flute by Ljuben Dimkaroski on YouTube
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves and it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no rivers or lakes, the English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century. The German word came into use before the 19th century, according to the prevalent interpretation, the term is derived from the German name for the Karst region, a limestone plateau above the city of Trieste in the northern Adriatic. Scholars disagree, however, on whether the German word was borrowed from Slovene, the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, and the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. The Slovene words arose through metathesis from the reconstructed form *korsъ, the word is of Mediterranean origin, believed to derive from some Romanized Illyrian base.
It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra- rock, the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, and perhaps to Latin Carusardius. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, if this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power. The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through the atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation.
As oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation. This chain of reactions is, This reaction chain forms gypsum, the karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath. On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, and reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys, mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground systems and extensive caves. Some of the most dramatic of these formations can be seen in Thailands Phangnga Bay, calcium carbonate dissolved into water may precipitate out where the water discharges some of its dissolved carbon dioxide.
Rivers which emerge from springs may produce tufa terraces, consisting of layers of calcite deposited over extended periods of time, in caves, a variety of features collectively called speleothems are formed by deposition of calcium carbonate and other dissolved minerals
The Hohle Fels is a cave in the Swabian Jura of Germany that has yielded a number of important archaeological finds dating to the Upper Paleolithic. Artifacts found in the cave represent some of the earliest examples of prehistoric art, the cave is just outside the town of Schelklingen in the state of Baden-Württemberg, near Ulm. The cave entrance is at 534 m above sea level, the cave consists of a tunnel of about 15 m length and a main hall with a volume of 6,000 m3, making the cave hall one of the largest of Southern Germany. The first excavation took place in 1870, yielding remnants of cave bears, mammoths, in 2005, one of the oldest phallic representations was discovered. In 2008, a team from the University of Tübingen, led by archaeologist Nicholas Conard, discovered an artifact known as the Venus of Hohle Fels and this is the earliest known Venus figurine and the earliest undisputed example of expressly human figurative art. The team unearthed a bone flute in the cave, the flutes date back at least 35,000 years and are some of the earliest musical instruments ever found.
In 2012, it was announced that a discovery of bone flute fragments in Geißenklösterle Cave now date back to about 42,000 years, instead of 37,000 years. The remains of at least five individuals were found at Hohle Fels. In 2016, researchers successfully extracted the DNA from three samples taken from the Magdalenian period found at Hohle Fels, the tests were performed on two femur fragments, HohleFels10 and HohleFels49, and a cranial fragment, HohleFels79. The two femur fragments possibly came from one individual, HohleFels10 and HohleFels49 were indirectly dated to around 16, 000-14,260 BP BP, while HohleFels79 was directly dated to around 15, 070-14,270 BP. All three samples were found to belong to mtDNA Haplogroup U8a, in January 2016, the federal government of Germany applied for the status of World Heritage Site for two valleys with six caves named Höhlen der ältesten Eiszeitkunst. The site would encompass areas in the Lonetal and the Achtal both in the southern Swabian Jura, the former includes the caves Hohlenstein-Stadel and Bocksteinhöhle, the latter Geisenklösterle, Hohle Fels and Sirgensteinhöhle.
Each valley would contain an area of around 3 to 4 km length. Their creators lived, were inspired and worked in and around these caves, the caves served as the repositories of the figurines which may have been used in a religious context. In addition, they were the venue where performers used the musical instruments. A decision by the committee is expected in July 2017, Art of the Upper Paleolithic Jill Cook, Ice Age Art, the Arrival of the Modern Mind
Blaubeuren is a town in the district of Alb-Donau near Ulm in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. As of December,2007 it had 11,963 inhabitants, the core city Blaubeuren lies at the foot of the Swabian Jura,16 km west of Ulm. The city is borders to the north to Suppingen and Berghülen, on the east to Blaustein, in the south to Ulm and Erbach and in the west to Schelklingen and Heroldstatt. The coat of arms for the shows the so-called Blaumännle. The Merckle group is headquartered in Blaubeuren, in Blaubeuren is the headquarter of Centrotherm Photovoltaics. Blaubeuren is located on the Danube Valley Railway from Ulm to Donaueschingen, in hour clock run regional express trains to Sigmaringen and Ulm, and every two hours to Donaueschingen and Titisee-Neustadt. Blaubeuren is located on the Bundesstraße 28 between Reutlingen and Ulm, in the city begins the Bundesstraße 492 to Ehingen. The next junction of the Bundesautobahn 8 from Stuttgart to Munich is 12 kilometers away, Blaubeuren, is the seat of the church district Blaubeuren of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg.
In Blaubeuren is the Catholic church Mariä Heimsuchung with a church in Gerhausen. The New Apostolic Church has here a municipality, the Muslim community in Blaubeuren is largely Turkish dominated, originated by the migration of workers since the early 1960s from Turkey. Near the Blautopf lies the in 1085 founded former monastery Blaubeuren, Blaubeuren has an old town with many half-timbered buildings. On a rocky mountain was erected in 1926 the Ruckenkreuz, a 8.40 meter tall memorial cross made of reinforced concrete with a span of 2.80 meters, the Urgeschichtliches Museum Blaubeuren displays archaeological findings. Scientific findings, experimental archeology and modern museum didactics can be found under one roof, the former bathhouse of the monks in the monastery presents in the basement historic bathing facilities, and on the upper floors the local museum with furniture and objects from Blaubeuren. The most striking sight in Blaubeuren is the Blautopf, a karst spring, the Blautopf is 21 meters deep and one of the deepest and largest sources in Germany, with a flow out of minimum 310l/s and maximum 32000l/s.
Every year takes place in Gerhausen a worldwide unique sled race, in this event occur teams from handlebars and brakeman with their historic slides against each other
Homo sapiens is the binomial nomenclature for the only extant human species. Homo is the genus, which includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid. Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, the binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus. The Latin noun homō means man, human being, subspecies of H. sapiens include Homo sapiens idaltu and the only extant subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Some sources show Neanderthals as a subspecies, the discovered specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies, but these last two subspecies classifications are not widely accepted by scientists. Traditionally, there are two competing views in paleoanthropology about the origin of H. sapiens, the recent African origin, since 2010, genetic research has led to the emergence of an intermediate position, characterised by mostly recent African origin plus limited admixture with archaic humans.
The recent African origin of humans is the mainstream model that describes the origin. The theory is called the Out-of-Africa model in the press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis, Replacement Hypothesis. The hypothesis that humans have a single origin was published in Charles Darwins Descent of Man, the concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-day mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens. The recent single origin of humans in East Africa is the near-consensus position held within the scientific community. However, recent sequencing of the full Neanderthal genome suggests Neanderthals, the authors of the study suggest that their findings are consistent with Neanderthal admixture of up to 4% in some populations. But the study suggests that there may be other reasons why humans. That study however does not explain why only a fraction of humans have Neanderthal DNA. The multiregional origin model provides an explanation for the pattern of evolution proposed by Milford H.
Wolpoff in 1988. Scientific study of evolution is concerned, with the development of the genus Homo. Modern humans are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu, the known subspecies, is now extinct. Similarly, the specimens of the Homo rhodesiensis species have been classified by some as a subspecies
ADGB Trade Union School
The ADGB Trade Union School, was a complex of teaching and administrative buildings in Berlin bei Bernau, constructed for the former Federation of German Trade Unions. It was designed by the Bauhaus architect Hannes Meyer with his partner Hans Wittwer between 1928–1930, at which time Meyer was the director of the Bauhaus school in Dessau, the former ADGB School is a preeminent example of Bauhaus-designed architecture. Next to the Bauhaus school buildings in Dessau, it was the second largest project undertaken by the Bauhaus. The ADGB required a facility to educate and train members of the union in a variety of areas including law, management. The scope of the project therefore meant different facilities were required such as classrooms, catering, the architecture reflects the teachings intrinsic to the Bauhaus ideologies and is a pragmatic example of functional architecture. The functionality taking precedence over anything else, the school was stripped back of any unnecessary decoration, meyers design is composed of separate, individual structures that come together cohesively in the surrounding landscape.
The design came directly from the diagrams that Meyer had developed where all the lounges are oriented towards the landscape. The overall complex is difficult to comprehend and can only be understood from the air. Each separately functioning building is positioned to form a Z-shape, the reception building bears a resemblance to the entrance of a factory site, which keeps in line with the purely functionalist design. There are three chimneys which constitute the system and are accompanied by a block-like cube of the auditorium. Immediately behind the entrance are the buildings, positioned to create a square plan. This form is intended to create an expression of unity, the unity of a community, the auditorium is a windowless room, the strong introversion allowing maximum concentration on the action. Sophisticated technology supported the lecturers, A push-button would reduce the band and dim the lights. Around the auditorium lined the administration building to the west, while south and east was the kitchen, dining room, sun room, the restrooms were opposite to the auditorium.
All of these facilities were designed so that allowed a digression of thought. The remaining facilities can be accessed by a glass transition corridor. Five residential wings are lined to the south giving a view to the landscape in the north. The course follows the profile and thus has a slope of five meters
Hohlenstein-Stadel is a cave located in the Hohlenstein cliff at the southern rim of the Lonetal in the Swabian Jura in Germany. While first excavations were started after the half of the 19th century. The most significant finding was an ivory statue called the Lion-man. The name of the cliff is derived from a combination of Hohlenstein meaning hollow rock, the Hohlenstein cliffs are made of limestone which was hollowed out by natural causes to create caves. The Stadel is one of three caves that are of important paleontological and archaeological significance, the other two are Die kleine Scheuer and the Bärenhöhle. The first excavations at Hohlenstein were made in 1861 by Oskar Fraas and paleontologist, who was searching for Cave bear bones at the Bärenhöhle and he returned in 1866, realizing the archeological importance of the site. In 1935, archaeologists returned to excavate the cave, an initial trial dig under Robert Wetzel was followed by further work in 1936. Between 1937 and 1939 further excavations were conducted directed by Wetzel and Otto Völzing, on the very last day of digging, on 25 August 1939, Völzing found a large number of broken pieces of ivory.
They were little noted and went into storage at the Museum of Ulm and it was not until 1969 that Joachim Hahn came across the more than 200 pieces and assembled them into a 31 cm tall figurine of a humanoid with a lions head. This is now known as the Löwenmensch, one of the oldest pieces of art ever discovered. Further excavations followed in 1956 and 1957, and between 1959 and 1961, the stratigraphy includes layers from the Neolithic, Upper Paleolithic, notably the Magdalenian and the Aurignacian periods and finally the Middle Paleolithic. More work followed in 1996 and 1997, when a dig led by Nicholas Conard, Michael Bolus, interior excavation was resumed in 2008 to 2013 by the Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Baden-Württemberg. This work, led by Thomas Beutelspacher and C. J, kind managed to locate the exact spot in which the Lion-man had been discovered and to find numerous additional ivory splinters that were found to fit onto the figurine. Dating of bones found immediately next to them yielded an age of 35,000 to 41,000 years, in January 2016, the federal government of Germany applied for the status of World Heritage Site for two valleys with six caves named Höhlen der ältesten Eiszeitkunst.
The site would encompass areas in the Lonetal and the Achtal both in the southern Swabian Jura, the former includes the caves Hohlenstein-Stadel and Bocksteinhöhle, the latter Geisenklösterle, Hohle Fels and Sirgensteinhöhle. Each valley would contain an area of around 3 to 4 km length. Their creators lived, were inspired and worked in and around these caves, the caves served as the repositories of the figurines which may have been used in a religious context. In addition, they were the venue where performers used the musical instruments
The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian c.31,000 BC. It is archaeologically the last unified European culture, and lasted until c.22,000 BC, at this point it developed into the Epigravettian in Italy, the Balkans, and Russia, and was replaced abruptly by the Solutrean in France and Spain. The origins of the Gravettian people are not clear, they seem to appear all over Europe. Like their Aurignacian predecessors, they are well-known for their Venus figurines, the culture was first identified at the site of La Gravette in Southwestern France. One typical artefact of the industry, once considered diagnostic, is a pointed blade with a straight blunt back. These were used to hunt big game including bison, reindeer, Gravettians used nets to hunt small game. Archaeologists usually describe two regional variants, the western Gravettian, known namely from cave sites in France and Britain, and the eastern Gravettian in Central Europe and Russia.
The eastern Gravettians — they include the Pavlovian culture — were specialized mammoth hunters, whose remains are found not in caves. The Aurignacian and Gravettian cultures are featured in Earths children, a series of set in prehistory. In this piece of fiction, the Venus figurines play an important role at the center of a fertility rite