click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gender studies

Gender studies is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to analysing gender identity and gendered representation. It includes women's studies, men's studies and queer studies. Sometimes, gender studies is offered together with study of sexuality; these disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature, geography, political science, anthropology, media studies, human development, public health and medicine. It analyzes how race, location, class and disability intersect with the categories of gender and sexuality. Regarding gender, Simone de Beauvoir said: "One is not born a woman, one becomes one." This view proposes that in gender studies, the term "gender" should be used to refer to the social and cultural constructions of masculinity and femininity and not to the state of being male or female in its entirety. However, this view is not held by all gender theorists. Beauvoir's is a view that many sociologists support, though there are many other contributors to the field of gender studies with different backgrounds and opposing views, such as psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and feminists such as Judith Butler.

Gender is pertinent to many disciplines, such as literary theory, drama studies, film theory, performance theory, contemporary art history, sociology and psychology. However, these disciplines sometimes differ in their approaches to why gender is studied. For instance in anthropology and psychology, gender is studied as a practice, whereas in cultural studies representations of gender are more examined. In politics, gender can be viewed as a foundational discourse that political actors employ in order to position themselves on a variety of issues. Gender studies is a discipline in itself, incorporating methods and approaches from a wide range of disciplines; each field came to regard "gender" as a practice, sometimes referred to as something, performative. Feminist theory of psychoanalysis, articulated by Julia Kristeva and Bracha L. Ettinger, informed both by Freud and the object relations theory, is influential in gender studies. According to Sam Killermann, Gender can be broken into three categories, gender identity, gender expression, biological sex.

These three categories are another way of breaking down gender into the different social and cultural constructions. These constructions focus on how femininity and masculinity are fluid entities and how their meaning is able to fluctuate depending on the various constraints surrounding them. A number of theorists have influenced the field of gender studies specifically in terms of psychoanalytic theory. Among these are Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Julia Kristeva, Bracha L. Ettinger. Gender studied under the lens of each of these theorists looks somewhat different. In a Freudian system, women are "mutilated and must learn to accept their lack of a penis". Lacan, organizes femininity and masculinity according to different unconscious structures. Both male and female subjects participate in the "phallic" organization, the feminine side of sexuation is "supplementary" and not opposite or complementary; the concept of sexuation, which posits the development of gender-roles and role-play in childhood, is useful in countering the idea that gender identity is innate or biologically determined.

In other words, the sexuation of an individual has as much, if not more, to do with their development of a gender identity as being genetically sexed male or female. Julia Kristeva has developed the field of semiotics, she contends that patriarchal cultures, like individuals, have to exclude the maternal and the feminine so that they can come into being. Bracha L. Ettinger transformed subjectivity in contemporary psychoanalysis since the early 1990s with the Matrixial feminine-maternal and prematernal Eros of borderlinking, borderspacing and co-emergence; the matrixial feminine difference defines a particular gaze and it is a source for trans-subjectivity and transjectivity in both males and females. Ettinger rethinks the human subject as informed by the archaic connectivity to the maternal and proposes the idea of a Demeter-Persephone Complexity. Feminist theorists such as Juliet Mitchell, Nancy Chodorow, Jessica Benjamin, Jane Gallop, Bracha L. Ettinger, Shoshana Felman, Griselda Pollock, Luce Irigaray and Jane Flax have developed a Feminist psychoanalysis and argued that psychoanalytic theory is vital to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be criticized by women as well as transformed to free it from vestiges of sexism.

Shulamith Firestone, in "The Dialectic of Sex" calls Freudianism the misguided feminism and discusses how Freudianism is completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: everywhere that Freud writes "penis", the word should be replaced with "power". Critics such as Elizabeth Grosz accuse Jacques Lacan of maintaining a sexist tradition in psychoanalysis. Others, such as Judith Butler, Bracha L. Ettinger and Jane Gallop have used Lacanian work, though in a critical way, to develop gender theory. According to J. B. Marchand, "The gender studies and queer theory are rather reluctant, hostile to see the psychoanalytic approach."For Jean-Claude Guillebaud, gender studies "besieged" and consider psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts as "the new pri

Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards

The Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards is an officer of the British House of Commons. The Commissioner is in charge of regulating MPs' propriety. One of the Commissioner's main tasks is overseeing the Register of Members' Financial Interests, intended to ensure disclosure of financial interests that may be of relevance to MPs' work, he or she is appointed by a Resolution of the House of Commons, works a four-day week. The Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards is appointed by a Resolution of the House of Commons for a fixed term of 5 years and is an independent officer of the House; the remit of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards does not extend to the House of Lords: the post of Lords Commissioner for Standards was created in 2010. The current Commissioner is Kathryn Stone OBE; the post was established in 1995 with Sir Gordon Downey as the first Commissioner, serving the newly formed Committee for Standards and Privileges. He investigated the Cash-for-questions affair; the second Commissioner was Elizabeth Filkin, whose first case involved Peter Mandelson and a large loan which he had failed to declare in the Register of Members' Interests.

Her departure was controversial, with some people, notably Peter Oborne, claiming that high-profile MPs had forced her out because they did not like her investigating them, although her job required it. The next Commissioner was Sir Philip Mawer. MPs he investigated include Derek Conway, he avoided investigating high-level MPs such as cabinet ministers. Unlike his predecessor he was appointed to a second term. John Lyon, CB, was Commissioner from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. In an article about Lyon's questioning by the parliamentary enquiry into MPs' expenses, Private Eye described him as "feeble" and an "establishment stooge". Kathryn Hudson served as Commissioner from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2017; the current Commissioner, Kathryn Stone OBE, began her tenure on 1 January 2018. Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards official website Register of Members' Interests Josh Chafetz, "Cleaning House: Congressional Commissioners for Standards," Yale Law Journal, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 165–73

It's Tricky (horse)

It's Tricky was an American Thoroughbred racemare. She was sired by Mineshaft, who sired the Kentucky Derby contender, Dialed In, she was out of the mare Catboat. Owned by Godolphin Racing LLC and trained by Kiaran McLaughlin, in 2011 she won the Busher Stakes, the Acorn Stakes and the Coaching Club American Oaks. On November 28, 2010, It's Tricky won her first race a 6 furlong maiden race, she was ridden by Alan Garcia. On January 26, 2011, It's Tricky won the 1 mile 70 yards long allowance race with Eddie Castro. On February 20, 2011, It's Tricky won the Busher Stakes going 1 mile 70 yards with Eddie Castro, she won by 8 lengths as a favourite. She was perfect in three starts. On April 2, 2011, It's Tricky finished 4th in the Gulfstream Park Oaks to R Heat Lightning, her jockey was Alan Garcia. On June 11, 2011, It's Tricky won the Acorn Stakes by 3 3/4 lengths over the favorite Turbulent Descent. On July 23, 2011, It's Tricky won the Coaching Club American Oaks, she beat the strong field of Joyful Victory, Black-Eyed Susan Stakes winner Royal Delta, Mother Goose Stakes winner Buster's Ready and Kentucky Oaks winner Plum Pretty.

On March 3, 2012, It's Tricky won the Grade II Top Flight Handicap at Aqueduct Racetrack under jockey Ramon Dominguez. On April 14, 2012, It's Tricky won the Distaff Handicap as the favorite, on May 28, 2012, she won the Ogden Phipps Handicap. It's Tricky produced three foals as a broodmare, her first foal, foaled in 2014, is a Medaglia d'Oro filly named Too Complicated, who never went into race training due to a physical issue and is now a broodmare. Her 2015 foal, by Medaglia d'Oro, won the Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes and Gotham Stakes and finished 14th in the 2018 Kentucky Derby. It's Tricky's 2016 foal by Ghostzapper, Enliven, is in race training. It's Tricky died of complications of laminitis in 2017

Hormizd I

Hormizd-Ardashir, better known by his dynastic name of Hormizd I, was the third Sasanian King of Kings of Iran, who ruled from May 270 to June 271. He was the third-born son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor-king of Armenia, took part in his father's wars against the Roman Empire. Hormizd I's brief time as ruler of Iran was uneventful, he built the city of Ohrmazd-Ardashir. He promoted the Zoroastrian priest Kartir to the rank of chief priest and gave the Manichaean prophet Mani permission to continue his preaching, it was under Hormizd I that the title of "King of Kings of Iran and non-Iran" became regularized in Sasanian coinage. Hormizd I was succeeded by his eldest brother Bahram I; the name of Hormizd is the Middle Persian version of the name of the supreme deity in Zoroastrianism, known in Avestan as Ahura Mazda. The Old Persian equivalent is Auramazdā, whilst the Greek transliteration is Hormisdas, his personal name was "Hormizd-Ardashir", a combination of "Hormizd" and "Ardashir", the latter being the Middle Persian form of the Old Persian Ṛtaxšira, meaning "whose reign is through truth".

Hormizd was the third-born son of Shapur I. According to folklore, Hormizd's mother was a daughter of the Parthian dynast Mihrak, his two elder brothers were Bahram and Shapur Meshanshah, whilst Narseh was his younger brother. Hormizd had two sisters named Shapurdukhtak, his grandfather was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. The Sasanians had supplanted the Arsacid Empire as the sovereigns of Iran in 224, when Ardashir I defeated and killed the last Arsacid King of Kings Artabanus IV at the Battle of Hormozdgan. Hormizd is first mentioned during the wars of Shapur I against the Roman Empire, he was made the king of Armenia after its conquest by Shapur I in 252. Hormizd is believed to be many modern historians to have taken part in Shapur I's second Roman expedition, which took place in the Roman provinces of Syria and Cappadocia, which lasted from 253 to 256; this is supported by the reports of the Cappadocian conquests. Cappadocia does not appear to be have been the only area that Hormizd fought in: according to the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, the Roman rebel Cyriades assisted Shapur I and a certain Odomastes in the conquest of Antioch.

The name Odomastes is an incorrect transliteration of Hormizd, may thus suggest that after plundering Cappadocia, Hormizd took part in the siege of Antioch in 253. Hormizd is mentioned in an inscription on the wall of the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht at Naqsh-e Rostam near Persepolis in southern Iran, which Shapur I had created in order to praise his sons by citing their names and titles. In the inscription, Hormizd is given the title of Wuzurg Šāh Arminān; the 4th-century Armenian historian Agathangelos states that this title was only given to the heir of the shah. When Shapur I was on his deathbed, he crowned Hormizd as the new king of Iran, in May 270. Little is known of Hormizd's reign, he gave the Zoroastrian priest Kartir clothes that were worn by the upper class, the cap and belt and appointed him as the chief priest. Like his father, Hormizd granted the Manichaean prophet Mani permission to continue his preaching, it is unclear why Hormizd supported Mani, both of whom represented a different religion.

The Iranologist Touraj Daryaee has suggested that it was part of his attempt to control both religions, which were both seeking to become the main religion in the empire. According to the Norwegian Iranologist Prods Oktor Skjaervo, Hormizd was like his two predecessors, a "lukewarm Zoroastrian". Hormizd is given the epithet of nēw or yaxī/yaxē in Manichean Middle Iranian sources indicating his accomplishments in warfare, it was under Hormizd that the two New Year festivals in the month of Farvardin were linked together to design a festival that lasted six days. In primary sources, Hormizd is credited as the founder of the city of Ohrmazd-Ardashir, however, in some instances Ardashir I is attributed as its founder. Modern historians consider Hormizd to be its actual founder. Hormizd was not succeeded by his son Hormozdak, but by his brother Bahram, who ascended the throne with the aid of Kartir. While Ardashir I and Shapur I used the title of "King of Kings of ians" on their coinage, Hormizd had the title slighty modified, adding the phrase "and non-Iran".

His full title thus read "the Mazda-worshiping, divine Hormizd, King of Kings of Iran and non-Iran, whose image/brilliance is from the gods". The phrase "and non-Iran" had been in use in the inscriptions of Shapur I, in rare cases his coin mints, but was first regularized under Hormizd; the extended title demonstrates the incorporation of new territory into the empire, however what was seen as "non-Iran" is not certain. The reverse of Hormizd's coin portrayed two attendants, an addition, first made by Shapur I, on whose coinage both attendants are depicted wearing mural crowns, whilst looking away from the fire temple between them, they most represented the shah. In the coinage of Hormizd, the attendants are wearing different crowns; the figure on the left side represents Hormizd, whilst the figure on the right—depending on its portrayal—represents the Iranian deities Mithra or Ana

UGM-89 Perseus

The UGM-89 Perseus was a proposed U. S. Navy submarine-launched anti-ship and anti-submarine cruise missile, developed under the Submarine Tactical Missile project, referred to as the Submarine Anti-ship Weapon System; this missile system was to be the centerpiece for a proposed third-generation nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine championed by then-Vice Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, the influential but controversial head of the Navy's nuclear propulsion program; the Navy issued the STAM requirement in March 1969, the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company responded to this proposal, which included the formation of an undersea warfare program organization in Sunnyvale, California. It is unclear if this was to be an new organization or part of the Lockheed Underwater Missile Facility, responsible for the design and development of the Polaris and Trident submarine-launched strategic ballistic missile systems for the U. S. Navy. In February 1970, the missile designation ZUGM-89A Perseus was reserved for the U.

S. Navy for the STAM/STAWS missile development program; because of its large size, the UGM-89 Perseus missile could not be launched from the Navy's standard 21-inch submarine torpedo tubes, but would be carried in a vertical launch system housed within the proposed cruise missile submarine's hull. Twenty VLS tubes would be located in a separate compartment situated between the submarine's operations and reactor compartments; the individual launcher tube would be 30 x 300 inches in dimension. The missile warhead payload would be a new 21-inch diameter homing torpedo to be developed concurrently with the UGM-89 Perseus missile. By 1971, the STAM project had evolved into a long-range advanced cruise missile program capable of undertaking a variety of combat missions, including strategic nuclear strike; the proposed ACM versions of the UGM-89 Perseus STAM would use a enlarged launch tube, 1979 would have been the date for its initial operational capability. The UGM-89 Perseus missile system was cancelled in 1973, its proposed nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine platform was cancelled in 1974, with the Navy deciding to build the less expensive Los Angeles-class nuclear-powered attack submarines, which would subsequently carry both the Harpoon and Tomahawk cruise missiles.

The ASW component of the UGM-89 Perseus would serve as the baseline for the proposed Sea Lance stand-off ASW missile system. BGM-109 Tomahawk RUR-5 ASROC UGM-84 Harpoon UUM-44 SUBROC UUM-125 Sea Lance Francillon, René J.. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-897-2. Friedman, Norman. U. S. Submarines Since 1945: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-260-9. Polmar, Norman. K. Moore. Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of U. S. and Soviet Submarines. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 1-57488-530-8. UGM-89 Perseus - Directory of US Military Rockets and Missiles UGM-89 Perseus - Harpoon series UGM-89 Perseus - Encyclopedia Astronautica Missile Design Series - GlobalSecurity.org "Lockheed's Tactical Undersea Missile" - Flight International - May 29, 1969

Cadw/ICOMOS Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Wales

The Cadw/ICOMOS Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Wales is a heritage register of significant historic parks and gardens in Wales. It is maintained by the historic environment service of the Welsh Government; the Register was completed in 2002. Sites are classed into grades I, II* and II, according to their importance, in the same way as listed buildings; the Register includes just under 400 sites, of which 10 per cent grade I and 23 per cent are grade II*. The following list includes all registered sites listed at Grade I. Separate registers of parks and designed landscapes are maintained in the other countries of the United Kingdom: The Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England is maintained by English Heritage The Inventory of Gardens and Designed Landscapes in Scotland is maintained by Historic Scotland The Register of Parks and Demesnes of Special Historic Interest is maintained by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency ICOMOS Historic Parks and Gardens, Cadw Historic Parks and Gardens in Wales: Protection and the role of the Welsh Historic Gardens Trust, Building Conservation website