Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland, in 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which become a separate state in 1993 with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was a unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its lands. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, and in the east by Moravia. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia and the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps, much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention was by Tacitus Germania 28, and mentions of the name are in Strabo. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz home and this Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobods kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. The Czech name Čechy is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, to the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, and to the southeast in Hungaria, were Sarmatian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus and he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its mountains and forests.
In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards, even settling as far away as Spain and Portugal. With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia. These are precursors of todays Czechs, though the amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves, the first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic Lombards left Bohemia. Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by Samos tribal confederation and his death marked the end of the old Slavonic confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after Carantania in Carinthia. Other sources divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Beheimare, Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but only became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century
Gelnhausen is a town and the capital of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located approximately 40 kilometers east of Frankfurt am Main and it is one of the eleven towns in the district. According to the Institut Géographique National from 1 January 2007 until July 2013 the geographic centre of the European Union was located on a field outside the town. Gelnhausen is located on the German Fairy Tale Route, a tourist route, Gelnhausen was founded by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1170, it is therefore nicknamed Barbarossastadt. The place was chosen because it was at the intersection of the Via Regia imperial road between Frankfurt and Leipzig and several major trade routes. Frederick had three connected by streets and surrounded by a wall. At the same time Gelnhausen received town privileges and a Kaiserpfalz was erected on an island of the Kinzig river, the emperor granted trade privileges like the staple right which forced traveling merchants to offer their goods in the town for three days.
Hence Gelnhausen initially was a trade town and head of a league of 16 towns of the Wetterau region. However prosperity came to an end already in 1326 when Emperor Louis IV gave the town in pawn to the counts of Hanau, schwarzburg was acquired in 1435 by Elector Palatine Louis III and the Hanau, since raised to a county. Repeated plundering in the Thirty Years War as depicted by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen in his novel Simplicius Simplicissimus made it nearly uninhabitable. In 1736, the extinction of the line of Hanau meant the condominium share was inherited by the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. The varying lords made continued attempts to challenge Gelnhausens imperial immediacy, at this time Gelnhausen had completely recovered and with the Gründerzeit economic boom became a centre of the German rubber industry. From the 1930s Gelnhausen was a town of the German Wehrmacht and, after World War II. The US Army closed Coleman Kaserne in 2007, in 1996, the town hosted the 36th Hessentag state festival.
Sights include, Medieval town center with historic buildings like the Gotisches Haus, the castle was erected at the time of Gelnhausens foundation southeast of the town on an island in the Kinzig river. The groundwork is stabilized by 12,000 logs, driven into the earth, today it is the best preserved Kaiserpfalz from this era. The Marienkirche, the most recognizable landmark of Gelnhausen and it shows both Romanesque and Gothic architecture elements. The church was built from local bunter between 1170 and 1250 by Selbold Abbey, replacing a chapel from ca.1100 of which some traces remain
Jihlava is a city in the Czech Republic. There is a Jewish cemetery, containing some remarkable monuments including the tombstone of the parents of Gustav Mahler, the citys German name, Iglau, is derived from the German word for hedgehog, hence the hedgehog on the coat of arms. According to legend, already in the year 799 silver was mined in Iglau, king Ottokar I established a mint, and Iglau was granted extensive privileges from early times onwards. An old Slavic settlement upon a ford was moved to a hill where the mining town was founded by king Václav I. Medieval mines surrounded by mining settlements were localized outside the walls of the medieval town, in the era of the Hussite Wars, Jihlava remained a Catholic stronghold and managed to resist a number of sieges. Later at Jihlava, on 5 July 1436, a treaty was made with the Hussites, a marble relief near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I, in 1527, swore fidelity to the Bohemian estates. During the Thirty Years War Jihlava was twice captured by the Swedes, in 1742 it fell into the hands of the Prussians, and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were defeated near the town.
In 1860 it became the home of Bohemian-Austrian composer Gustav Mahler. Until World War I the town was an important Austro-Hungarian Army military centre, in 1914 the I, II and III. Battalion of the Moravian Infantry Regiment No.81 and the Second Battalion of the Landwehr infantry regiment number 14 were the garrison troops, after World War I the town constituted a German language island within Slavic speaking Moravia. This affected local politics as it remained the centre of the second largest German-speaking enclave in the republic of Czechoslovakia. The Volksdeutsche of Iglau / Jihlava relied on peaceful opposition to the Czech military occupation of their region, unsuccessful in getting their right to self-determination recognized and incorporated into the new Czechoslovakian state instead, many of the indigenous Germans took to more nationalistic politics. Thereafter extremist political figures like Hans Krebs, editor of the Iglauer Volkswehr newspaper, became prominent with the rise of Nazism, the area remained, until the end of World War II, a distinctive regional folk culture reflecting hundreds of years of local customs.
The local dialect of German was a branch of Mitteldeutsch. Musicians often used homemade instruments and original groups of four fiddles, typical folk dances were the Hatschou and Radln. Peasant women like wearing old pairische Scharkaröckchen costumes with shiny dark skirts, after the end of World War II, and following the Beneš decrees, these German speakers were evicted, it is estimated that hundreds died on the arduous trek to Austria. The town was repopulated with Czech and Moravian settlers favoured by the new Communist regime, after 1951, the town was the site of several Communist show trials, which were directed against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on the rural population. In the processes eleven death sentences were passed and 111 years of prison sentences imposed, all the convicted persons were rehabilitated after the Velvet Revolution
History of the Czech lands
The history of what are now known as the Czech lands is very diverse. These lands have changed many times, and have been known by a variety of different names. Prior to the Battle of Mohács, the Kingdom was an independent state within the Holy Roman Empire, after that battle the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were incorporated into the Austrian Empire, and into the aforementioned Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. These three integral Czech lands now form the boundaries of the Czech Republic, early modern humans had settled in the region by the. Several Paleolithic cultures settled here, including Acheulean, Mousterian, the Předmostí archaeological site near Brno is dated to between 24,000 and 27,000 years old. The figurines found here are the oldest known ceramic articles in the world, the area was settled by the Celts from 5th BC until 2nd AC and from 1st century by various Germanic tribes. Germanic towns are described on the Map of Ptolemaios in the 2nd Century and those tribes migrated to the West in 5th century and came Slavs.
The first Slavic people arrived in the 6th century, according to historian Dušan Třeštík, they advanced through the Moravian Gate valley and in the year 530 moved into Eastern Bohemia, along the rivers Labe and Vltava further into Central Bohemia. Many historians support the theory of a wave of Slavs coming from the south during the first half of the 7th century. They fought with neighboring Avars until the rise of the empire of Samo, in 623, the Slavic tribes revolted against the oppression of the Avars. During this time, the Frankish merchant Samo allegedly came to the Czech lands with his entourage, thus the Slavs adopted Samo as their ruler. So it happened that he self-founded the first Slavic empire and he married the twelve Slavic women had with them twenty-two sons and fifteen daughters and happily ruled for 35 years. To this day, historians are searching in vain for this strongholds actual location, after Samos death, his empire seems to have disappeared, in fact, there never was a real state structure with solid organization.
The empire was created to unite Slavs to defend against Avars and Franks, once the Avar and Frankish danger had passed, the united empire disintegrated and the fragmented territories were ruled by Samos various followers. These remnants continued their development and became the core foundation for the future Great Moravian Empire. A Slavic state Great Moravia was created by the ancestors of the Czechs and Poles, the Duchy of Bohemia established in the 9th century raised to a Kingdom in 1198. The country reached its greatest territorial extent and is considered as the Golden Age, ferdinand II, who ruled 1619–1637, sharply curtailed the power of the largely Protestant representative assembly known as the Bohemian Estates. He confiscated lands of Protestant nobles and gave them to his Catholic friends, the Kingdom of Bohemia officially ceased to exist in 1918 when the Czecho-Slovak Republic was declared, a merger of the lands of the Bohemian Crown and Carpathian Ruthenia
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep and goats. It has been used as a medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made from the skins of kids, lambs and it may be called animal membrane by libraries and museums that wish to avoid distinguishing between parchment and the more restricted term vellum. Today the term parchment is often used in non-technical contexts to refer to any animal skin, particularly goat, sheep or cow, that has been scraped or dried under tension. Vellum in theory refers exclusively to calfskin, and is used to denote a quality of material. The term parchment originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, the word parchment evolved from the name of the city of Pergamon which was a thriving center of parchment production during the Hellenistic period. This account, originated in the writings of Pliny the Elder, is dubious because parchment had been in use in Anatolia, in the 2nd century BC a great library was set up in Pergamon that rivaled the famous Library of Alexandria.
Writing on prepared animal skins had a history, however. H. Ibscher, and preserved in the Cairo Museum, a roll of the Twelfth Dynasty now in Berlin, the text now in the British Museum. Though the Assyrians and the Babylonians impressed their cuneiform on clay tablets, early Islamic texts are found on parchment. In the Middle Ages, especially the 15th century, parchment was largely replaced by paper for most uses except luxury manuscripts, new techniques in paper milling allowed it to be much cheaper than parchment, it was still made of textile rags and of very high quality. With the advent of printing in the fifteenth century, the demands of printers far exceeded the supply of animal skins for parchment. Although most copies of the Gutenberg Bible are on paper, some were printed on parchment,12 of the 48 surviving copies, in 1490, Johannes Trithemius preferred the older methods, because handwriting placed on parchment will be able to endure a thousand years. But how long will printing last, which is dependent on paper and it lasts for two hundred years that is a long time.
In fact high quality paper from this period has survived 500 years or more very well, the heyday of parchment use was during the medieval period, but there has been a growing revival of its use among artists since the late 20th century. Although parchment never stopped being used it had ceased to be a choice for artists supports by the end of 15th century Renaissance. This was partly due to its expense and partly due to its working properties. When the water in paint media touches parchments surface, the collagen melts slightly, forming a bed for the paint
The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs