Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Taichung known as Taichung City, is a special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of 2.81 million people and is Taiwan's second most populous city, overtaking Kaohsiung in July 2017. It serves as the core of the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Taiwan; the current city was formed when Taichung County merged with the original provincial Taichung City to form the special municipality on 25 December 2010. Located in the Taichung Basin, the city was named under Japanese rule, became a major economic and cultural hub. Composed of several scattered hamlets, the city of Taichung was planned and developed by the Japanese, it was called "the Kyoto of Formosa" in Japanese era because of its beauty. The city is home to the National Museum of Natural Science, the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, the National Taichung Theater, the National Library of Public Information, the National Taiwan Symphony Orchestra, as well as many cultural sites, including the historic Taichung Park, the Lin Family Gardens, many temples.
The Atayal Taiwanese aborigines as well as several Taiwanese Plains Aboriginal tribes populated the plains that make up modern Taichung. They were hunter gatherers who lived by cultivating millet and taro. In the 17th century, the Papora, Babuza and Hoanya established the Kingdom of Middag, occupying the western part of present-day Taichung. In 1682, the Qing dynasty wrested control of western Taiwan from the Cheng family. In 1684, Zhuluo County was established, encompassing the underdeveloped northern two-thirds of Taiwan. Modern-day Taichung traces its beginnings to a settlement named Toatun in 1705. To strengthen Qing control, a garrison was established in 1721 near the site of present-day Taichung Park by Lan Ting-chen. North of the city, on the Dajia River, an aboriginal revolt broke out in 1731 after Chinese officials moved in and compelled them to provide labor; the revolt spread through the city as far south as Changhua County in May 1732 before the rebels were chased into the mountains by Qing forces.
In 1786, another rebellion against the Qing, known as the Lin Shuangwen rebellion, began as an attempt to overthrow the government and restore the Ming dynasty. As the rebels moved northward, they turned to slaughter and looting, they were defeated by a coalition of Qing forces, Quanzhou Fujianese descendants, aboriginal volunteers. When Taiwan Province was declared an independent province in 1887, the government intended to construct its capital city at the centrally located Toatun, designated as the seat of Taiwan Prefecture, thus the city took the title of "Taiwan-fu", meaning "capital city of Taiwan", from modern-day Tainan, which had held the title for more than 200 years. Qing official Liu Ming-chuan received permission to oversee development of the area, which included constructing a railway through the city. However, the provincial capital was moved to Taipei. After China lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the name of the city was changed to Taichū.
The Japanese sought to develop the city to make it the first “modern” area of Taiwan and invested in roads and levees. In 1901, Taichū Chō was established as one of twenty local administrative districts on the island. In 1904, the town of Taichū had a population of 6,423, Taichū District had more than 207,000. Taichū Park was completed in 1903. A tower marking the old north gate was moved to the new park; the first market in Taichū was built in 1908, along Jiguang Road between the Zhongzheng and Chenggong Roads and it is still in use today. The Japanese undertook a north-south island railway project. Taichū Train Station was completed and began operation in 1917, still operates today. Taichū City was declared by Japanese Imperial authorities in 1920, Taichū City Hall was completed in 1924 after eleven years of construction. Kōkan Airport, now known as Taichung Airport, was constructed during Japanese rule. Taichū Middle School was founded in 1915 by elite members of local gentry, including Lin Hsien-tang and his brother Lin Lieh-tang, two wealthy Taiwanese intellectuals of the era.
This was in an effort to teach children the culture of Taiwan and to foster the spirit of the Taiwanese localization movement. The Taiwanese Cultural Association, founded in 1921 in Taipei by Lin Hsien-tang, was moved to Taichū in 1927. Most of the members of this association were from Taichū and the surrounding area; the city became a center of Taiwanese nationalism. From 1926 to 1945, Taichū Prefecture covered modern-day Taichung as well as Changhua County and Nantou County. At the end of the war, Japan handed over control of Taiwan. In 1947 the first Mayor of Taichung County was Lai Tien Shen; the position was appointed by the government to rule during the interim period. Both Taichung areas were declared a provincial city and county in 1949. Since the city has grown as a center of higher education and culture, where 70% of employees worked in service industries; the surrounding county developed manufacturing, which employed 48% of the workforce, focused so on precision machinery, from machine tools to bicycles, that it was nicknamed the “Mechanical Kingdom.”
On 25 December 20
The MAN NLxx3F is a series of low-floor single-decker city bus chassis between 10.5 to 12.0 metres length, offered by MAN since 1998, with internal code A22. They are based on the integral low-floor MAN NLxx3 Lion's City. Available versions since launch include NL223F, NL233F, NL243F, NL263F, NL273F, NL283F, NL313F and NL323F. LPG and CNG versions are available, with NL313F CNG being the most powerful. Wrightbus developed a bodywork for the MAN NL273F, called the Wright Meridian, it was the first MAN chassis to be bodied by Wrightbus. A Meridian demonstrator was launched at the Coach & Bus Live 2007, which entered service with Whitelaws. Regal Busways, Newbury Buses and Diamond Bus North West each operate an handful of Wright Meridian-bodied NL273Fs across the United Kingdom, it can only have 1 door. EMT Madrid of Madrid, Spain received a total of 84 CNG-powered NL313F CNGs in 2008, they were bodied by Burillo. In 2011, five 10.4m NL283Fs and one Hispano Area-bodied NL283F began operating in Santiago de Compostela and Buñol respectively.
Dan Bus Company and Egged operate a fleet of NL323Fs in Tel Aviv and Haifa. SMRT Buses of Singapore received a 12.0m MCV Evolution-bodied NL323F demonstrator in 2010 for evaluation, registered as SMB138Y. Following a successful trial, SMRT Buses placed a follow-up order of 200 buses through ST Kinetics, the largest order of NL323Fs at that time; these production batch buses were bodied under licence by Gemilang Coachworks with the bodywork design based on the MAN Lion's City Hybrid, entered service on 2 October 2011. In 2013, SMRT Buses placed an additional order for 202 buses with similar specifications as the first batch of buses, with minor differences in the seating configuration for buses. A further order of 332 buses was made in 2014, with similar specifications as the earlier buses; as part of the Bus Contracting Model, some of the buses were transferred to Tower Transit Singapore, Go-Ahead Singapore and SBS Transit under the Bulim Bus Package, Loyang Bus Package and Seletar Bus Package respectively.
Some of these buses were repainted into the lush green livery. The last 26 buses to be registered from the order of 332 buses were painted into the lush green livery prior to entering service. In October 2016, a MAN NL323F concept bus with 3 doors was exhibited at the Singapore International Transport Congress and Exhibition. Marketed as the MAN Lion's City SD 3Dr, it features a modified bodywork design based on the MAN Lion's City Hybrid, built to a low-entry configuration under licence by Gemilang Coachworks; the bus was painted into the lush green livery and began a 6-month trial service with SMRT Buses from 19 June 2017, starting from bus service 190. On 27 May 2018, new MAN NL323Fs, with an emission standard of Euro VI entered service with the launch of new Express service 851e. Registered from SG1749E onwards, they had LTA specifications, such as Passenger Information Display LCD screens, charging ports between pairs of seats and new seat colours; these are known as the MAN A22 Euro VI, which are allocated to SBS Transit, SMRT Buses and Go-Ahead Singapore.
The buses came with updated MAN Lion's City SD bodywork by Gemilang Coachworks and were painted in the lush green livery under the Bus Contracting Model. In March 2017, MAN exhibited a 12.0m Castrosua City Versus bodied MAN NL313F CNG concept bus with 3 doors at the 11th Seoul Motor Show. It was marketed as the MAN Lion's City CNG, despite featuring Castrosua bodywork, which has a different design with the integral MAN Lion's City's body. Gimpo Trans Co. received the first delivery of NL313F CNG and began service on Gimpo City bus route 1002 in November 2017. Media related to MAN NL xx3 F at Wikimedia Commons
Sunlong Bus, is a Chinese bus manufacturer based in Shanghai. It was established on 13 April 2001 and started export production on 2 February 2004. Sunlong produced logistics vans, 6-7m minibuses, 8-9m city buses, 8-9m tourist buses, 10-12m city buses and 10-12m tourist buses. SLK5030 van, based on the fourth generation Toyota HiAce. SLK5031 van, based on the Sokon K05. SLK5032 van Sunlong Bus website
SMRT Buses is a bus operator in Singapore. A subsidiary of SMRT Corporation, it traded as Trans Island Bus Services until May 2004. In April 1981, Communications & Labour Minister Ong Teng Cheong announced the government would grant a license to an operator, willing to compete with Singapore Bus Service, that had operated all services in Singapore since 1973, with the aim of improving service levels. In January 1982, City Shuttle Service operator Singapore Shuttle Bus lodged applications with the Ministry of Communications to establish a second bus operator and the Registry Of Vehicles for four bus depots; the applications were approved on 12 March that year, with SSB to take over 11 services in Woodlands and Sembawang from SBS. A new company, Trans-Island Bus Services, was founded on 31 May 1982, ordering a fleet of 250 buses including 90 Hinos. Operations commenced on 9 April 1983 with 40 buses. On 27 April 1987, TIBS was listed on SESDAQ, although Mr Ng Ser Miang retained a majority shareholding.
By this stage it operated 361 buses. In 1995, as part of the government's plan to make the local bus system more competitive, 16 SBS Transit services were handed over to TIBS along with the tender to operate bus services in the north-east corridor the developing towns Sengkang and Punggol as well as Bukit Panjang. In 1996, TIBS began operations at the now closed Woodlands Regional Bus Interchange, Singapore's first underground bus interchange, it was the first bus interchange designed to accommodate articulated buses. Some of which were designed by world-renowned designer and was known as the Habit articulated buses, on a large scale in its fleet, in contrast to the double-deckers used by SBS. In 1999, SBS Transit was awarded both bus and train services in the entire north-east corridor with the North East line, Sengkang LRT and Punggol LRT by the Land Transport Authority, both based in Sengkang. Eight bus routes affected in the bus tender of Sengkang and Punggol were transferred to SBS Transit.
In return, TIBS was awarded to operate 17 routes in the north-west corridor towns of Choa Chu Kang and Bukit Batok, where the handover was done in stages together with the opening of Bukit Panjang LRT. Services 61, 106 and 173 were the last services to be handed over due to extra time involved. In February 2001 TIBS joined with RATP Group in an unsuccessful bid to operate the Marina line. TIBS and SMRT engaged in unsuccessful merger talks in 1999. In July 2001, SMRT launched a takeover bid for TIBS, accepted; the transaction was completed in December 2001, with TIBS being operated as a wholly owned subsidiary. As part of a corporate rebranding programme, TIBS was rebranded as SMRT Buses in May 2004. On 26 November 2012, 170 bus drivers, refused to leave their living quarters for work; this reduced bus services to 90% of normal levels. The Ministry of Manpower considered it an illegal strike since the group failed to give a 14 days notice prior to disrupting an essential public service, as is required by the local laws.
As a result, five of the strikers were jailed for instigating the strike, another 29 were deported. SMRT Buses operates services at Yishun, Woodlands, Bukit Panjang, Bukit Batok and Choa Chu Kang, operated one special service, 110. Since 1999, SMRT Buses have handed back Sengkang, Jalan Kayu and parts of Yishun to SBS Transit. Most of the Bukit Batok routes were transferred to Tower Transit Singapore, except services 61, 868E, new services 944 and 991. In addition, SMRT Corporation has a minibus subsidiary Bus-Plus Services which provides some premium, free shuttle and peak-hour peak period bus services throughout Singapore; as at 2017, SMRT Buses operates more than 1,450 buses. It was the only operator of articulated buses in Singapore until 2018, when the Seletar Package transitioned to the Tendered Contract and introduced double-decker buses in 2014, it was the first operator to introduce electronic destination signage on its buses since 1990, now standard equipment. Some of these acquired buses are used for Bus Service Enhancement Programme since 17 September 2012.
TIBS commenced in April 1983 with Hinos. Purchases included DAF SB220s, Dennis Lances, Scania L113s and bendy buses under Mercedes-Benz O405. MAN NL323F Lion's City Mercedes-Benz O530 Citaro Mercedes-Benz OC500LE Volvo B5LH Alexander Dennis Enviro500 MMC MAN ND323F Lion's City Volvo B9TL MAN NG363F Lion's City Mercedes-Benz O405G Mercedes-Benz O405G SMRT Buses operates depots in Ang Mo Kio and Woodlands and partially occupies the Bulim and Ulu Pandan depots. Media related to SMRT Buses at Wikimedia Commons
SBS Transit is a public transport operator in Singapore operating bus and taxi services. Owned by ComfortDelGro, it was known as Singapore Bus Service until November 2001, it is the major bus operator in Singapore. Singapore Bus Service was established on 1 July 1973 when private bus companies Amalgamated Bus Company, Associated Bus Services and United Bus agreed to merge their operations with each taking shareholdings of 53%, 19% and 28% in the new company; the government-sanctioned merger was undertaken to improve service standards of the bus transport system. On 26 June 1978, SBS was listed on the Stock Exchange of Singapore as Singapore Bus Service Limited. Between 1995 and 2000, a series of route handovers took place between SBS and TIBS. SBS gave up its Bukit Panjang, Choa Chu Kang and Bukit Batok routes to TIBS, in exchange for the Sengkang and Punggol routes from TIBS; this was done as part of SBS Transit's upcoming operation of the North East line in the north east. The Sengkang and Punggol routes were operated by SBS until they were transferred to TIBS in 1995.
In November 1997, Singapore Bus Service Limited was renamed DelGro Corporation, with SBS restructured as a subsidiary of DelGro Corporation and listed separately on the SES. SBS operated taxis as ComfortDelgro Taxis, which had a different livery as SBS buses. ComfortDelgro Taxis merged with Singapore Technologies Automotive in 1995 to form CityCab, which remained part of Delgro Corporation. In November 2001, Singapore Bus Services was rebranded as SBS Transit to reflect it becoming a multi-modal transport operator with the impending opening of the Sengkang LRT line and North East MRT line. On 29 March 2003, DelGro Corporation merged with Comfort Group to form ComfortDelGro. ComfortDelGro owns 75% of the shares in SBS Transit. In 20 June 2003, SBS Transit commenced operating the Mass Rapid Transit North East line, followed on 22 December 2013 by the Downtown line; until the introduction of the Bus Contracting Model, SBS Transit operated the majority of routes in all areas of Singapore, with the notable exception of the North and Northwest areas, where bus services were run by SMRT Buses.
However, with the introduction of the BCM, some SBS Transit bus services were taken over by Tower Transit Singapore and Go-Ahead Singapore. As of 27 May 2018, there are 222 wheelchair-accessible bus services. SBS Transit became the first local operator to win a tender under the BCM in April 2017, began operating the Seletar Bus Package on 18 March 2018, it was announced in 2018 by LTA that SBS Transit had won the subsequent package, the Bukit Merah Bus Package. As at December 2017, SBS Transit operated more than 3,200 buses; when operations commenced in July 1973, SBS operated 2,079 single deck buses including Albion Viking VKs, Ashok Leylands and Mercedes-Benz OF1413s. In June 1977, double deck buses were introduced when the first of 220 Duple Metsec and Walter Alexander bodied Leyland Atlanteans entered service. In 1979, it ordered 200 New Zealand Motor Bodies bodied Volvo B57s. In the 1980s, SBS purchased Mercedes-Benz O305s, Scania N113s and Volvo B10Ms. Purchases in the 1990s included Mercedes-Benz O405s and Volvo Olympians.
In the early 2000s, Dennis Trident 3 and Volvo B10BLEs were purchased. Inherited from Chinese predecessors and Singapore Traction Company Albion Viking VK41L, EVK41L, EVK41UL, EVK55AL Ashok Leyland ALCOP3/1, Leyland Comet 13C/6RP Austin 1100FF Bedford SB5 Fargo Kew KS600 Ford R192/R226 Mercedes-Benz LP1113 Mercedes-Benz OF1113, OF1413 Nissan RX102K3/4R94 Seddon Pennine 354U New to SBS Berliet PGK205 3RD Albion Viking EVK55CL, EVK55CUL, EVK41AL Leyland Victory Mark 2 Mercedes-Benz OF1417 Volvo B57 Mercedes-Benz OF1413 aircon Nissan U21S Volvo B10M Scania N113CRB Mercedes-Benz O405 Nissan Civilian minibus Mercedes-Benz 811D minibus Dennis Dart Demonstrators SBS4096Z: Berliet PGK205 3RD SBS6702U: Hino AK176MA SBS4664J: Ford B-1617 SBS3366B: Mercedes-Benz OF1417 SBS6790P: Volvo B57 SBS1517X: Isuzu BDTIZCHSS SBS4687T: Nissan UAZDN SBS6791L: Leyland Leopard SBS6820L: Leyland National 2 SBS2452S: Nissan Diesel U21SXN SBS9C: Volvo B10M aircon SBS3572Y: Leyland Lynx SBS30P: Renault PR100-2 SBS81S: MAN 16.240 HOCL SBS997A: Volvo B10M superlong SBS998Y: Volvo B10MA SBS999U: Mercedes-Benz O405G SBS1688K: Volvo B10BLE SBS2888T: Scania L94UB SBS8031J: MAN 18.240 HOCL-NL SBS8000Z-8001X: Sunlong SLK6121UF14H Hybrid SBS8002T: Volvo B5RLEH Hybrid Leyland Atlantean AN68 (BACo, Metal Sections, W
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system. A BRT system includes roadways that are dedicated to buses, gives priority to buses at intersections where buses may interact with other traffic. BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed of a metro with the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity of a bus system; the first BRT system was the Rede Integrada de Transporte in Curitiba, which entered service in 1974. As of March 2018, a total of 166 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems, accounting for 4,906 km of BRT lanes and about 32.2 million passengers every day, of which about 19.6 million passengers ride daily in Latin America, which has the most cities with BRT systems, with 54, led by Brazil with 21 cities. The Latin American countries with the most daily ridership are Brazil and Mexico. In the other regions and Iran stand out. TransJakarta is considered as the largest BRT network in the world with 230.9 kilometres of corridors connecting the Indonesian capital city.
Bus rapid transit takes its name from rail rapid transit, which describes a high-capacity urban public-transit system with its own right of way, multiple-car vehicles at short headways, longer stop spacing than traditional streetcars and buses. BRT uses buses on a wide variety of rights-of-way, including mixed traffic, dedicated lanes on surface streets, busways separated from traffic; the expression "BRT" is used in the Americas and China. Critics have charged that the term "bus rapid transit" has sometimes been misapplied to systems that lack most or all the essential features which differentiate it from conventional bus services; the term "bus rapid transit creep" has been used to describe degraded levels of bus service which fall far short of the BRT Standard promoted by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and other organizations. The first use of a protected busway was the East Side Trolley Tunnel in Rhode Island, it was converted from trolley to bus use in 1948. However, the first BRT system in the world was the OC Transpo system in Canada.
Introduced in 1973, the first element of its BRT system was dedicated bus lanes through the city centre, with platformed stops. The introduction of the first exclusive separate busways occurred in 1983. By 1996, all of the envisioned 31 km Transitway system was in operation; as of 2017, the central part of the Transitway is being converted to a Light Rail Transit, due to the downtown section being operated beyond its designed capacity. The second BRT system in the world was the Rede Integrada de Transporte, implemented in Curitiba, Brazil, in 1974. Most of the elements that have become associated with BRT were innovations first suggested by Curitiba Mayor Architect Jaime Lerner. Just dedicated bus lanes in the center of major arterial roads, in 1980 the Curitiba system added a feeder bus network and inter-zone connections, in 1992 introduced off-board fare collection, enclosed stations, platform-level boarding. Other systems made further innovations, including platooning in Porto Alegre, passing lanes and express service in São Paulo.
In the United States, BRT began in 1977, with Pittsburgh's South Busway, operating on 4.3 miles of exclusive lanes. Its success led to the Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway in 1983, a fuller BRT deployment including a dedicated busway of 9.1 miles, traffic signal preemption, peak service headway as low as two minutes. After the opening of the West Busway, 5.1 miles in length in 1990, Pittsburgh’s Busway system is today over 18.5 miles long. In 1995, Ecuador, opened trolleybus BRT; the TransMilenio in Bogotá, opening in 2000, was the first BRT system to combine the best elements of Curitiba's BRT with other BRT advances, achieved the highest capacity and highest speed BRT system in the world. The success of TransMilenio spurred other cities to develop high quality BRT systems. In January 2004 the first BRT in Asia, TransJakarta, opened in Indonesia; as of 2015, at 210 kilometres, it is the longest BRT system in the world. Africa's first BRT system was opened in Lagos, Nigeria, in March 2008 but is considered as a light BRT system by many people.
Johannesburg’s BRT, Rea Vaya, was the first true BRT in Africa, in August 2009, carrying 16,000 daily passengers. Rea Vaya and MIO were the first two systems to combine full BRT with some services that operated in mixed traffic joined the BRT trunk infrastructure. BRT systems include most of the following features: Bus-only lanes make for faster travel and ensure that buses are not delayed by mixed traffic congestion. A median alignment bus-only keeps buses away from busy curb-side side conflicts, where cars and trucks are parking and turning. Separate rights of way may be used such as the elevated Xiamen BRT. Transit malls or'bus streets' may be created in city centers. Fare prepayment at the station, instead of on board the bus, eliminates the delay caused by passengers paying on board. P