Española, New Mexico
Española is a city in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, in the United States. A portion of the central and eastern section of the city is in Santa Fe County. Founded as a capital for Nuevo México in 1598 as San Juan de los Caballeros, it was renamed Española in 1880 when it became a railroad village, the city was incorporated in 1925, it has been called the first capital city in America. At the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 10,495. Española is within the Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. Española was referred to as La Vega de los Vigiles before the presence of railroads, it is believed. At the time of railroad construction, a small restaurant in the area was nicknamed "La Española"; this was because of the large presence of Spanish women in the area. The name became official by 1900 and Española became a small railroad town. Before the railroads, this is where Spanish and Native American people had settled for hundreds of years, making a living from farming along the Rio Grande.
The Española area is described as the first European-founded capital of the "New World". This designation refers to a capital within the boundaries of the United States since Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic predates the establishment of Española by 100 years as a European-established capital in the Americas; the region was explored in 1598 by Don Juan de Oñate. Oñate arrived in the Española area on July 11, 1598, at the confluence of the Chama River and the Rio Grande, where he established a camp at a place called Yunque-Yunque, he created the Spanish settlement in an area inhabited by indigenous descendants of the Anasazi. A century near the same region, Don Diego de Vargas established his villa at Santa Cruz. Prior to the arrival of the narrow gauge Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad in 1880, the hamlet on the west-side of the Rio Grande was known as La Vega de los Vigiles in reference to the Vigil family who settled that area; the earliest document found indicates that La Vegas de los Vigiles had been populated by 1751, over 100 years before the Chili Line's arrival.
With the coming of the railroad the name of the hamlet was changed to Española. The Chili Line running predominantly through the Rocky Mountain region announced a route extension of its narrow gauge into northern New Mexico; the line was built along the Rio Grande, was known as the Chili Line. The route would extend into what today is the downtown Española area, the railroad began selling lots in the area. Anglo merchants, mountain men, settlers filtered into Española. Frank Bond and his brother George, who were Canadian emigrants, would arrive in the city. Together they established a multi -- million dollar wool empire. With them came economic growth and prominence. Española was the headquarters for all the Bond family interests which included over 12 businesses across New Mexico. Many residents of the nearby town of Santa Fe were not happy with the decision and failure of connection of the railroad, prompting protest; the Española station, included an engine facility station along with a roundhouse and turntable so it could service the locomotives.
The facilities were torn down or no longer in use after six years. The railroad would reach Santa Fe to connect with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in late 1887. Frank R. Frankenburger, a business man born in Fort Scott, was the first "elected" mayor; the first mayor, chosen in "popularity" was Frank Bond, in 1907. In 1925 Española was incorporated as a city; as the population rose, there was a high demand for public education in the city. Española High School was established; the first high school in the area, was Santa Cruz High School. Two miles away from downtown Española, it opened in 1906 in the historic Santa Cruz area. Neither high school operates after a merger of school districts in 1975; the existence of the railroad began to dissipate as minimal passenger traffic and low shipments forced the railroad to close in the early 1940s. Many locals would become unemployed and would follow the railroad to Santa Fe, Albuquerque and central Colorado for jobs. Española's population would fall and many homes in the downtown became abandoned.
Most of the locals who remained would turn to farming as a way of life. Many people saw Española as another failed railroad town; the city removed the railroad tracks and the train depot in the 1960s, the railroads vanished. With the beginnings of Manhattan Project in nearby Los Alamos, many locals found jobs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory; as much as nearly 9% of Española's population have been employed at LANL. In the 1980s, many historical buildings and homes of historical significance were torn down for urban renewal. Española followed many other New Mexico cities in this trend. More modern business began to move into town, but the growth of Española had now expanded east across the Rio Grande. Although several buildings of historical significance remain in downtown Española, many are unused or abandoned. Strip malls became visible in Española, the first being the'Big Rock shopping center', founded by oil tycoon Roy Honstein. In the 1990s, a controversial plan to build a "plaza" and mission church where many historic buildings once stood was up for consideration.
The city agreed to the plan, locals supported the plaza. Although a plaza never exi
The Janissaries were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops and the first modern standing army in Europe. The corps was most established during the reign of Murad I, they began as an elite corps of slave soldiers made up of kidnapped young Christian boys who were converted to Islam, became famed for internal cohesion cemented by strict discipline and order. Unlike typical slaves, they were paid regular salaries. Forbidden to marry or engage in trade, their complete loyalty to the Sultan was expected. By the seventeenth century, due to a dramatic increase in the size of the Ottoman standing army, the corps' strict recruitment policy was relaxed. Civilians bought their way into it in order to benefit from the improved socioeconomic status it conferred upon them; the corps lost its military character, undergoing a process, described as'civilianization'. The corps was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 in the Auspicious Incident in which 6,000 or more were executed.
The formation of the Janissaries has been dated to the reign of Murad I, the third ruler of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans instituted a tax of one-fifth on all slaves taken in war, it was from this pool of manpower that the sultans first constructed the Janissary corps as a personal army loyal only to the sultan. From the 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme system, abolished in 1638; this was the taking of non-Muslim boys, notably Balkan Christians. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "in early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately; those from Albania and Bulgaria were preferred."The Janissaries were kapıkulları, "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves. They were subjected to strict discipline, but were paid salaries and pensions upon retirement and formed their own distinctive social class; as such, they became one of the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, rivalling the Turkish aristocracy. The brightest of the Janissaries were sent to Enderun.
Through a system of meritocracy, the Janissaries held enormous power, stopping all efforts at reform of the military. According to military historian Michael Antonucci and economic historians Glenn Hubbard and Tim Kane, the Turkish administrators would scour their regions every five years for the strongest sons of the sultan's Christian subjects; these boys were taken from their parents and given to Turkish families in the provinces to learn Turkish language and customs, the rules of Islam. The recruits were indoctrinated into Islam, forced into circumcision and supervised 24 hours a day by eunuchs, they were subjected to severe discipline, being prohibited from growing a beard, taking up a skill other than soldiering, marrying. As a result, the Janissaries were well-disciplined troops, became members of the askeri class, the first-class citizens or military class. Most were non-Muslims, it was a similar system to the Iranian Safavid and Qajar era ghilmans, who were drawn from converted Circassians and Armenians, in the same way as with the Ottoman's Janissaries who had to replace the unreliable ghazis.
They were created as a counterbalance to the tribal and favoured interests the Qizilbash gave, which make a system imbalanced. In the late 16th century, a sultan gave in to the pressures of the Corps and permitted Janissary children to become members of the Corps, a practice forbidden for the previous 300 years. According to paintings of the era, they were permitted to grow beards; the strict rules of succession became open to interpretation. While they advanced their own power, the Janissaries helped to keep the system from changing in other progressive ways, according to some scholars the corps shared responsibility for the political stagnation of Istanbul. Greek Historian Dimitri Kitsikis in his book Türk Yunan İmparatorluğu states that many Christian families were willing to comply with the devşirme because it offered a possibility of social advancement. Conscripts could one day become Janissary colonels, statesmen who might one day return to their home region as governors, or Grand Viziers or Beylerbeys.
Some of the most famous Janissaries include George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, an Albanian who defected and led a 25‑year Albanian revolt against the Ottomans. Another was Sokollu Mehmed Paşa, a Serbian who became a grand vizier, served three sultans, was the de facto ruler of the Ottoman Empire for more than 14 years; the Janissary corps were distinctive in a number of ways. They wore unique uniforms, were paid regular salaries for their service, marched to music, lived in barracks and were the first corps to make extensive use of firearms. A Janissary battalion was a close-knit community the soldier's family. By tradition, the Sultan himself, after authorizing the payments to the Janissaries, visited the barracks dressed as a janissary trooper, received his pay alongside the other men of the First Division, they served as policemen, palace guards, fire fighters during peacetime. The Janissaries enjoyed far better support on campaign than other armies of the time, they were part of a well-organized military machine, in which one support corps prepared the roads while others pitch
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U. S. state of New Mexico. It is the seat of Santa Fe County; this area was occupied for at least several thousand years by indigenous peoples who built villages several hundred years ago, on the current site of the city. It was known by the Tewa inhabitants as Ogha Po'oge; the city of Santa Fe, founded by Spanish colonists in 1610, is the oldest state capital in the United States. Santa Fe had a population of 69,204 in 2012, it is the principal city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Santa Fe County and is part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. The city's full name as founded remains La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. Before European colonization of the Americas, the area Santa Fe occupied between 900 CE and the 1500s was known to the Tewa peoples as Oghá P'o'oge and by the Navajo people as Yootó. In 1610, Juan de Oñate established the area as Santa Fe de Nuevo México–a province of New Spain.
Formal Spanish settlements were developed leading the colonial governor Pedro de Peralta to rename the area La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The phrase "Santa Fe" is translated as "Holy Faith" in Spanish. Although more known as Santa Fe, the city's full, legal name remains to this day as La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís; the standard Spanish variety pronounces it SAHN-tah-FAY as contextualized within the city's full, Spaniard name La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Aśis. However, due to the large amounts of tourism and immigration into Santa Fe, an English pronunciation of SAN-tuh-FAY is commonly used; the area of Santa Fe was occupied by indigenous Tanoan peoples, who lived in numerous Pueblo villages along the Rio Grande. One of the earliest known settlements in what today is downtown Santa Fe came sometime after 900 CE. A group of native Tewa built a cluster of homes that centered around the site of today's Plaza and spread for half a mile to the south and west.
The river had a year-round flow until the 1700s. By the 20th century the Santa Fe River was a seasonal waterway; as of 2007, the river was recognized as the most endangered river in the United States, according to the conservation group American Rivers. Don Juan de Oñate led the first European effort to colonize the region in 1598, establishing Santa Fe de Nuevo México as a province of New Spain. Under Juan de Oñate and his son, the capital of the province was the settlement of San Juan de los Caballeros north of Santa Fe near modern Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. New Mexico's second Spanish governor, Don Pedro de Peralta, founded a new city at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1607, which he called La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, the Royal Town of the Holy Faith of Saint Francis of Assisi. In 1610, he designated it as the capital of the province, which it has constantly remained, making it the oldest state capital in the United States. Discontent with the colonization practices led to the Pueblo Revolt, when groups of different Native Pueblo peoples were successful in driving the Spaniards out of the area now known as New Mexico, maintaining their independence from 1680 to 1692, when the territory was reconquered by Don Diego de Vargas.
Santa Fe was Spain's provincial seat at outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810. It was considered important to fur traders based in present-day Saint Missouri; when the area was still under Spanish rule, the Chouteau brothers of Saint Louis gained a monopoly on the fur trade, before the United States acquired Missouri under the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. The fur trade contributed to the wealth of St. Louis; the city's status as the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México was formalized in the 1824 Constitution after Mexico achieved independence from Spain. When the Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836, it attempted to claim Santa Fe and other parts of Nuevo México as part of the western portion of Texas along the Río Grande. In 1841, a small military and trading expedition set out from Austin, intending to take control of the Santa Fe Trail. Known as the Texan Santa Fe Expedition, the force was poorly prepared and was captured by the Mexican army. In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico.
Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny led the main body of his Army of the West of some 1,700 soldiers into Santa Fe to claim it and the whole New Mexico Territory for the United States. By 1848 the U. S. gained New Mexico through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Colonel Alexander William Doniphan, under the command of Kearny, recovered ammunition from Santa Fe labeled "Spain 1776" showing both the quality of communication and military support New Mexico received under Mexican rule; some American visitors at first saw little promise in the remote town. One traveller in 1849 wrote: I can hardly imagine how Santa Fe is supported; the country around it is barren. At the North stands a snow-capped mountain while the valley in which the town is situated is drab and sandy; the streets are narrow... A Mexican will walk about town all day to sell a bundle of grass worth about a dime, they are the poorest looking people I saw. They subsist principally on mutton and red pepper. In 1851, Jean Baptiste Lamy arrived, becoming bishop of New Mexico, Utah, C
Las Vegas, New Mexico
Las Vegas is a city in and the county seat of San Miguel County, New Mexico, United States. Once two separate municipalities, both were named Las Vegas—West Las Vegas and East Las Vegas —are separated by the Gallinas River and retain distinct characters and separate, rival school districts; the population was 14,565 at the 2000 census. Las Vegas, NM is located 110 miles south of Raton, New Mexico, 65 miles east of Santa Fe, New Mexico, 122 miles northeast of Albuquerque, New Mexico, 257 miles south of Colorado Springs, 326 miles south of Denver, Colorado. Las Vegas was established in 1835 after a group of settlers received a land grant from the Mexican government; the town was laid out in the traditional Spanish Colonial style, with a central plaza surrounded by buildings which could serve as fortifications in case of attack. Las Vegas soon prospered as a stop on the Santa Fe Trail. During the Mexican–American War in 1846, Stephen W. Kearny delivered an address at the Plaza of Las Vegas claiming New Mexico for the United States.
In 1877 Las Vegas College, the precursor to Regis University, was founded in Las Vegas by a group of exiled Italian Jesuits. In 1887, Las Vegas College moved to Denver whereupon. A railroad was constructed to the town in 1880. To maintain control of development rights, it established a station and related development one mile east of the Plaza, creating a separate, rival New Town, as occurred elsewhere in the Old West; the same competing development occurred for instance. During the railroad era Las Vegas boomed becoming one of the largest cities in the American Southwest. Turn-of-the-century Las Vegas featured all the modern amenities, including an electric street railway, the "Duncan Opera House" at the northeast corner of 6th Street and Douglas Avenue, a Carnegie library, the Hotel Castaneda, the New Mexico Normal School. Since the decline and restructuring of the railroad industry began in the 1950s, the city's population has remained constant. Although the two towns have been combined, separate school districts have been maintained.
The anti-colonist organization Las Gorras Blancas was active in the area in the 1890s. Beginning in 1899, a reunion was held at the Plaza Hotel in Las Vegas for the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish–American War and the only one of the three to see action; the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry is more famously known as the Rough Riders. The reunion was attended by the Governor of New York, Theodore Roosevelt. Two years in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th President of the United States when President William McKinley died while Roosevelt was serving as vice-president; the last surviving Rough Rider, Jesse Langdon, died in 1975 at the age of 94. In 2005, a group of local motorcycle riders gathered to organize and hold a rally focused on the area’s history and special environment; the "Rough Rider" name was chosen. Now in its 14th year, the rally attracts motorcyclists from throughout the southwest for three days of charitable activities and motorcycle related events.
Beginning in 1915, the Las Vegas Cowboys' Reunions were held annually until 1931. Their slogan was, "Git Fer Vegas, Cowboy!" These reunions were organized by a group of ranching families and cowboys which soon became the Las Vegas Cowboys' Reunion Association. The Reunions celebrated ranching life, which began in northern New Mexico in the early 1800s and continues into the 21st Century; the annual affair included pie eating contests, parades, balls, "ranch rodeos." In the early years, celebrities—cowhands as well as big-name bands, movie stars like Tom Mix, artists such as Randall Davey—came to Las Vegas for this event. In years, famous cowhands participated in the Cowboys' Reunion Rodeos; the Cowboys' Reunions reflected the occupations of the area and attracted huge crowds for their 4 days of events. In 1952, the Cowboys' Reunion Association invited the Rough Riders Association to join them at the annual rodeo; the arrival of the railroad on July 4, 1879 brought with it businesses and new residents, both respectable and dubious.
Murderers, thieves, gunmen, swindlers and tramps poured in, transforming the eastern side of the settlement into a lawless brawl. Among the notorious characters were such legends of the Old West as: dentist Doc Holliday and his girlfriend Big Nose Kate, Jesse James, Billy the Kid, Wyatt Earp, Mysterious Dave Mather, Hoodoo Brown, Handsome Harry the Dancehall Rustler. Historian Ralph Emerson Twitchell once claimed regarding the Old West, "Without exception there was no town which harbored a more disreputable gang of desperadoes and outlaws than did Las Vegas." According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.5 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,565 people, 5,588 households, 3,559 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,938.2 people per square mile. There were 6,366 housing units at an average density of 847.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 54.21% White, 0.99% African American, 1.96% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 37.19% from other races, 4.95% from two or more races.
Hispanic people of any race were 82.94% of the population. As noted in the chart to the right, the population of Las Vegas peaked a
The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
Barelas is an inner-city neighborhood of Albuquerque, New Mexico, located south of Downtown. It consists of the triangular area bounded by Coal Avenue, the BNSF railroad tracks, the Rio Grande. A separate village, it was absorbed into Albuquerque during the railroad-fueled growth of the 1880s but still retains a distinct identity; the settlement was formally established in 1662, predating Old Town as the oldest neighborhood in the city. Although it was long one of Albuquerque's most economically distressed areas, Barelas has seen significant development since the opening of the National Hispanic Cultural Center in 2000 and may be starting to experience gentrification; the neighborhood's main commercial area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Barelas-South Fourth Street Historic District. The neighborhood occupies a triangular region between the Rio Grande and the BNSF railroad tracks south of Coal Avenue, which forms the boundary with Downtown; the area claimed by the Barelas Neighborhood Association extends all the way south to Woodward Road, though south of Bridge Boulevard the neighborhood becomes industrial rather than residential.
Geographically speaking Barelas is somewhat isolated, with the railyard and river separating it from adjacent areas to the east and west. Barelas has around 3,700 inhabitants two thirds of whom are Hispanic, it has been one of the poorest neighborhoods in Albuquerque. In 2000, per capita income was $5,871, with 46.4% of the population below the poverty line and 20.5% of households receiving public assistance. The unemployment rate was 21.9%. The area now known as Barelas was the site of an important river crossing on El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the main Spanish trade route through New Mexico; the crossing was described by Zebulon Pike in 1807 as being "400 yards wide, but not more than three feet deep and excellent fording". A settlement was formally established there by colonial governor Diego de Peñalosa in 1662, though it remained unpopulated until the 19th century; the name Barelas is thought to come from a local landowner named Pedro Varela, who had a ranch in the area. Barelas in the late 1800s was a quiet agricultural community, with 309 residents listed in the 1870 Census and 350 in 1880.
The village did see minor action during the American Civil War, most notably during the Battle of Albuquerque in April 1862. On that occasion, Union troops in Barelas exchanged long-range artillery fire with a Confederate position east of Albuquerque for several hours, with no casualties; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway reached Albuquerque in 1880. In order to keep the route as straight as possible, the railroad planners chose to build the Albuquerque depot and some 1.5 miles east of the actual town. This led to the immediate creation of a separate "New Town" adjacent to the depot and directly north of Barelas. Fueled by the presence of the massive Santa Fe Railway Shops, Albuquerque's largest employer at the time, Barelas underwent a rapid transformation from quiet farming village to busy blue-collar neighborhood. By 1900 there were over 1,200 residents. Most of Barelas was incorporated into the City of Albuquerque in 1891, marking its end as a separate community. Barelas saw increased prosperity after 4th Street, one of the main arteries through the neighborhood, was designated as part of U.
S. Route 66 in 1926; the road was soon lined with filling stations and cafes catering to the steady stream of travelers passing through Barelas. Barelas suffered a series of economic setbacks in the mid-20th century, the first of, the realignment of Route 66 in 1937; the new east-west route was 90 miles shorter, but the rerouting of the highway from 4th Street to Central Avenue bypassed Barelas entirely. Traffic on 4th eroded further still when Interstate 25 supplanted U. S. 85 as Albuquerque's main north-south highway. To make matters worse, the railroad shops closed in 1970. In 1974 a downtown section of 4th Street was closed to build Civic Plaza, cutting off the neighborhood's main artery. Isolated from the rest of the city and with its economic base in ruins, Barelas descended into poverty and crime. Barelas has experienced a gradual resurgence since the late 1980s as demand for housing near Downtown has increased. A major turning point came in 2000 with the opening of the National Hispanic Cultural Center, a $50 million project that brought visitors and capital back into the neighborhood.
The opening of the Albuquerque Hispano Chamber of Commerce and Barelas Job Opportunity Center in 2001 has furthered economic development in Barelas. Another significant project for the neighborhood is the pending redevelopment of the former railyard complex, vacant since the 1970s; as of 2011 this project is still in the planning stage but has fueled land speculation in Barelas, raising the possibility of gentrification. In 1997, the commercial area along 4th Street was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Barelas-South Fourth Street Historic District. Albuquerque Public Schools operates two public elementary schools in Barelas. Dolores Gonzales Elementary is the main school serving the neighborhood, while Coronado Elementary offers a specialized dual-language program. Older students in Barelas are assigned to Washington Middle School and Albuquerque High School, which are outside the neighborhood. Barelas was served by two major highways, U. S. Route 85 and U. S. Route 66.
Both took the same route through the neighborhood, following 4th Street south before turning west across the Barelas Bridge. Although both highways were rerout
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources