Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, differentiating between and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex, sex-based social structures, or gender identity. Most cultures use a gender binary; some societies have specific genders such as the hijras of South Asia. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is followed in some contexts the social sciences and documents written by the World Health Organization. In other contexts, including some areas of the social sciences, gender replaces it. For instance, in non-human animal research, gender is used to refer to the biological sex of the animals.
This change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the 1980s. In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration started to use gender instead of sex. In 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using sex as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation."The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies. Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscience, are interested in the subject; the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, gender studies do, while research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. In some English literature, there is a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, social gender role; this framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978. The modern English word gender comes from the Middle English gender, gendre, a loanword from Anglo-Norman and Middle French gendre.
This, in turn, came from Latin genus. Both words mean "kind", "type", or "sort", they derive from a attested Proto-Indo-European root gen-, the source of kin, kind and many other English words. It appears in Modern French in the word genre and is related to the Greek root gen-, appearing in gene and oxygen; the Oxford Etymological Dictionary of the English Language of 1882 defined gender as kind, sex, derived from the Latin ablative case of genus, like genere natus, which refers to birth. The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary notes the original meaning of gender as "kind" had become obsolete; the concept of gender, in the modern sense, is a recent invention in human history. The ancient world had no basis of understanding gender as it has been understood in the humanities and social sciences for the past few decades; the term gender had been associated with grammar for most of history and only started to move towards it being a malleable cultural construct in the 1950s and 1960s. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955.
Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories. For example, in a bibliography of 12,000 references on marriage and family from 1900–1964, the term gender does not emerge once. Analysis of more than 30 million academic article titles from 1945–2001 showed that the uses of the term "gender", were much rarer than uses of "sex", was used as a grammatical category early in this period. By the end of this period, uses of "gender" outnumbered uses of "sex" in the social sciences and humanities, it was in the 1970s that feminist scholars adopted the term gender as way of distinguishing “socially constructed” aspects of male–female differences from “biologically determined” aspects. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia has increased outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences. While the spread of the word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the failure to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, the distinction has sometimes become blurred with the theory itself.
Julie Greenberg writes that although gender and sex are separate concepts, they are interlinked in that gender discrimination results from stereotypes based on what is expected of members of each sex. In J. E. B. v. Alabama ex rel. T. B. United States Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia wrote: The word ‘gender’ has acquired the new and
The White Light Tour is the fifth concert tour by Irish band, The Corrs, beginning in January 2016. The tour promoted White Light, after more than 9 years hiatus status; the Shires Jamie Lawson "I Do What I Like" "Give Me a Reason" "Forgiven" "Bring On the Night" "What Can I Do" "Radio" "Lough Erin Shore" / "Trout in the Bath" / "Joy of Life" "Runaway" "With Me Stay" "Ellis Island" "Buachaill on Eirne" "Love to Love You" "Only When I Sleep" "Queen of Hollywood" "Dreams" "Kiss of Life" "I Never Loved You Anyway" "So Young"Encore "White Light" "Breathless" "Toss the Feathers"
Édouard-Pierre-Marguerite Timbal-Lagrave was a French pharmacist and botanist. He specialized in the flora including the Pyrénées and Corbières mountains, he studied chemistry and pharmacy in Toulouse and Montpellier, subsequently obtaining the degree of pharmacist 1rst class. During his career he worked as a pharmacist in Toulouse and served as a substitute professor at the local École de médecine et de pharmacie. In 1854 he became a member of the Société botanique de France. In 1871 the plant genus. Many of the plants that he described were based on minor local differences, as such, were reduced to intraspecific rankings, his herbarium, as well as specimens collected by his son Albert Timbal-Lagrave, is housed at the Jardin botanique Henri Gaussen in Toulouse. Recherches sur les cépages cultivés dans les départements de la Haute-Garonne, du Lot, de Tarn-et-Garonne, de l'Aude, de l'Hérault et des Pyrénées Orientales, 1863 – Research on grapes grown in the departments of Haute-Garonne, Tarn-et-Garonne, Aude, Hérault and Pyrénées Orientales.
Précis des herborisations faites par la Société d'histoire naturelle de Toulouse pendant l'année 1870, 1871 – Specific herborizations made by the Natural History Society of Toulouse during the year 1870. Une excursion botanique à Cascastel, Durban, et Villeneuve dans les Corbières, 1874 – A botanical excursion in Cascastel and Villeneuve in Corbières. Deuxième excursion dans les Corbières orientales, Saint-Victor, le col d'Ostrem, Vingrau, 1875 – Second excursion in the eastern Corbières, Saint-Victor, the col of Ostrem, Vingrau. Exploration scientifique du massif d'Arbas. Reliquiæ Pourretianæ, 1875. Le massif du Laurenti, Pyrénées française: géographie, géologie, botanique, 1879 – The Laurenti massif, French Pyrénées. Essai monographique sur les Dianthus des Pyrénées françaises, 1881 – Monograph on Dianthus of the French Pyrénées. Essai monographique sur les espèces françaises du genre Héracleum, 1889 – Monograph on French species within the genus Heracleum
Norsey Wood is a 67.2 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Billericay, Essex. It is a Local Nature Reserve and a Scheduled Monument; the site is ancient oak woodland on acid soil, converted to mixed sweet chestnut coppice. Bluebell and bramble are dominant on the ground layer, but there are sphagnum mosses in acidic flushes, the rare water violet in one of the four ponds. There are nine species of dragonfly. Archaeolocal features include a Bronze Age bowl barrow, Iron Age and Roman cemeteries, a medieval deer bank. There is a Forest nursery school based on the outside of the woods with access to the woods for the children, toilets, a car park and a trail. There is access from Outwood Common Road, Break Egg Hill, Norsey Close and Norsey Road; the Norsey Wood Society
Dangler is a literary term meaning a plotline, metaphorically left to "dangle" or "hang". A dangler, or dangling plotline, is a plot device in fiction where a plotline is forgotten, phased out and dropped, thus a resolution is never achieved. Although dangling plotlines can occur in all forms of media, they appear in comic books and book sequels, where the original writer or creative team can be replaced. A writer will pepper the main story with smaller back-stories, it becomes evident to the reader that these smaller back-stories have the potential to build up into a bigger story and reach a conclusion of some sort. Editorial mandate can force a writer to drop a building plotline due to fan backlash or an editor's lack of interest to pursue such a plot. In television, when a creative team fears that their show may not be picked up for another season, they will end the season finale with a cliffhanger in order to conjure a fan outcry and interest to continue the series; when the series is not picked up for another season, the cliffhanger creates a dangling plotline.
The original writer, fan of the series, or the company who produced the series, will look to another form of media to continue the story. Twin Peaks was able to resolve some dangling plotlines due to the release of the theatrical film. Buffy the Vampire Slayer got its own comic book series appropriately named Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight, written by series creator Joss Whedon. In an rare occasion, Futurama was continued six years through direct-to-DVD films, which led to the resurrection of the series in its original television format. In comic books, it is a common practice for writers to resolve their own dangling plotlines in other comic books within the shared universe. A good example is Frank Tieri, who started a Weapon X story in Wolverine, who later became the writer of his own Weapon X series and as the series ended abruptly, was forced to continue some of his side-stories in a miniseries called Weapon X: Days of Future Now. One lingering plotline left a character in limbo from the Weapon X series until Frank Tieri took the reins of New Excalibur, where he proceeded to close this character's storyline, five years later.
Chris Claremont and Warren Ellis are known for continuing their own stories throughout other books they write for. In a similar fashion, Mark Millar has continued the story of an ever-dangling character, Clyde Wyncham, all throughout his runs on Marvel 1985, Kick-Ass, Fantastic Four and Old Man Logan; because of the unsatisfying nature of having a plotline dangle, fans sometimes take matters into their own hands. One famous example of this, the numerous directors and writers in the Halloween series each had different directions for their story of Michael Myers; this left dangling storylines after each movie. Unconnected, the movies would end with a cliffhanger and continue with no mention of the previous movie's occurrences. To remedy this mess of continuity, Chaos Comics published a comic book series to bridge the gaps between all the movies into one continuous canon. Back to back film production List of cliffhanger endings Plot hole Subplot Zeigarnik effect
The University of Cumbria is a public university in Cumbria, with its headquarters in Carlisle and other major campuses in Lancaster and London. It opened its doors in 2007, has roots extending back to the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, established in 1822, the teacher training college established by Charlotte Mason in the 1890s; the University of Cumbria was formed from the merger of St Martin's College, the Cumbria Institute of the Arts, the Cumbrian campuses of the University of Central Lancashire on 1 August 2007. Which ran degree programmes accredited by Lancaster University and the University of Central Lancashire. To facilitate the change, St Martin's College applied for independent degree-awarding powers in March 2005, was successful in July 2006 after nine months of scrutiny by the Quality Assurance Agency. In January 2007, official university status was granted by the Privy Council; the university is based upon the findings of a report by Sir Martin Harris. This plan envisaged a university based upon a "distributed learning network", so that teaching will take place both at the University's main campuses, at colleges of further education around the county.
This solved a problem for remote areas that did not have direct access to higher education. The headquarters of the university are in Carlisle, its other major campuses are at Ambleside, Lancaster and it has classrooms and open workspace in the "Energus" facility in Blackwood Road, Workington. The university also had sites in Penrith and London. Newton Rigg has since been transferred to Askham Bryan College and the Tower Hamlets provision has moved to East India Dock Road. Furness College in Barrow-in-Furness has developed close links with the university and they share some facilities; the site started its life as The Carlisle Union Workhouse in 1863. After the Second World War, it became the Carlisle City General Hospital and served as such until it closed in 1999; the Brampton Road campus was the Cumbria Institute of the Arts, founded in October 1822 as the "Society for the Encouragement of the Arts" Carlisle Art College and College of Art and Design. The Brampton Road campus is now home to the university's Institute of the Arts, with over 1000 full-time arts students.
The site was Bowerham Barracks, the depot of the King's Own Royal Regiment. In 1962 it became a teaching college. From the start, the college planned to teach degrees as well as Certificates of Education and pioneered the four year BA Hons with qualified teacher status. By 1966 the college was teaching PGCE students; the college developed courses in nursing and radiography, occupational health, social work and continuing professional development courses for health professionals. Strong relationships were forged with NHS trust training departments; the college developed further courses in humanities and sport, a mini building boom ensued in the late 1990s with the development of the Sports Centre, Humanities building, Hugh Pollard Lecture Theatre, as well as student accommodation. On 1 December 2009 it was announced that the Ambleside campus would be "mothballed" at the end of July 2010, would no longer take new undergraduate students. A protest was held on 1 December 2009 by the student body; this was in spite of support pledged from Tim Farron MP for its students.
The timing of the closure had led many to believe. In July 2011, the university announced a plan to reopen the campus and increase student numbers at the Ambleside campus and this began in 2014. Ambleside continues to host courses in outdoor studies, conservation business and sustainability. Degree programmes including Forestry, Outdoor Studies, Outdoor Leadership and Applied Sciences were taught from the Penrith campus based at Newton Rigg; the National School of Forestry was set up here in the 1960s and has a long history of educating forest managers, which continues to the present day. Programmes moved to their new home in Ambleside in 2013 and 2014. Further education provision and assets of the Newton Rigg campus were transferred to Askham Bryan College in March 2011, but the university continued to run higher education courses there for three years; the university has space at the "Energus" facility in Blackwood Road, Workington. The facility was the university's first presence in West Cumbria.
Previous vice-chancellors have included. At one stage the university had debts totalling £13,000,000 and in March 2010, it received a cash advance from HEFCE to enable it to pay staff, it is profitable. The university has five specialist departmental areas that offer a range of flexible, multidisciplinary courses: Institute of Business and Leadership Institute of Health Institute of the Arts Institute of Education Institute of Science, Natural Resources and Outdoor StudiesThe University of Cumbria provides education in Medical Imaging, Sports Development, Law, Education and Economic Development, Conservation and the Uplands, Mental Health and Wellbeing, among other subject areas; the majority of University of Cumbria campuses have sports teams which