The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. They are considered to constitute the most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system. Early homophile groups in the U. S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, the anti–Vietnam War movement; these influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s.
Those that did were bars, although bar owners and managers were gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia, it catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: drag queens, transgender people, effeminate young men, butch lesbians, male prostitutes, homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested. After the Stonewall riots and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians.
Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U. S. and the world. On June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago commemorating the anniversary of the riots. Similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots; the Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016. As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and will include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events, open to all. Additional commemorative arts and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.
In addition to events requiring paid admission, a march open to the public is scheduled for June 30, 2019. Following the social upheaval of World War II, many people in the United States felt a fervent desire to "restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change", according to historian Barry Adam. Spurred by the national emphasis on anti-communism, Senator Joseph McCarthy conducted hearings searching for communists in the U. S. government, the U. S. Army, other government-funded agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. Anarchists and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U. S. State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail. In 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Hoey noted in a report, "It is believed that those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons", said all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks".
Between 1947 and 1950, 1,700 federal job applications were denied, 4,380 people were discharged from the military, 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and police departments kept lists of known homosexuals, their favored establishments, friends. S. Post Office kept track of addresses. State and local governments followed suit: bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed "sweeps" to rid neighborhoods, parks and beaches of gay people, they outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual as a mental disorder. A large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationships.
This view was wide
Homosexuality and religion
The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied across time and place and between different religions and denominations, regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. Present day doctrines of the world's major religions vary vastly and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations. Among those denominations that are negative towards these orientations, there are many different types of actions they may take: this can range from discouraging homosexual activity, explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and opposing social acceptance of homosexuality, to execution. Religious fundamentalism has been found to correlate positively with anti-homosexual bias; this is the case with common religiosity too, which predicts homophobic attitudes but has been found to lead to physical antigay hostility, in a lab experiment. Religious opposition to gay adoption was found to be explained by collectivistic values and low flexibility in existential issues, not by high prosocial inclinations for the weak.
Attitudes toward homosexuality have been found to be determined not only by personal religious beliefs, but by the interaction of those beliefs with the predominant national religious context—even for people who are less religious or who do not share their local dominant religious context. Many argue. To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation. Several organizations exist that assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction. However, some adherents of many religions view the two sexual orientations positively, some religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages and support LGBT rights, the amount of those that do are continuously increasing around the world as much of the developed world enacts laws supporting LGBT rights; some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality. For example, Hinduism does not view homosexuality as a religious sin. In 2009, the Hindu Council UK released the statement "Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality".
Sikh wedding ceremonies are non-gender specific, so same-sex marriage is possible within Sikhism. Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed; the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy and teaching that such behavior is sinful. Today some denominations within these religions are accepting of homosexuality and inclusive of homosexual people, such as Reform Judaism, the United Church of Christ and the Metropolitan Community Church; some Presbyterian and Anglican churches welcome members regardless of same-sex sexual practices, with some provinces allowing for the ordination and inclusion of gay and lesbian clerics, affirmation of same-sex unions. Reform Judaism incorporates lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex marriage liturgies, while Reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative Judaism in the US allows for lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex unions.
The Torah is the primary source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that: " shall not lie with another man as with a woman, it is a תועבה toeba". Orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. In recent years, there has been approaches claiming only the sexual anal act is forbidden and considered abomination by the Torah, while the sexual orientation and other sexual activities are not considered a sin. Conservative Judaism has engaged in an in-depth study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa for communal consideration; the official position of the movement is to welcome homosexual Jews into their synagogues, campaign against any discrimination in civil law and public society, but to uphold a ban on anal sex as a religious requirement. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the same basis as heterosexuality. Progressive Jewish authorities believe either that traditional laws against homosexuality are no longer binding or that they are subject to changes that reflect a new understanding of human sexuality.
Some of these authorities rely on modern biblical scholarship suggesting that the prohibition in the Torah was intended to ban coercive or ritualized homosexual sex, such as those practices ascribed to Egyptian and Canaanite fertility cults and temple prostitution. Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, ranging from outright condemnation to complete acceptance. Most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful; these denominations include the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, Confessional Lutheran denominations such as the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, the United Methodist Church, some other mainline denominations, such as the Reformed Church in America
Coming out of the closet shortened to coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity. The term coming out can be used in various non-LGBT applications. Framed and debated as a privacy issue, coming out of the closet is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey. Author Steven Seidman writes that "it is the power of the closet to shape the core of an individual's life that has made homosexuality into a significant personal and political drama in twentieth-century America". American gender theorist Judith Butler argues that the process of "coming out" does not free gay people from oppression. Although they may feel free to act as themselves, the opacity involved in entering a non-heterosexual territory insinuates judgment upon their identity, she argues in Imitation and Gender Insubordination. Coming out of the closet is the source of other gay slang expressions related to voluntary disclosure or lack thereof.
LGBT people who have revealed or no longer conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity are out, i.e. LGBT. Oppositely, LGBT people who have yet to come out or have opted not to do so are labelled as closeted or being in the closet. Outing is the deliberate or accidental disclosure of an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity, without their consent. By extension, outing oneself is self-disclosure. Glass closet means the open secret of when public figures' being LGBT is considered a accepted fact though they have not come out. In 1869, one hundred years before the Stonewall riots, the German homosexual rights advocate Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the idea of self-disclosure as a means of emancipation. Claiming that invisibility was a major obstacle toward changing public opinion, he urged homosexual people to reveal their same-sex attractions. In his 1906 work, Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur, Iwan Bloch, a German-Jewish physician, entreated elderly homosexuals to self-disclose to their family members and acquaintances.
In 1914, Magnus Hirschfeld revisited the topic in his major work The Homosexuality of Men and Women, discussing the social and legal potentials of several thousand homosexual men and women of rank revealing their sexual orientation to the police in order to influence legislators and public opinion. The first prominent American to reveal his homosexuality was the poet Robert Duncan. In 1944, using his own name in the anarchist magazine Politics, he wrote that homosexuals were an oppressed minority; the decidedly clandestine Mattachine Society, founded by Harry Hay and other veterans of the Wallace for President campaign in Los Angeles in 1950, moved into the public eye after Hal Call took over the group in San Francisco in 1953, with many gays emerging from the closet. In 1951, Donald Webster Cory published his landmark The Homosexual in America, exclaiming, "Society has handed me a mask to wear... Everywhere I go, at all times and before all sections of society, I pretend." Cory was a pseudonym, but his frank and subjective descriptions served as a stimulus to the emerging homosexual self-awareness and the nascent homophile movement.
In the 1960s, Frank Kameny came to the forefront of the struggle. Having been fired from his job as an astronomer for the Army Map service in 1957 for homosexual behavior, Kameny refused to go quietly, he fought his dismissal appealing it all the way to the U. S. Supreme Court; as a vocal leader of the growing movement, Kameny argued for unapologetic public actions. The cornerstone of his conviction was that, "we must instill in the homosexual community a sense of worth to the individual homosexual", which could only be achieved through campaigns led by homosexuals themselves. With the spread of consciousness raising in the late 1960s, coming out became a key strategy of the gay liberation movement to raise political consciousness to counter heterosexism and homophobia. At the same time and continuing into the 1980s, gay and lesbian social support discussion groups, some of which were called "coming-out groups", focused on sharing coming-out "stories" with the goal of reducing isolation and increasing LGBT visibility and pride.
The present-day expression "coming out" is understood to have originated in the early 20th century from an analogy that likens homosexuals' introduction into gay subculture to a débutante's coming-out party. This is a celebration for a young upper-class woman, making her début – her formal presentation to society – because she has reached adult age or has become eligible for marriage; as historian George Chauncey points out: Gay people in the pre-war years... did not speak of coming out of what we call the gay closet but rather of coming out into what they called homosexual society or the gay world, a world neither so small, nor so isolated, nor... so hidden as closet implies In fact, as Elizabeth Kennedy observes, "using the term'closet' to refer to" previous times such as "the 1920s and 1930s might be anachronistic". An article on coming out in the online encyclopedia glbtq.com states that sexologist Evelyn Hooker's observations introduced the use of "coming out" to the academic community in the 1950s.
The article continues by echoing Chauncey's observation that a subsequent shift in connotation occurred on. The pre-1950s focus was on entrance into "a
A civil union is a recognized arrangement similar to marriage, created as a means to provide recognition in law for same-sex couples. Civil unions grant all of the rights of marriage except the title itself. Around the world, developed democracies began establishing civil unions in the late 1990s developing them from less formal domestic partnerships, which grant only some of the rights of marriage. In the majority of countries that established these unions in laws, they have since been either supplemented or replaced by same-sex marriage. Civil unions are viewed by LGBT rights campaigners as a "first step" towards establishing same-sex marriage, as civil unions are viewed by supporters of LGBT rights as a "separate but equal" or "second class" status. While civil unions are established for both opposite-sex couples and same-sex couples, in a number of countries they are available to same-sex couples only. Beginning with Denmark in 1989, civil unions under one name or another have been established by law in several developed, countries in order to provide legal recognition of relationships formed by unmarried same-sex couples and to afford them rights, tax breaks, responsibilities similar or identical to those of married couples.
In Brazil, civil unions were first created for opposite-sex couples in 2002, expanded to include same-sex couples through a supreme court ruling in 2011. Many jurisdictions with civil unions recognize foreign unions if those are equivalent to their own; the marriages of same-sex couples performed abroad may be recognized as civil unions in jurisdictions that only have the latter. The terms used to designate civil unions are not standardized, vary from country to country. Government-sanctioned relationships that may be similar or equivalent to civil unions include civil partnerships, registered partnerships, domestic partnerships, significant relationships, reciprocal beneficiary relationships, common-law marriage, adult interdependent relationships, life partnerships, stable unions, civil solidarity pacts, so on; the exact level of rights, benefits and responsibilities varies, depending on the laws of a particular country. Some jurisdictions allow same-sex couples to adopt, while others forbid them to do so, or allow adoption only in specified circumstances.
As used in the United States, beginning with the state of Vermont in 2000, the term civil union has connoted a status equivalent to marriage for same-sex couples. However, the legislatures of the West Coast states of California and Washington have preferred the term domestic partnership for enactments similar or equivalent to civil union laws in East Coast states. Civil unions are not seen as a replacement for marriage by many in the LGBT community. "Marriage in the United States is a civil union. "It is a proposed hypothetical legal mechanism, since it doesn't exist in most places, to give some of the protections but withhold something precious from gay people. There's no good reason to do that." However, some opponents of same-sex marriage claim that civil unions rob marriage of its unique status. The California Supreme Court, in the In Re Marriage Cases decision, noted nine differences in state law. Civil unions are criticised as being'separate but equal', critics say they segregate same-sex couples by forcing them to use a separate institution.
Supporters of same-sex marriage contend that treating same-sex couples differently from other couples under the law allows for inferior treatment and that if civil unions were the same as marriage there would be no reason for two separate laws. A New Jersey commission which reviewed the state's civil union law reported that the law "invites and encourages unequal treatment of same-sex couples and their children"; some have suggested that creating civil unions which are open to opposite-sex couples would avoid the accusations of apartheid. These have still been criticised as being'separate but equal' by former New Zealand MP and feminist Marilyn Waring as same-sex couples remain excluded from the right to marry. Proponents of civil unions say that they provide practical equality for same-sex couples and solve the problems over areas such as hospital visitation rights and transfer of property caused by lack of legal recognition. Proponents say that creating civil unions is a more pragmatic way to ensure that same-sex couples have legal rights as it avoids the more controversial issues surrounding marriage and the claim that the term has a religious source.
Many supporters of same-sex marriage state that the word'marriage' matters and that the term'civil union' do not convey the emotional meaning or bring the respect that comes with marriage. Former US Solicitor General and attorney in the Perry v. Schwarzenegger case Theodore Olsen said that recognizing same-sex couples under the term'domestic partnership' stigmatizes gay people's relationships treating them as if they were "something akin to a commercial venture, not a loving union". Many contend that the fact that civil unions are not understood can cause difficulty for same-sex cou
Pride parades are outdoor events celebrating lesbian, bisexual and queer social and self acceptance, legal rights and pride. The events at times serve as demonstrations for legal rights such as same-sex marriage. Most pride events occur annually, many take place around June to commemorate the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City, a pivotal moment in modern LGBTQ social movements. At the beginning of the gay rights protest movement, news on Cuban prison work camps for homosexuals inspired the Mattachine Society to organize protests at the United Nations and the White House, in 1965. Early on the morning of Saturday June 28, 1969, gay and transgender persons rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City; the Stonewall Inn was a gay bar which catered to an assortment of patrons, but, popular with the most marginalized people in the gay community: transvestites, transgender people, effeminate young men and homeless youth. On Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay Liberation organized a march from Washington Square Park to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, the route planned, many of the participants spontaneously marched on to the Civic Center Plaza.
The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere; the West Coast of the United States saw a march in Los Angeles on June 28, 1970 and a march and'Gay-in' in San Francisco. In Los Angeles, Morris Kight, Reverend Troy Perry and Reverend Bob Humphries gathered to plan a commemoration, they settled on a parade down Hollywood Boulevard. But securing a permit from the city was no easy task, they named their organization Christopher Street West, "as ambiguous as we could be." But Rev. Perry recalled the Los Angeles Police Chief Edward M. Davis telling him, “As far as I’m concerned, granting a permit to a group of homosexuals to parade down Hollywood Boulevard would be the same as giving a permit to a group of thieves and robbers.” Grudgingly, the Police Commission granted the permit.
After the American Civil Liberties Union stepped in, the commission dropped all its requirements but a $1,500 fee for police service. That, was dismissed when the California Superior Court ordered the police to provide protection as they would for any other group; the eleventh hour California Supreme Court decision ordered the police commissioner to issue a parade permit citing the “constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression.” From the beginning, L. A. parade organizers and participants knew. Kight received death threats right up to the morning of the parade. Unlike what we see today, the first gay parade was quiet; the marchers convened on McCadden Place in Hollywood, marched north and turned east onto Hollywood Boulevard. The Advocate reported "Over 1,000 homosexuals and their friends staged, not just a protest march, but a full blown parade down world-famous Hollywood Boulevard."On Sunday, June 28, 1970, at around noon, in New York gay activist groups held their own pride parade, known as the Christopher Street Liberation Day, to recall the events of Stonewall one year earlier.
On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Linda Rhodes proposed the first gay pride parade to be held in New York City by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organizations meeting in Philadelphia. That the Annual Reminder, in order to be more relevant, reach a greater number of people, encompass the ideas and ideals of the larger struggle in which we are engaged-that of our fundamental human rights-be moved both in time and location. We propose that a demonstration be held annually on the last Saturday in June in New York City to commemorate the 1969 spontaneous demonstrations on Christopher Street and this demonstration be called CHRISTOPHER STREET LIBERATION DAY. No dress or age regulations shall be made for this demonstration. We propose that we contact Homophile organizations throughout the country and suggest that they hold parallel demonstrations on that day. We propose a nationwide show of support. All attendees to the ERCHO meeting in Philadelphia voted for the march except for the Mattachine Society of New York City, which abstained.
Members of the Gay Liberation Front attended the meeting and were seated as guests of Rodwell's group, Homophile Youth Movement in Neighborhoods. Meetings to organize the march began in early January at Rodwell's apartment in 350 Bleecker Street. At first there was difficulty getting some of the major New York organizations like Gay Activists Alliance to send representatives. Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Michael Brown, Marty Nixon, Foster Gunnison of Mattachine made up the core group of the CSLD Umbrella Committee. For initial funding, Gunnison served as treasurer and sought donations from the national homophile organizations and sponsors, while Sargeant solicited donations via the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop customer mailing list and Nixon worked to gain financial support from GLF in his position as treasurer for that organization. Other mainstays of the GLF organizing committee were Judy Miller, Jack Waluska, Steve
Societal attitudes toward homosexuality
Societal attitudes toward homosexuality vary across different cultures and historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire and relationships in general. All cultures have their own values regarding inappropriate sexuality; as with heterosexual behaviour, different sets of prescriptions and proscriptions may be given to individuals according to their gender, social status or social class. Many of the world's cultures have, in the past, considered procreative sex within a recognized relationship to be a sexual norm—sometimes so, sometimes alongside norms of same-sex love, whether passionate, intimate or sexual; some sects within some religions those influenced by the Abrahamic tradition, have censured homosexual acts and relationships at various times, in some cases implementing severe punishments. Homophobic attitudes in society can manifest themselves in the form of anti-LGBT discrimination, opposition to LGBT rights, anti-LGBT hate speech, violence against LGBT people. Since the 1970s, much of the world has become more accepting of homosexual relationships.
A 2017 book by Professor Amy Adamczyk based on years of mixed methods research, shows that these cross-national differences in acceptance can be explained by three factors: the strength of democratic institutions, the level of economic development, the religious context of the places where people live. The Pew Research Center's 2013 Global Attitudes Survey "finds broad acceptance of homosexuality in North America, the European Union, much of Latin America, but widespread rejection in predominantly Muslim nations and in Africa, as well as in parts of Asia and in Russia"; the survey finds "acceptance of homosexuality is widespread in countries where religion is less central in people's lives. These are among the richest countries in the world. In contrast, in poorer countries with high levels of religiosity, few believe homosexuality should be accepted by society. Age is a factor in several countries, with younger respondents offering far more tolerant views than older ones, and while gender differences are not prevalent, in those countries where they are, women are more accepting of homosexuality than men."
Contemporary scholars caution against applying modern Western assumptions about sex and gender to other times and places. For example, in the Bugis cultures of Sulawesi, a female who dresses and works in a masculine fashion and marries a woman is seen as belonging to a third gender. In the case of'Sambia' boys in New Guinea who ingest the semen of older males to aid in their maturation, it is disputed whether this is best understood as a sexual act at all. In recent times, scholars have argued that notions of a homosexual and heterosexual identity, as they are known in the Western world, only began to emerge in Europe in the mid to late 19th century. Behaviors that today would be regarded as homosexual, at least in the West, enjoyed a degree of acceptance in around three quarters of the cultures surveyed in Patterns of Sexual Behavior. From the 1970s, academics have researched attitudes held by individuals toward lesbians, gay men and bisexuals, the social and cultural factors that underlie such attitudes.
Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of acceptance and disapproval of homosexuality, have found correlates with various demographic and social variables. For example, studies have found that heterosexuals with positive attitudes towards homosexuality are more to be female, young, non-religious, well-educated, politically liberal or moderate, have close personal contact with out homosexuals, they are more to have positive attitudes towards other minority groups and are less to support traditional gender roles. Several studies have suggested that heterosexual females' attitudes towards gay men are similar to those towards lesbians, some have found that heterosexual males have a more positive attitude toward lesbians. Herek found that heterosexual females tended to exhibit positive or negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians; the heterosexual males, tended to respond more negatively, or unfavorably, to gay men than lesbians. Social psychologists such as Gregory Herek have examined underlying motivations for homophobia, cultural theorists have noted how portrayals of homosexuality center around stigmatized phenomena such as AIDS, gender variance.
The extent to which such portrayals are stereotypes is disputed. Contemporary researchers have measured attitudes held by heterosexuals toward gay men and lesbians in a number of different ways. Certain populations are found to accept homosexuality more than others. In the United States, African-Americans are less tolerant of homosexuality than European or Hispanic Americans. However, recent polls after President Barack Obama's public support of same-sex marriage shift attitudes to 59% support among African Americans, 60% among Latinos and 50 percent among White Americans. Israelis were found to be the most accepting of homosexuality among Middle Eastern nations and Israeli laws and culture reflect that. According to a 2007 poll, a strong majority of Israeli Jews say they would accept a gay child and go on with life as usual. A 2