Brooklyn is a village in Jackson County of the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,206 at the 2010 census, it is located just off U. S. Highway 12 in Columbia Township. Brooklyn is located in a portion of central lower Michigan known for its lush, rolling green landscapes in the Irish Hills area of Southeast Michigan which contains scenic lakes surrounding Hayes State Park and Cambridge Junction Historic State Park which adjoins the Michigan International Speedway; the area was a summer vacation spot for residents of metropolitan Detroit who owned cottages near lakes in the area. With the nearby additions of Interstate 94 in the late 1950s and Michigan International Speedway in the late 1960s, Brooklyn established a year-round population; this city is 14 miles southeast of Jackson, 37 miles southwest of Ann Arbor and 56 miles southeast of Lansing. The village was founded by Calvin Swain, who filed the first land claim on June 16, 1832 and named his settlement Swainsville. In a town meeting vote on August 5, 1836, the community elected to change the town's name to Brooklyn.
The town is named after New York. A sign marking Swain's historical discovery stands in the town square. Street Art: In 2015 a small street art revolution happened along Monroe and water streets. Artists were brought in by local resident Josh Mitoska and several large scale wall murals were painted by Bonus Saves, THOR, PHYBR, Andrew Hall, Mosher Show, Lauren Harrington, Sheefy McFly, Paul Johnson, Old Growth Creative, And world-famous female artist from Paris KASHINK-, as well as others; the art has brought in a large amount of outside visitors to the area as well as drawn some criticism from local residents with one resident citing "This is becoming a circus" As of 2017 there were 17 murals completed According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.02 square miles, of which 1.01 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,206 people, 577 households, 306 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,194.1 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 661 housing units at an average density of 654.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.9% White, 0.2% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 577 households of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.0% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the village was 43.6 years. 22.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 43.4% male and 56.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,176 people, 507 households, 297 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,171.1 per square mile.
There were 534 housing units at an average density of 531.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.96% White, 0.26% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.51% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.96% of the population. There were 507 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.4% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.87. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 81.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $31,964, the median income for a family was $48,750.
Males had a median income of $32,727 versus $22,083 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,933. About 9.7% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over. Ethlyn T. Clough, American newspaper publisher, editor Vivian Kellogg, first baseman in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. Village of Brooklyn government site Brooklyn and Irish Hills Chamber of Commerce The Brooklyn Exponent newspaper
The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend in late May, it is contested as part of the IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel open-cockpit formula colloquially known as "Indy Car Racing". The name of the race is shortened to Indy 500, the track itself is nicknamed "the Brickyard", as the racing surfacing was paved in brick in the fall of 1909; the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world including the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, infield patrons raise the race-day attendance to 300,000; the inaugural race was won by Ray Harroun.
The event celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, the 100th running was held in 2016. Will Power is the current champion; the most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser Sr. and Rick Mears, each of whom have won the race four times. The active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three. Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six; the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 17 total wins and 17 poles. The event is steeped in tradition, in pre-race ceremonies, post-race celebrations, race procedure; the most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the 33-car field, the annual singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana," and the victory lane bottle of milk. The Indianapolis 500 is held annually at a 2.5-mile oval circuit. Technically, the track is a unique rounded-rectangle, with four distinct turns of identical dimensions, connected by four straightaways. Drivers race 200 laps, counter-clockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles.
Since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend; the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend is considered one of the most important days on the motorsports calendar, as it is the day of the Indianapolis 500, Coca-Cola 600, the Monaco Grand Prix. Practice and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race, while other preliminary testing is held as early as April. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a starting grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece; the event is contested by "Indy cars", a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, purpose-built race cars. As of 2018, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport. Dallara is at present the sole chassis supplier to the series. Firestone, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider.
The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar, one of the oldest and most important automobile races. It has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the world's largest sporting facility in terms of capacity. The total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Similar to NASCAR's Daytona 500, the Indianapolis 500 is held early in the IndyCar Series season; that is unique to most sports where major events are at the end of the respective season. The Indy 500 is the sixth event of the 17-race IndyCar schedule. From the 1970s to the 1990s, Indianapolis was the second or third race of the season, as late as the 1950s, it was sometimes the first championship event of the year. Due to the high prestige of the Indianapolis 500—rivaling or surpassing the season championship—it is not uncommon for some teams and drivers to concentrate on preparation for the 500 during the early part of the season, not focus on the championship battle until after Indy.
The traditional 33-car starting field at Indianapolis is larger than the fields at the other IndyCar races. The field at Indy consists of all of the full-time IndyCar Series entries, along with 10–15 part-time or "Indy-only" entries; the "Indy-only" entries popularly called "One-Offs", may be an extra car added to an existing full-time team, or a part-time team altogether that does not enter any of the other races. The "Indy-only" drivers may come from a wide range of pedigrees, but are experienced Indy car drivers that either lack a full-time ride, are former full-time drivers that have elected to drop down to part-time status, or occasional one-off drivers from other racing disciplines, it is not uncommon for some drivers, to quit full-time driving during the season, but race at Indy singly for numerous years afterwards before entering full retirement. Due to safety issues such as aquaplaning, the race is not held in wet conditions. In the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, the track is sufficiently dried.
If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race and declare the results official if more than half of the scheduled distance (i.e. 101 lap
Michigan International Speedway
Michigan International Speedway is a two-mile moderate-banked D-shaped speedway located off U. S. Highway 12 on more than 1,400 acres four-mile south of the village of Brooklyn, in the scenic Irish Hills area of southeastern Michigan; the track is used for NASCAR events. It is sometimes known as a "sister track" to Texas World Speedway, was used as the basis of Auto Club Speedway; the track is owned by International Speedway Corporation. Michigan International Speedway is recognized as one of motorsports' premier facilities because of its wide racing surface and high banking. Michigan is the fastest track in NASCAR due to its wide, sweeping corners, long straightaways, lack of a restrictor plate requirement. Groundbreaking took place on September 28, 1967. Over 2.5 million cubic yards of dirt were moved to form the D-shaped oval. The track opened in 1968 with a total capacity of 25,000 seats; the track was built and owned by Lawrence H. LoPatin, a Detroit-area land developer who built the speedway at an estimated cost of $4–6 million.
Financing was arranged by Thomas W Itin. Its first race took place on Sunday, October 13, 1968, with the running of the USAC 250 mile Championship Car Race won by Ronnie Bucknum. In 1972, Roger Penske purchased the speedway for an estimated $2 million. During Penske's ownership the track was upgraded several times from the original capacity to 125,000 seating capacity. From 1996 to 2000, the track was referred to as Michigan Speedway; this was to keep consistency with other tracks owned by Roger Penske's Motorsports International before its merger with ISC. In 1999, the speedway was purchased by International Speedway Corporation and in 2000 the track was renamed to its original name of Michigan International Speedway. In 2000 10,800 seats were added via a turn 3 grandstand bringing the speedway to its current capacity. In 2004-2005 the largest renovation project in the history of the facility was ready for race fans when it opened its doors for the race weekend; the AAA Motorsports Fan Plaza—a reconfiguration of over 26 acres behind the main grandstand.
A new, three-story viewing tower housing the Champions Club presented by AAA and 16 new corporate suites targeted VIP guests, while a press box and a race operations facility high above the two-mile oval welcomed the media and race officials. Michigan was repaved prior to the 2012 season; this marks the first time since 1995 that the oval was resurfaced, along with 1967, 1975, 1986. New for 2012 was the addition of a new 20-space trackside luxury campsite to be known as APEX. Situated in turn 3, each site will offer a 20-by-55-foot area. To accommodate these new campsites, the remaining silver grandstands in turns 3 and 4 were removed. On January 28, 2019, it was revealed on ISC's 2018 annual report that the speedway's track seating was reduced from 71,000 to 56,000. July 16, 1972: Merle Bettenhausen crashed into the outside wall on the backstretch during the USAC Champ Car Michigan 200, he tried to climb out of the car while it was still going but his right arm was caught in between the moving car and the backstretch wall and was severed, ending his racing career.
September 17, 1977: Al Holbert flipped on the backstretch during the first race of the 1978 IROC V racing season. The car slid hundreds of feet on its roof before stopping near turn 3. June 17, 1979: Steve Pfeifer, substituting for Roger Hamby during the middle of the race and went over the pit wall during the Gabriel 400, internally injuring freelance photographer Ray Cook. Cook survived, while Pfeifer only suffered cuts on his right knee. July 25, 1981: A. J. Foyt slammed sideways into the Armco barrier during the Michigan 500 and lost an arm. July 22, 1984: Al Unser Jr. and Chip Ganassi crashed into the inside retaining wall on the backstretch. The crash ended Ganassi's driving career. July 22, 1984: Pancho Carter flipped violently on the final lap of the Michigan 500. September 1984: Derek Daly was nearly killed in a horrible crash in the CART PPG Detroit News Grand Prix 200; the front end of his car was sheared off and he suffered multiple injuries including a crushed left ankle, double compound fracture to the left tibia and fibula, fractured left hip socket fractured pelvis, several broken left side ribs, broken left hand, 3rd degree burns to the left arm, dislocated right foot and ankle, deep abrasions and soft tissue to right heel, internal bleeding.
August 1985: During practice for the Michigan 500, polesitter Bobby Rahal crashed hard into the wall, an accident blamed on the newly introduced Goodyear radial tires. Competitors refused to race the following day, the race was postponed; the following weekend, just 10 of 30 cars finished the race, 10 due to mechanical failures and 10 due to wrecks. Danny Ongais flipped several times down the backstretch while Mario Andretti broke his collarbone and hip, had to miss the next race. June 1986: Rick Baldwin crashed in turn 2 during Winston Cup qualifying, his window net failed. His head protruded enough out of the window to smack the wall, he sustained massive head injuries and was in a coma for 11 years before dying in 1997. He was 42. August 1992: Clifford Allison, son of retired NASCAR driver Bobby Allison, was killed during a practice-run crash for the Busch Series race. August 1993: In a Busch Grand National Series race, Johnny Benson got airborne on the backstre
1960 Indianapolis 500
The 44th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Monday, May 30, 1960. The event was part of the 1960 USAC National Championship Trail and was race 3 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers, it would be the final time World Championship points would be awarded at the Indy 500. Regarded as the greatest two-man duel in Indianapolis 500 history, the 1960 race saw a then-record 29 lead changes. Jim Rathmann and Rodger Ward battled out nearly the entire second half. Rathmann took the lead for good on lap 197. Rathmann's margin of victory of 12.75 seconds was the second-closest finish in Indy history at the time. The inaugural 500 Festival Open Invitation was held at the Speedway Golf Course in the four days leading up to the race. Time trials was scheduled for four days. Saturday May 14 – Pole Day time trials Eddie Sachs set a track record of 146.592 mph to win the pole position. Sunday May 15 – Second day time trials Saturday May 21 – Third day time trials The third day of time trials was rained out.
Sunday May 22 – Fourth day time trials Jim Hurtubise nearly broke the elusive and much-anticipated 150 mph barrier. Hurtubise's four-lap qualifying average of 149.056 mph featured a new one-lap record of 149.601 mph, to establish himself as the fastest qualifier in the field. After Carburetion tests, Dempsey Wilson replaced Jimmy Daywalt as the driver for the #23 entry, the car was moved to the rear of the starting grid; the race started out with four contenders in the first half. Rodger Ward took the lead on lap 1 from the outside of the front row, but polesitter Eddie Sachs took the lead on lap 2. Two laps Ward was back in the lead, the record-setting number of lead changes was under way. Troy Ruttman and Jim Rathmann took turns at the front.. The first caution came out on lap 47, after Duane Carter spun in turn 3, he did not hit the wall, came to a rest in the infield grass continued in the race. Jim McWithey came into the pits without any brakes, he brushed the inside pit wall trying to slow the car down, but continued through the pit lane and wasn't able to stop until he reached the infield grass in turn 1.
In the race, Eddie Russo and Wayne Weiler suffer single-car crashes. Rodger Ward stalled his engine twice during his first pit stop. After getting back on the track, he started charging to catch up to the front of the field. Shortly after the halfway point, Eddie Sachs and Troy Ruttman would both drop out of the race leaving Rathmann and Ward to battle it out in front. On about lap 124, Tony Bettenhausen came in for a routine pit stop, he returned to the track. One lap he was back in the pits with a fire and a blown engine. Bettenhausen was unhurt, but hoisted himself out of the cockpit as it was coasting to stop in the pits to avoid getting burned. In the second half, Ward had caught up with Johnny Thomson close behind in third. Rathmann and Ward swapped the lead several times, but meanwhile Ward was hoping that the pace would slow down, in order to save his tires to the end. After stalling in the pits earlier, the hard charge Ward made to get back to the front was a concern, as he was afraid he had worn out his tires prematurely.
Ward was aware of Rathmann's tendencies as a driver, allowed Rathmann to pass him for the lead. Rathmann was known for charging hard to take the lead, but once he was in the lead, would back the pace down. Ward's prediction came true. Johnny Thomson was now catching up. With Thomson closing in on the leaders and Rathmann started charging again, racing each other hard, swapping the lead between themselves. Meanwhile, Thomson's engine lost power, he slowed to a 5th-place finish. Inside ten laps to go, Rodger Ward seemed to have the faster car, took the lead on lap 194. A few laps though, Ward saw the cords in his right front tire showing, he let off the pace. Jim Rathmann took the lead on lap 197, pulled away for victory. Due to Ward's experience as a tire tester, he was able to nurse his car to the finish without pitting to change the bad tire, held on to second place. Despite winning twice, Rodger Ward considered this race his personal best. Paul Goldsmith charged from 26th starting position to finish 3rd, holding off 4th place Don Branson by about a car length.
First alternate: Chuck Rodee Fastest Lead Lap: Jim Rathmann – 1:01.59 The 1960 Indianapolis 500 was the final 500 which featured a 33-car field consisting of all front-engined cars. The weather on race day would reach a high of 75 °F with wind speeds up to 15 miles per hour. Climate historians would consider this to be the "traditional" climate for an Indianapolis 500 race. Despite some published claims that it was Smokey Yunick, the race-winning chief mechanic for Rathmann was Takeo "Chickie" Hirashima. Two spectators in the infield, Fred H. Linder, 36, of Indianapolis, William C. Craig, 37, of Zionsville, were killed, as many as 82 were injured, when a homemade scaffolding collapsed. 125–130 patrons had paid a small fee to view the race from the 30-foot tall scaffolding, erected by a private individual and not the Speedway – a practice, allowed at the time. The structure was anchored to a pick-up truck, situated in the infield of turn three. Over the years, the private scaffold platforms had become a popular fixture at the Speedway, with many located around the massive infield.
They were not sponsored by the track
Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile and owned by the Formula One Group. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950; the word "formula" in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on purpose-built circuits and on public roads; the results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Drivers must hold valid Super Licences, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA; the races must run on tracks graded "1", the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA. Most events occur in rural locations on purpose-built tracks, but several events take place on city streets. Formula One cars are the fastest regulated road-course racing cars in the world, owing to high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic downforce.
The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, wider tyres, resulting in cornering forces closing in on 6.5g and top speeds of up to 375 km/h. As of 2019 the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 rpm and the cars are dependent on electronics—although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008—and on aerodynamics and tyres. While Europe is the sport's traditional base, the championship operates globally, with 11 of the 21 races in the 2018 season taking place outside Europe. With the annual cost of running a mid-tier team—designing and maintaining cars, transport—being US$120 million, Formula One has a significant economic and job-creation effect, its financial and political battles are reported, its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, which has resulted in large investments from sponsors and budgets. On 8 September 2016 Bloomberg reported that Liberty Media had agreed to buy Delta Topco, the company that controls Formula One, from private-equity firm CVC Capital Partners for $4.4 billion in cash and convertible debt.
On 23 January 2017 Liberty Media confirmed the completion of the acquisition for $8 billion. The Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1930s; the formula is a set of rules. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, with the first non-championship races being held that year. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before the war, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship was not formalised until 1947; the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. National championships existed in the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. On 26 November 2017, Formula One unveiled its new logo, following the 2017 season finale in Abu Dhabi during the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix at Yas Marina Circuit.
The new logo replaced F1's iconic'flying one', the sport's trademark since 1993. After a hiatus in European motor racing brought about by the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the first World Championship for Drivers was won by Italian Giuseppe Farina in his Alfa Romeo in 1950, narrowly defeating his Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio. However, Fangio won the title in 1951, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, his streak interrupted by two-time champion Alberto Ascari of Ferrari. Although the UK's Stirling Moss was able to compete he was never able to win the world championship, is now considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title. Fangio, however, is remembered for dominating Formula One's first decade and has long been considered the "Grand Master" of Formula One; this period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Mercedes-Benz, Maserati. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's 158, they were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre aspirated engines.
The 1952 and 1953 World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One, for engines limited to 2.5 litres, was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196, which featured innovations such as desmodromic valves and fuel injection as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster. An era of British dominance was ushered in by Mike Hawthorn and Vanwall's championship wins in 1958, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without securing the world title. Between Hawthorn, Jim Clark, Jackie Stewart, John Surtees and Graham Hill, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championsh
United States Auto Club
The United States Auto Club is one of the sanctioning bodies of auto racing in the United States. From 1956 to 1979, USAC sanctioned the United States National Championship, from 1956 to 1997 the organization sanctioned the Indianapolis 500. Today, USAC serves as the sanctioning body for a number of racing series, including the Silver Crown Series, National Sprint Cars, National Midgets, Speed2 Midget Series.25 Midget Series, Stadium Super Trucks, TORC: The Off-Road Championship, Pirelli World Challenge. When the American Automobile Association withdrew from auto racing after the 1955 season, citing the Le Mans disaster and the death of Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis as contributing factors, both the SCCA and NASCAR were mentioned as its potential successor. USAC was formed by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony Hulman, it became the arbiter of rules, car design, other matters for what it termed championship auto racing, the highest level of USAC racing. For a while there was a separate series of specifications for championship cars designed to be run on dirt, rather than paved, tracks.
USAC's long history as an open-wheel racing sanctioning body continues today with the Silver Crown Series, National Sprint Car Series, National Midget Series, Ignite Ethanol Fuel Series, Quarter Midgets, TORC Series. NASCAR drivers including Jeff Gordon, Tony Stewart, Ryan Newman, Kasey Kahne honed their skills and captured championships while competing in various USAC series; the "triple crown" is earned in USAC racing. Only two drivers, Tony Stewart and J. J. Yeley, have achieved the triple crown in a single season. Four other drivers, Pancho Carter, Dave Darland, Jerry Coons Jr. and Tracy Hines have claimed each of the three championships at least once in their careers. In 2012 Mike Curb and Cary Agajanian became the only car owners to win the triple crown by winning all three championships in the same year. USAC had awarded a national championship until A. J. Foyt won his seventh title in 1979, it has announced that it will begin awarding a national championship starting in 2010. A driver's finishes in their 25 best races are counted toward the championship and the 2010 winner received $40,000.
Points are accumulated in the three national series: sprints and silver crown. Bryan Clauson of Noblesville, Indiana claimed the inaugural championship, topping runner-up Levi Jones by 14 points; this is now the Mike Curb "Super Licence" National Championship Award. USAC national drivers champions 2010 – Bryan Clauson. Killed were: Ray Marquette, USAC's vice-president of public affairs and a former sportswriter for The Indianapolis Star Frank Delroy, chairman of USAC technical committee Shim Malone, starter for USAC races and head of its midget racer division Judy Phillips, graphic artist and publication director of USAC's newsletter Stan Worley, chief registrar Ross Teeguarden, assistant technical chairman Don Peabody, head of the sprint division Dr. Bruce White, assistant staff doctor Don Mullendore and pilot of the plane; the effect on USAC, for open-wheel racing in the United States, was devastating since it followed the death of Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony Hulman. The plane crash came at a time when Indy car owners and drivers were demanding changes from USAC.
Aside from the Indianapolis 500, USAC events were not well attended, the owners felt that USAC poorly negotiated television rights. The owners wanted increases in payouts at Indy. Though some think the plane crash was used as an opportunistic way to force change in the sport, it was an unfortunate coincidence; the seed of dissent had been growing for several years before the accident, claims the crash was an immediate cause for the 1979 CART/USAC "split" are considered for the most part unfounded. Unpopular were the attempts of USAC to keep the aging Offenhauser engine competitive with the newer, much more expensive, Cosworth DFV engine using boost-limiting "pop off valves" and limiting the amount of fuel that could be used. Most car owners banded together to form Championship Auto Racing Teams in 1978, with the first race to be run in 1979. USAC tried unsuccessfully to ban all CART owners from the 1979 Indianapolis 500 losing in court before the race began. Both the USAC and CART ran race schedules in 1979.
Indianapolis Motor Speedway president John Cooper was instrumental in forming a joint body of CART and USAC with the creation of the Championship Racing League in March 1980. However, in mid 1980, Cooper forced USAC to renounce their agreement with the CRL if they wanted to keep officiating the Indy 500. After USAC's attempt at a 500-mile races at Pocono Raceway –, boycotted by the CART teams, forcing USAC to fill the field with silver crown cars – USAC and CART settled into a peaceful co-existence, with USAC continuing to sanction the Indianapolis 500, CART including the race in its schedule. Beginning in 1971, all dirt races were split from the National Championship. From 1971 to 1980, the series was named National Dirt Car Championship renamed Silv
Kuzma was a racing car constructor founded by Eddie Kuzma in the United States. Kuzma cars competed in the FIA World Championship from 1951 to 1960, they won the 1952 Indianapolis 500 with Troy Ruttman. Note: all cars were fitted with Offenhauser engines