Republic Airways Inc. operating as Republic Airways, is a regional airline subsidiary of Republic Airways Holdings that operates service as American Eagle, Delta Connection, United Express using a fleet of Embraer 170 and Embraer 175 regional jets. It is headquartered in Indiana, its call sign "Brickyard" is derived from the nickname of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Republic Airways Holdings incorporated a new subsidiary, "Republic Airline, Inc.", in 1999, but the subsidiary had no activity prior to 2004 and no ability to operate aircraft prior to 2005. In 2004 the holding company activated Republic Airline in reaction to a pilots' suit against American Airlines. American had awarded the flying of 44-seat regional jets to Chautauqua Airlines the main operating subsidiary of Republic Airways Holdings. However, Chautauqua started to operate 70-seat regional jets on behalf of United Airlines, this caused American to be in violation of its pilot union scope clause, which prevented another airline from operating on behalf of American if that airline was operating jet aircraft of more than 50 seats if such aircraft were operating on behalf of a carrier other than American.
To repair the situation, Republic Airways Holdings activated Republic Airline, upon Part 121 certification in 2005 allowing Republic Airline to operate commercial service. Republic Airways Holdings transferred the offending 70-seat regional jets from Chautauqua to Republic Airline. American was thereby no longer in violation of its pilot union scope clause. Republic Airways Holdings paid US$6.6 million to the pilot union of American Airlines to settle this issue. US Airways' pilots had a scope clause prohibiting the airline from operating large regional jets such as the Embraer 170; the airline negotiated around this clause by offering flight deck jobs to laid-off US Airways pilots, in a program known as "Jets for Jobs". This agreement created MidAtlantic Airways; as part of US Airways' bankruptcy restructuring, the 25 Embraer 170s delivered to MidAtlantic were bought by Republic to help US Airways to come out of bankruptcy. In 2007, Frontier Airlines signed an 11-year service agreement with Republic Airline.
Under the agreement, Republic would operate 17 Embraer 170 aircraft for the Frontier Airlines operations. The first aircraft was placed into service in March 2007, the last aircraft was expected to be placed into service by December 2008. On April 23, 2008, Republic Airways Holdings terminated its service agreement with Frontier Airlines, which entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy in early April 2008. Subsequently, Republic Air Holdings purchased Frontier Airlines in bankruptcy. Frontier branded. In September 2013, Republic Airways Holdings sold Frontier Airlines; as part of the sale, Republic Airline terminated the Frontier branded E-190 flying. On February 1, 2008, Republic Airline opened a base at Port Columbus International Airport in Columbus Ohio. On September 3, 2008, Republic signed a new 10-year codeshare agreement with Midwest Airlines; the aircraft would be based at Kansas City International Airport beginning October 1, 2008. Twelve aircraft would be placed in service with Midwest. On June 23, 2009, Republic announced it would acquire Midwest Airlines for $31 million.:In January 2013, Republic Airways Holdings reached a capacity purchase agreement with American Airlines to operate Embraer E175 airplanes under the American Eagle brand beginning in mid-2013.
Republic began service as an American Eagle affiliate on August 1, 2013, from Chicago to New Orleans and Albuquerque. On February 25, 2016, the airline filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; the airline was hit hard because of pilot shortages, but a new contract ratified in October 2015 helped restructure the airline. At the time of filing, Republic Holdings claimed $2.97 billion in liability and $3.56 billion in assets. On November 16, 2016, Republic Airways Holdings filed their Plan of Reorganization with intentions to emerge from Chapter 11 during the first quarter of 2017, it was announced that parent company Republic Airways Holdings will merge subsidiaries Shuttle America and Republic Airline into one company, with Republic Airline being chosen as the surviving company. On January 31st, 2017, Shuttle America merged with Republic Airline; as of January 31st, 2017, Republic Airline has the largest fleet of Embraer 170 and Embraer 175 aircraft in the world. On April 9, 2017, a passenger named David Dao was forced off of a Republic Airline-operated United Express flight in Chicago, to be bound for Louisville.
He was forced off the flight by Department of Aviation officers after refusing to give up his seat for an airline employee. He was forcibly removed. A video posted on social media showing him being injured and dragged off the plane led to a public outcry against United Airlines; as of April 2017, the Republic Airline fleet consists of the following aircraft: The Embraer 175 made its United States domestic debut when the first aircraft was delivered to Republic Airline in March 2007. Total orders were for 36 aircraft, which were operated in an 80-seat configuration under the US Airways Express brand name. In July 2010, Republic ordered a further 24 Embraer 190 aircraft. In May 2012, Republic Airline agreed to fly the 28 Bombardier Q400s for United Express that bankrupt Pinnacle Airlines planned to return to its lessors; the Q400 fleet was retired in 2017. Republic Airways Holdings signed a three-year contract in October 2012 with Caesars Entertainment Corporation where its Republic Airline subsidiar
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country; the International Monetary Fund concluded that the overall impact was the most severe since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The Great Recession stemmed from the collapse of the United States real-estate market in relation to the global financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 and the U. S. subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 to 2009. According to the nonprofit National Bureau of Economic Research, the recession in the U. S. ended in June 2009, thus extending over 19 months. The Great Recession resulted in a scarcity of valuable assets in the market economy and the collapse of the financial sector in the world economy. S. federal government. The recession was not felt around the world. Two senses of the word "recession" exist: one sense referring broadly to "a period of reduced economic activity" and ongoing hardship.
Under the academic definition, the recession ended in the United States in June or July 2009. Robert Kuttner argues, “’The Great Recession,’ is a misnomer. We should stop using it. Recessions are mild dips in the business cycle that are either self-correcting or soon cured by modest fiscal or monetary stimulus; because of the continuing deflationary trap, it would be more accurate to call this decade's stagnant economy The Lesser Depression or The Great Deflation." The Great Recession met the IMF criteria for being a global recession only in the single calendar year 2009. That IMF definition requires a decline in annual real world GDP per‑capita. Despite the fact that quarterly data are being used as recession definition criteria by all G20 members, representing 85% of the world GDP, the International Monetary Fund has decided—in the absence of a complete data set—not to declare/measure global recessions according to quarterly GDP data; the seasonally adjusted PPP‑weighted real GDP for the G20‑zone, however, is a good indicator for the world GDP, it was measured to have suffered a direct quarter on quarter decline during the three quarters from Q3‑2008 until Q1‑2009, which more mark when the recession took place at the global level.
According to the U. S. National Bureau of Economic Research the recession began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, thus extended over eighteen months; the years leading up to the crisis were characterized by an exorbitant rise in asset prices and associated boom in economic demand. Further, the U. S. shadow banking system had grown to rival the depository system yet was not subject to the same regulatory oversight, making it vulnerable to a bank run. US mortgage-backed securities, which had risks that were hard to assess, were marketed around the world, as they offered higher yields than U. S. government bonds. Many of these securities were backed by subprime mortgages, which collapsed in value when the U. S. housing bubble burst during 2006 and homeowners began to default on their mortgage payments in large numbers starting in 2007. The emergence of sub-prime loan losses in 2007 began the crisis and exposed other risky loans and over-inflated asset prices. With loan losses mounting and the fall of Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008, a major panic broke out on the inter-bank loan market.
There was the equivalent of a bank run on the shadow banking system, resulting in many large and well established investment and commercial banks in the United States and Europe suffering huge losses and facing bankruptcy, resulting in massive public financial assistance. The global recession that followed resulted in a sharp drop in international trade, rising unemployment and slumping commodity prices. Several economists predicted that recovery might not appear until 2011 and that the recession would be the worst since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Economist Paul Krugman once commented on this as the beginning of "a second Great Depression". Governments and central banks responded with fiscal and monetary policies to stimulate national economies and reduce financial system risks; the recession has renewed interest in Keynesian economic ideas on how to combat recessionary conditions. Economists advise that the stimulus should be withdrawn as soon as the economies recover enough to "chart a path to sustainable growth".
The distribution of household incomes in the United States has become more unequal during the post-2008 economic recovery. Income inequality in the United States has grown from 2005 to 2012 in more than 2 out of 3 metropolitan areas. Median household wealth fell 35% in the US, from $106,591 to $68,839 between 2005 and 2011; the majority report provided by U. S. Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, composed of six Democratic and four Republican appointees, reported its findings in January 2011, it concluded that "the crisis was avoidable and was caused by: Widespread failures in financial regulation, including the Federal Reserve's failure to stem the tide of toxic mortgages.
Allegiant Air is an American discount airline that operates scheduled and charter flights. As a major air carrier, it is the ninth-largest commercial airline in the US, it is wholly owned by Allegiant Travel Company, a publicly traded company with 4,000 employees and over US$2.6 billion market capitalization. The corporate headquarters are in a suburb of Las Vegas. Allegiant Air was founded in January 1997 by Mitch Allee, Jim Patterson and Dave Beadle, under the name WestJet Express. After losing a trademark dispute with West Jet Air Center of Rapid City, South Dakota and recognizing the name's similarity to WestJet Airlines of Canada, the airline adopted the name Allegiant Air and received FAA and DOT certification for scheduled and charter domestic operations on June 19, 1998; the airline has authority for charter service to Canada and Mexico. Scheduled service began on October 15, 1998, between Las Vegas and the airline's original hub in Fresno, California, at the Fresno Yosemite International Airport, with Douglas DC-9-21 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-51 jetliners.
During the second half of 1999, the airline was operating nonstop flights between Fresno and Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe, Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe as well as flying one-stop direct service between Fresno and Lake Tahoe via Las Vegas. Shortly after WinAir Airlines closed in 1999, Allegiant Air opened a small hub in Long Beach, CA and in 2000 was operating nonstop flights to Fresno and Las Vegas in addition to Fresno-Las Vegas nonstop service. In 2000, Allegiant continued to expand and was operating the only nonstop jet service between Lake Tahoe Airport from Long Beach in addition to operating new flights into Portland and Reno with Portland-Reno and Reno-Fresno nonstops and direct one-stop service between Portland and Fresno via Reno. Citing higher fuel costs as a major factor, Allegiant filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 2000; the bankruptcy allowed Maurice J. Gallagher Jr. one of the airline's major creditors, to gain control of the business. A veteran leader of low-cost airlines, Gallagher had worked with WestAir and as CEO of ValuJet Airlines.
In June 2001, Gallagher restructured Allegiant to a low-cost model, focusing on smaller markets that larger airlines did not serve with mainline aircraft. Allegiant's headquarters and operations were moved to Las Vegas. In the fall of 2001, Allegiant exited bankruptcy and the case was closed in early 2002. In March 2002, Allegiant entered into a long-term contract with Harrah's to provide charter services to its casinos in Laughlin and Reno, Nevada. At the same time, the airline acquired its first McDonnell Douglas MD-80 jetliner. From 2002 through 2004, the airline developed its scheduled-service business model. By 2004, Allegiant was flying from 13 small cities to Las Vegas offering bundled air and hotel packages. In May 2005, the airline's holding company, Allegiant Travel, completed a private equity placement worth $39.5 million, funded by the investment firms of ComVest and Irelandia II. In November 2006, Allegiant filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission in anticipation of a planned initial public offering of its Common Stock.
It raised $94.5 million in equity capital with 5.75 million shares worth $18 each. It began trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the ticker symbol "ALGT" in December 2006. On October 25, 2007, the airline opened a fourth focus city and operations base at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport in Mesa, connecting 13 cities served by Allegiant and one new city to the Phoenix metropolitan area; the airport announced a 10,000-square-foot expansion in August 2008, which increased the number of gates from two to four and allowed Allegiant to triple the number of flights from Phoenix. The expansion was funded by a loan from Allegiant. On November 14, 2007, Allegiant opened its fifth focus city and operations base at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, connecting other Allegiant cities to South Florida. In January 2008, Allegiant opened its sixth base at Washington's Bellingham International Airport; the airline bases two McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft in Bellingham as part of the expansion.
Routes served from Bellingham include Las Vegas, Palm Springs, San Diego, San Francisco and Phoenix. Expansion in Bellingham has been driven by its proximity to Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. In January 2010, the airline celebrated its one-millionth passenger to fly out of Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport. Allegiant's parent company announced that it had purchased 18 new MD-80 aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines. In February 2010, Allegiant opened its ninth base at Grand Rapids' Gerald R. Ford International Airport in Michigan; the airline based two McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft in Grand Rapids, but ended their airport's status in 2011. The airline continues to fly out of Grand Rapids in a reduced capacity. On July 1, 2010 Allegiant returned to Long Beach Airport in Long Beach, California having served LGB with DC-9 jets with nonstop flights to Las Vegas and Lake Tahoe in 2000; the airline intended to fly from Bellingham International Airport and Stockton several times a week. In November 2011, Allegiant closed its Long Beach facility and consolidated all Los Angeles area flights at Los Angeles International.
In March 2010, Allegiant purchased six used Boeing 757-200 jetliners as part of plans to begin flights to Hawaii, with deliveries from earl
A mainline flight is a flight operated by an airline's main operating unit, rather than by regional alliances, regional code-shares, regional subsidiaries, or wholly-owned subsidiaries offering low-cost operations. Mainline carriers operate between hub airports within their network and on international or long-haul services, using narrow-body and wide-body aircraft; this is in contrast to regional airlines, providing feeder services to hub airports operating smaller turboprop or regional jet aircraft, or low-cost carrier subsidiaries serving leisure markets. In the United States, examples of mainline passenger airline flights include those operated by American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines. U. S. legacy carriers may operate branded mainline services using the same flight crews and AOC as that of their mainline operations. For example, United p.s. and American Flagship Service cater to the medium-haul transcontinental business segment. Short-haul air shuttles, such as Delta Shuttle, operate at high frequency intervals between busy city pairs.
U. S. legacy carriers operated low-cost air services within their mainline operations to compete with low-cost carriers. Outside the U. S. low-cost carrier subsidiary airlines are more common, with examples including Air Canada Rouge, Jetstar Airways, Eurowings. An airline carrier's collective bargaining agreement with flight crews stipulates the maximum seating capacity of regional aircraft; the converse is not the case. Notes: 1Though not part of the main "legacy airline" or "flag carrier". Notes:1 Branding used for regional feeder service and commuter flights. Operated either by a regional subsidiary or under contract by an independent regional airline.2These airlines are independent and not subsidiaries of mainline air carriers.3 These independent airlines operate regional aircraft under codeshare agreements with a mainline carrier.4 Independent airlines operating under a capacity purchase agreement with their mainline partner Flag carrier AA and early references to mainline, regional and B-scale.
Business model of new Airlines like GLO not operating their own aircraft but leasing them from other certificated air carriers, creating their own airline brand without the actual assets of a true airline
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is an American three-engine wide-body jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. It has two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer; the DC-10 was intended as a successor to the company's DC-8 for medium- to long range flights, using a larger capacity wide-body layout with seating up to 380 and more powerful engines. Lockheed saw this niche as an ideal place to reenter the commercial airliner market with their similar L-1011 TriStar. Although the L-1011 was more technologically advanced, the DC-10 would go on to outsell the L-1011 by a significant margin due to the DC-10's lower price and earlier entry into the market; the initial DC-10-10 model was a "domestic" design with a typical range on the order of 3,800 miles in a two-class layout. The -15 was a "high" version with more powerful engines; the -30 and -40 models were the "international" versions with extended range of up to 6,220 miles and a third main landing gear leg to support the higher takeoff weights.
An longer-range version proposed for British Airways, the -50, was not built. The KC-10 Extender air-to-air refueling tanker version, was based on the -30 model. Production of the DC-10 ended in 1989, with 386 DC-10s delivered to airlines and 60 KC-10s to the U. S. Air Force; the DC-10 had a poor safety record in early operations due to a design flaw in the cargo doors. Its safety reputation was further damaged by the crash of American Airlines Flight 191, which remains the deadliest aviation accident in the United States. Following the Chicago crash, the FAA withdrew the DC-10's type certificate in June 1979, which temporarily grounded all U. S. DC-10s. In August 1983, McDonnell Douglas announced that it would end production of the DC-10, citing a lack of orders. Airline industry consensus at the time was that the DC-10 had a poor reputation for fuel economy and for its overall safety. In spite of the DC-10's early difficulties, it accumulated a good safety record, as design flaws were rectified and fleet hours increased, comparable to similar second-generation passenger jets as of 2008.
The DC-10 was succeeded by the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 an enlarged version of the DC-10 with some design improvements. Boeing, which merged with McDonnell Douglas in 1997, conducted an upgrade program that equipped many in-service DC-10s with a glass cockpit that eliminated the flight engineer position; the DC-10's last commercial passenger flight took place in February 2014, although freighter versions continue to operate. The largest operator of the DC-10 is U. S. cargo airline FedEx Express. Despite the airliner's popularity, only a few DC-10s are on display, while other retired aircraft are in storage. DC-10s are used for specialist services, such as the Orbis International Flying Eye Hospital, which has a compartment for performing eye surgery. Following an unsuccessful proposal for the U. S. Air Force's CX-HLS in 1965, Douglas Aircraft began design studies based on its CX-HLS design. In 1966, American Airlines offered a specification to manufacturers for a widebody aircraft smaller than the Boeing 747 but capable of flying similar long-range routes from airports with shorter runways.
The DC-10 became McDonnell Douglas's first commercial airliner after the merger between McDonnell Aircraft Corporation and Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967. An early DC-10 design proposal was for a four-engine double-deck wide-body jet airliner with a maximum seating capacity of 550 passengers similar in length of a DC-8; the proposal was shelved in favor of a trijet single-deck wide-body airliner with a maximum seating capacity of 399 passengers, similar in length to the DC-8 Super 60. On February 19, 1968, in what was supposed to be a knockout blow to the competing Lockheed L-1011, George A. Spater, President of American Airlines, James S. McDonnell of McDonnell Douglas announced American Airlines' intention to acquire the DC-10; this was a shock to Lockheed and there was general agreement within the U. S. aviation industry. Together with American Airlines' decision to announce the DC-10 order, it was reported that American Airlines had declared its intention to have the British Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofan engine on its DC-10 aircraft.
The DC-10 was first ordered by launch customers American Airlines with 25 orders, United Airlines with 30 orders and 30 options in 1968. The first DC-10, a series 10, made its maiden flight on August 29, 1970. Following a test program with 929 flights covering 1,551 hours, the DC-10 received its type certificate from the FAA on July 29, 1971, it entered commercial service with American Airlines on August 5, 1971 on a round trip flight between Los Angeles and Chicago. United Airlines began DC-10 service on August 16, 1971. American's DC-10s had 206 seats and United's had 222; the DC-10's similarity to the Lockheed L-1011 in design, passenger capacity, launch date resulted in a sales competition that affected profitability of the aircraft. The first DC-10 version was the "domestic" series 10 with a range of 3,800 miles with a typical passenger load and a range of 2,710 miles with maximum payload; the series 15 had a typical load range of 4,350 miles. The series 20 was powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan engines, whereas the series 10 and 30 engines were General Electric CF6.
Before delivery of its aircraft, Northwest's president asked that the "series 20" aircraft be redesignated "series 40" because the aircraft was much improved over the
United Airlines, Inc. referred to as just United, is a major American airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network, with an extensive presence in the Asia-Pacific region. United is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, founded in 1926. United has seven hubs, with Chicago–O'Hare being its largest in terms of passengers carried and the number of departures; the company employs over 86,000 people while maintaining its headquarters in Chicago's Willis Tower. Through the airline's parent company, United Continental Holdings, it is publicly traded under NYSE: UAL with a market capitalization of over US$21 billion as of January 2018. United traces its roots to Varney Air Lines, which Walter Varney founded in 1926 in Idaho.
Continental Airlines is the successor to Speed Lanes, which Varney had founded by 1932 and whose name changed to Varney Speed Lines in 1934. VAL flew the first contracted air mail flight in the U. S. on April 6, 1926. In 1927, William Boeing founded Boeing Air Transport to operate air mail routes under contract with the United States Post Office Department. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, VAL, National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time. On March 28, 1931, UATC formed United Air Lines, Inc. as a holding company for its airline subsidiaries. In late 2006, Continental Airlines and United had preliminary merger discussions. On April 16, 2010, those discussions resumed; the board of directors of Continental and UAL Corporation agreed on May 2, 2010, to combine operations, contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval.
On October 1, 2010, the UAL Corporation changed its name to Inc.. The carriers planned to begin merging their operations in 2011; the merged airline began operating under a single air operator's certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration on November 30, 2011. On March 3, 2012, United and Continental merged their passenger service systems, frequent-flier programs, websites, which eliminated the Continental brand with the exception of its logo. United operates to 231 destinations and 125 international destinations in 48 countries across five continents. United operates seven hubs. Chicago–O'Hare – United's largest hub and its hub for the Midwest. United flies 36 million passengers through O'Hare every year, about 99,000 people per day, making it the busiest airline at the airport. United's corporate headquarters are in Chicago. Denver – United's hub for the central and western United States. In 2017, United flew 25.9 million passengers through DIA or about 71,000 people per day. As of December 2017, United has about 42% of the market share at DIA making it the airport's largest airline.
Houston–Intercontinental – United's hub for the Southern United States and primary gateway to Latin America. About 33.5 million passengers fly through Houston on United every year, or about 91,000 people per day. United has about 78% of the seat share at Bush, making it the airport's largest tenant. Los Angeles – United's secondary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 10 million passengers fly through LAX on about 28,000 people per day. United has 15% of the market share at LAX, making it the third-biggest carrier at the airport. Newark – United's primary hub for the East Coast and a gateway to Europe, Latin America and Asia. About 28.5 million passengers fly on United through Newark every year, or about 78,000 people per day. United controls about 81% of the slots at Newark and carries about 68% of all passengers at the airport. United uses part of Terminal A for United Express Flights. San Francisco – United's primary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia.
About 22 million passengers pass through SFO every year on United, about 60,000 people per day. United has about 46% of the market share at San Francisco International, making it the biggest airline at the airport. Washington–Dulles – United's secondary hub for the East Coast and gateway to Europe. United has about 65% of the market share at Washington Dulles, making it the largest airline at the airport. About 14 million passengers fly through Dulles every year on United, about 38,465 people per day. United Airlines is a member of the Star Alliance and has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: In addition to the above codeshares, United has entered into joint ventures with the following airlines: Air Canada Air New Zealand All Nippon Airways Austrian Airlines Brussels Airlines Lufthansa Swiss International Air Lines As of March 2019, United Airlines operated a fleet of 778 aircraft. On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets, including 260 Airbus A320s.
The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. This sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, which requires Airbus to refund to American any difference between the price paid by American and a lower price paid by United or another airline; this perpetuates United's having a Boeing-skewed fleet. On September 22, 2012, United became the first American airline to take delivery of Boeing 787 aircraft. Un
Envoy Air Inc. is an air carrier headquartered in Irving, Texas, in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Airlines Group that, along with several carriers outside the group, feeds the American Airlines route network under the American Eagle brand. With over 1000 flights a day, serving 150 cities across the United States, Canada and the Caribbean, Envoy is considered to be one of the world's largest regional airline systems. Envoy is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance; the name "American Eagle Airlines" was used between April 1980 and April 1981 by an unrelated air charter service that suspended operations and filed bankruptcy before flying any scheduled operations. Envoy began as a collection of regional carriers with contracts to carry the American Eagle brand name; the first American Eagle flight was operated by Metroflight Airlines, a wholly owned subsidiary of Metro Airlines, on November 1, 1984, from Fayetteville and Fort Smith, Arkansas, to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.
Metroflight utilized Convair 580 turboprop aircraft, operated by Frontier Airlines. Other carriers that have flown in American Eagle livery include Executive Airlines, Command Airways, Air Virginia, Simmons Airlines, Chaparral Airlines and Wings West Airlines. Among other aircraft in its fleet, Chaparral flew Grumman I-C turboprops which were stretched, 37 passenger regional airliner versions of Grumman's successful propjet business aircraft and was one of only a few air carriers to operate the type in scheduled passenger service; until 1987 these third-party carriers flew under contract with American Airlines to provide regional feed to its hubs. During 1987 and 1988 AMR Corp. acquired its regional carriers, starting with Simmons Airlines. AMR's final airline d/b/a American Eagle acquisition was Executive Airlines in 1989. By mid-1991 AMR had consolidated the number of carriers to four; the May 15, 1998, merger of Wings West and Flagship into Simmons reduced the number of carriers flying as American Eagle under separate operating certificates to two: American Eagle Airlines, Inc. and Executive Airlines, Inc.
During 2007, AMR began studying ways to spin American Eagle Airlines off into a separate company, but not limited to, the possibilities of selling the company to either stockholders or to an unaffiliated third party. In 2008, AMR said any plans had been put on hold until the airline industry stabilized after the worldwide financial crisis. In July 2011, AMR announced the spin-off of American Eagle Airlines but those plans were again put on hold when Parent AMR Corp. filed for bankruptcy in November 2011. In 2014 the company changed its name to Envoy Air Inc. but American Eagle continues to live on as a brand, as well as livery for Envoy-operated and third party-operated regional flights. In January 1988, Nashville Eagle became AMR Corp.’s first and only start-up airline, using equipment acquired from Air Midwest. American Eagle Airlines launched its regional jet service in May 1998 using Embraer ERJ 145 aircraft. Business Express was acquired by AMR Eagle Holdings Corporation in March 1999, although it never flew under the American Eagle brand before being integrated into American Eagle Airlines, Inc. in December 2000.
On January 14, 2014, American Airlines Group announced the rebranding of its American Eagle subsidiary as Envoy. Aircraft operated by American Eagle continued to operate under the current American Eagle branding, but an "Operated by Envoy Air" label was added, similar to the label used by other contract airlines that fly aircraft with American Eagle livery; this name change was created to avoid confusion when American Airlines announced that other regional carriers would operate on behalf of American. The term'Envoy' is a reincarnation of the now deprecated Envoy Class of seating on US Airways aircraft; the headquarters is in Irving, Texas, in two buildings located north of the northeast portion of DFW Airport. American Eagle was headquartered at the American Airlines headquarters in Fort Worth and had employees in several buildings: HDQ1, HDQ2, the Systems Operations Control center, the DFW American Eagle hangar, the DFW-area warehouse CP-28, Flight Academy, the Flagship University, it was scheduled to move 600 employees.
For a brief period American Eagle Airlines cooperated with Trans World Airlines by allowing the placement of the TW two letter IATA code upon American Eagle Airlines flights feeding into Los Angeles and New York's JFK Airports. These services were known as the Trans World Connection; these American Eagle Airlines/Trans World agreements were forged prior to and well in advance of AMR Corporation's route and asset acquisition of TWA in 2001. Until April 11, 2012, the carrier had a codeshare agreement with Delta Air Lines on California routes. Chicago, Illinois – Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas – Miami, Florida – New York, New York – There were bases in Boston, Los Angeles, Raleigh/Durham, San Juan; as of April 2019, the Envoy Air fleet consists of the following aircraft: In September 2009, AMR Corporation announced plans to add a First Class cabin to its fleet of 25 Bombardier CRJ700 regional jets and signed a letter of intent with Bombardier, Inc. to exercise options for the purchase of 22 additional CRJ700 aircraft for delivery beginning in the mi