Marsha Hunt (actress, born 1917)
Marsha Hunt is a retired American actress and activist, with a career spanning over 70 years. She was blacklisted by Hollywood film studio executives in the 1950s during McCarthyism. During her career spanning 73 years, she appeared in many popular films including: Born to the West and Prejudice, Kid Glove Killer, Cry'Havoc', Raw Deal, The Happy Time, Johnny Got His Gun. In the midst of the blacklist era, Hunt became active in the humanitarian cause of world hunger, in years has aided homeless shelters, supported same-sex marriage, raised awareness of climate change and promoted peace in Third World countries. Marcia Virginia Hunt was born on October 17, 1917, as the youngest of two daughters, her parents were Earl Hunt, who worked as a lawyer and a Social Security Administrator, Minabel Hunt, a vocal teacher and organist. Her elder sister, Marjorie, a teacher, died in 2002, she changed the spelling of her first name to Marsha. She and her family were active in the Methodist church. Hunt recalled many years later: I lucked into the most fortuitous, constructive kind of family context imaginable.
My father was a Phi Beta Kappa. My mother was a voice accompanist of singers in the concert and opera fields. We didn't have the term "liberated woman", but my mother was... They were brought up, both, in the state of Indiana, now called the Bible Belt, they were wholesome, they neither smoked nor drank, they never used the Lord's name in vain. I never heard a four-letter word, it didn't exist in my wholesome family setting. Hunt's family moved to New York City when she was young, she began performing in school plays and church functions, she graduated from the Horace Mann High School for Girls in 1934 at age 16. After graduation, Hunt's parents wanted her to pursue a college degree, but Hunt, unable to "locate a single college or university in the land where you could major in drama before your third year", found work modeling for the John Powers Agency and began taking stage acting classes at the Theodora Irvine Studio, she was one of the highest-earning models by 1935. In May 1935, she planned on studying stage acting at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in the United Kingdom.
Although reluctant to pursue a film career, in June 1935, at age 17, Hunt signed a seven-year contract with Paramount Pictures. Paramount discovered her when she was visiting her uncle in Los Angeles and the comedian Zeppo Marx saw a picture of her in the newspaper, she was offered a screen test for The Virginia Judge. At Paramount, Hunt played ingenue parts. Between 1935 and 1938, she made 12 pictures at Paramount and two on "loan-out" to RKO and 20th Century Fox. In 1937, she starred opposite John Wayne, a couple of years prior to his breakthrough in Hollywood, in the Western film Born to the West; the studio terminated Hunt's contract in 1938, she spent a few years starring in B-films produced by poverty row studios such as Republic Pictures and Monogram Pictures. She headed to New York City for work in summer stock theatre shortly before winning a supporting role in MGM's These Glamour Girls opposite Lana Turner and Lew Ayres; the role of Betty was said to have been written specially with Hunt in mind.
Other roles in major studio productions soon followed, including supporting roles as Mary Bennet in MGM's version of Pride and Prejudice and as Martha Scott's surrogate child Hope Thompson in Cheers for Miss Bishop. In 1941, Hunt signed a contract with MGM. While filming Blossoms in the Dust, film director Mervyn LeRoy lauded Hunt for her heartfelt and genuine acting ability. During this period she had starring roles in 21 films, including The Penalty opposite Lionel Barrymore, Panama Hattie opposite Ann Sothern and Red Skelton, the war drama Pilot No. 5 in which she was cast as the love interest of Franchot Tone, The Valley of Decision. In 1944 she polled seventh in a list by exhibitors of "Stars of Tomorrow", she did a screen test to play Melanie Hamilton in Gone with the Wind and got the part before Olivia de Havilland took it over. In 1944, she appeared in None Shall Escape, a film, now regarded as the first about the Holocaust, she played the Polish fiancé of a German Nazi officer named Wilhelm Grimm.
Disturbed by the actions of the House Un-American Activities Committee and her husband, screenwriter Robert Presnell Jr. became members of the Committee for the First Amendment in 1947. On October 26 that same year, aged 30, Hunt took part in Hollywood Fights Back, a star-studded radio program co-written by her husband protesting the activities of HUAC; the next day, Hunt flew with a group of about 30 actors, directors and filmmakers to Washington to protest the actions of HUAC. When she returned to Hollywood just three days things had changed, she was asked to denounce her activities. In 1950, Hunt was named as a potential Communist or Communist sympathizer in the anti-Communist publication Red Channels; the publication claimed that her leanings were made evident by her subversive actions, including asking the Supreme Court to review the convictions of John Howard Lawson and Dalton Trumbo, recording a message in support of a rally organized by the Stop Censorship Committee in 1948, signing a statement in 1946 issued by the Hollywood Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts and Professions, speaking at a rally org
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Golden age (metaphor)
A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished. The term originated from early Greek and Roman poets, who used it to refer to a time when mankind lived in a better time and was pure; the ancient Greek philosopher Hesiod introduced the term in his Works and Days, when referring to the period when the "Golden Race" of man lived. This was part of fivefold division of Ages of Man, starting with the Golden age the Silver Age, the Bronze Age, the Age of Heroes, the current Iron Age; the concept was further refined by Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, into the four "metal ages". The Golden age as described by Hesiod was an age where all humans were created directly by the Olympian gods, they did not have women in their ranks, could not reproduce. They lived long lives in peace and harmony, were oblivious of death; the "Golden race" were however mortals, but would die peacefully and in their sleep unmarked by sickness and age. Ovid emphasizes the peace that defined the Golden Age.
He described it as a time before man learned the art of navigation, as a pre-agricultural society. The idea of a Golden age lingered in literature and historical understanding throughout the Greek and Roman periods, it was replaced by the Christian Six Ages of the World based on the biblical chronology in the early Middle Ages. The term "Golden age" has always had a metaphoric element. A few centuries after Hesiod, Plato pointed out that the "Golden race" were not made from gold as such, but that the term should be understood metaphorically; the classical idea of the "metal ages" as actual historical periods held sway throughout the Greek and Roman periods. While supplemented by St. Augustine's "Six Ages of the World", the classical ideas were never eradicated, it resurfaced to form the basis of division of time in early archaeologyAt the birth of modern archaeology in the 18th century, the "Golden age" was associated with a pre-agricultural society; however in the 16th century, the term "Golden age" was replaced by "Stone age" in the three-age system.
Still, Rousseau used the term for a loosely defined historical period characterized by the "State of nature" as late as the during the late 18th century. While the concept of an Iron and Bronze Age are still used by historians and archaeologists, the "Golden age" of Hesiod was a purely mythical period, has come to signify any period in history where the state of affairs for a specific phenomenon appear to have been on their height, better than in the periods proceeding it and following the "Golden Age", it is sometimes still employed for the hunter-gatherer tribal societies of the Mesolithic, but only as a metaphor. A society's Golden Age marks that period in its history having a heightened output of art, science and philosophy. Ancient Egypt experienced several Golden Ages including the Fourth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom, as well as the New Kingdom. Athenian Golden Age presided by Pericles Golden age of Latin literature, the period in Latin literature between Cicero and Ovid. Golden age of India, the period between the 3rd century to the 6th century CE under the leadership of the Gupta Empire, during which Indians made great achievements in mathematics, culture, religion and astronomy.
Early Christian Ireland, when Ireland was united under one High King and was significant in European art Islamic Golden Ages Reign of Harun al-Rashid, the height of the Abbasid Caliphate, before the Fourth Fitna, the Anarchy at Samarra, the onset of political fragmentation From the beginning of Islam until the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in the Arab world Reignited in the 14th century in the gunpowder empires of South and Southwest Asia until the early 17th century. Golden Age of Bulgaria, the reign of Emperor Simeon I the late 9th -- early 10th centuries. Golden age of Kiev, 10th century China has had multiple golden ages, with the Han, Tang and Ming all considered golden ages in Chinese history; the Chinese Golden Age is used to refer to the period of the Tang and Song Dynasties from 618 to 1279, which saw an economic revolution. Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula period between 900 and 1100. Sometimes categorized as part of the larger Islamic Golden Age, because of the event's timeframe and geography.
Golden age of Christian Monasticism, 8th–12th centuries, its peak being 11th century to early-mid 12th century. Understood to be a Golden age in the European continent of religious matters, not in comparison to other Golden ages of the era. Golden Age of medieval Bulgarian culture, golden age in Bulgaria. Georgian Golden Age, the period of prosperity and cultural flourishing in the Kingdom of Georgia in the 11th, 12th, early 13th centuries. Second Golden Age of Bulgaria – prosperity of Bulgarian culture and arts during Emperor Ivan Alexander Portuguese Golden Age, 15th century – 1580. One of the best European power of the time in sailing. Golden age of Valencian literature, 15th Century Ottoman Golden Age, 1480s–1560s under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent; the history of Malta under the Order of Saint John is considered as a "golden age" of architecture, the arts and education between the late 1560s and the early 1770s. Spanish Golden Ages – Siglo de oro: the powerful Spanish Empire between 16th and 17th centuries the Spanish Golden Age of the arts in the 17th century The "Golden Age of England" is the Elizabethan Era, under Elizabeth I of England, in the late 16th century The "Golden Age of Britain" is the Victorian Era, under Queen Victoria, in the 19th century Polish
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
Edith Head was an American costume designer who won a record eight Academy Awards for Best Costume Design, starting with The Heiress and ending with The Sting. Born and raised in California, Head managed to get a job as a costume sketch artist at Paramount Pictures, without any relevant training, she first acquired notability for Dorothy Lamour’s trademark sarong dress, became a household name after the Academy Awards created a new category of Costume Designer in 1948. Head was considered exceptional for her close working relationships with her subjects, with whom she consulted extensively, these included every top female star in Hollywood. After 43 years, she left Paramount for Universal because of her successful partnership with Alfred Hitchcock, adapted her skills for television, she was born Edith Claire Posener in San Bernardino, the daughter of Jewish parents, Max Posener and Anna E. Levy, her father, born in January 1858, was a naturalized American citizen from Germany, who came to the United States in 1876.
Her mother was born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1875, the daughter of an Austrian father and a Bavarian mother, it is not known where Max and Anna met, but they married in 1895, according to the 1900 United States Federal Census records. Just before Edith's birth, Max Posener opened a small haberdashery in San Bernardino, which failed within a year; the marriage did not survive. In 1905, Anna remarried, this time to mining engineer Frank Spare from Pennsylvania; the family moved as Spare's jobs moved. The only place Head could recall living in during her early years was Searchlight, Nevada. Frank and Anna Spare passed Edith off as their mutual child; as Frank Spare was a Catholic, Edith ostensibly became one as well. In 1919, Edith received a bachelor of arts degree in letters and sciences with honors in French from the University of California, in 1920 earned a master of arts degree in romance languages from Stanford University, she became a language teacher with her first position as a replacement at Bishop's School in La Jolla teaching French.
After one year, she took a position teaching French at the Hollywood School for Girls. Wanting a higher salary, she told the school that she could teach art though she had only studied the discipline in high school. To improve her drawing skills, at this point rudimentary, she took evening classes at the Otis Art Institute and Chouinard Art College. On July 25, 1923, she married Charles Head, the brother of one of her Chouinard classmates, Betty Head. Although the marriage ended in divorce in 1936 after a number of years of separation, she continued to be known professionally as Edith Head until her death. In 1940 she married award-winning art director Wiard Ihnen, a marriage which lasted until his death in 1979. In 1924, despite lacking art and costume design experience, the 26-year-old Head was hired as a costume sketch artist at Paramount Pictures, she admitted to "borrowing" other student's sketches for her job interview. She began designing costumes for silent films, commencing with The Wanderer in 1925 and, by the 1930s, had established herself as one of Hollywood's leading costume designers.
She worked at Paramount for 43 years until she went to Universal Pictures on March 27, 1967 prompted by her extensive work for director Alfred Hitchcock, who had moved to Universal in 1960. Head's marriage to set designer Wiard Ihnen, on September 8, 1940, lasted until his death from prostate cancer in 1979. Over the course of her long career, she was nominated for 35 Academy Awards, annually from 1948 through 1966, won eight times – receiving more Oscars than any other woman. Although Head was featured in studio publicity from the mid-1920s, she was overshadowed by Paramount's lead designers, first Howard Greer Travis Banton. Head was instrumental in conspiring against Banton, after his resignation in 1938 she became a high-profile designer in her own right, her association with the "sarong" dress designed for Dorothy Lamour in The Hurricane made her well known among the general public, although Head was a more restrained designer than either Banton or Adrian. She gained public attention for the top mink-lined gown she created for Ginger Rogers in Lady in the Dark, which caused much comment owing to it countering the mood of wartime austerity.
The establishment, in 1949, of the category of an Academy Award for Costume Designer further boosted her career, because it began her record-breaking run of Award nominations and wins, beginning with her nomination for The Emperor Waltz. Head and other film designers like Adrian became well known to the public. Head was known for her unique working style and, unlike many of her male contemporaries consulted extensively with the female stars with whom she worked; as a result, she was a favorite among many of the leading female stars of the 1940s and 1950s, such as Ginger Rogers, Bette Davis, Barbara Stanwyck, Shirley MacLaine, Grace Kelly, Audrey Hepburn, Elizabeth Taylor. In fact, Head was "loaned out" by Paramount to other studios at the request of their female stars, she herself always dressed plainly, preferring thick-framed glasses and conservative two-piece suits. On February 3, 1955, Edith Head appeared as a contestant on the Groucho Marx quiz show You Bet Your Life, she and her partner won a total of $1,540.
Her winnings were donated to charity. Head authored two books, The Dress Doctor and How To Dress For Success, describing her career and design philosophy; these books have been re-edited in 2011 respectively. In 196
Fashion dolls are dolls designed to be dressed to reflect fashion trends. They are manufactured both as toys for children to play with and as collectibles for adult collectors; the dolls are modeled after teen girls or adult women, though child and some non-human variants exist. Contemporary fashion dolls are made of vinyl or another plastic. 3D software versions have appeared. An early form of the fashion dolls were French bisque dolls from the mid-19th century. However, fashion dolls were used throughout the courts of France and Spain as early as the 16th century to show the tactile qualities of fashion which could not be incorporated into the paintings. A letter dated 1515 and sent by Federico Gonzaga on behalf of King Francis I of France to his mother Isabella d'Este asks her to send a fashion doll to the French court so that copies of her style might be made for the women of France. Barbie was released by the American toy-company Mattel in 1959, was followed by many similar vinyl fashion dolls intended as children's toys.
The size of the Barbie, 11.5 inches set the standard used by other manufacturers. But fashion dolls have been made in many different sizes varying from 10.5 inches to 36 inches. Costumers and seamstresses use fashion dolls as a canvas for their work. Customizers repaint reroot hair, or do other alterations to the dolls themselves. Many of these works are one-of-a-kind; these artists are not connected to the original manufacturers and sell their work to collectors. Despite these setbacks, the fashion doll market continues to expand, introducing a number of toys-based dolls like Hasbro's Equestria Girls dolls, Mattel's Barbie, Ever After High and Monster High and MGA Entertainment's Bratz and Project Mc² that incorporate the use of fashion dolls and toys; the earliest bisque dolls from French companies were fashion dolls. These dominated the market between 1860 and 1890, they were made to represent grown up women and intended for children of affluent families to play with and dress in contemporary fashions.
These dolls came from companies like Jumeau, Gaultier, Rohmer and Huret, though their heads were manufactured in Germany. In the Passage Choiseul area of Paris an industry grew around making clothing and accessories for the dolls. Child like bisque dolls appeared in the mid-19th century and overtook the market towards the end of the century; the first American fashion doll, was released by the Alexander Doll Company in 1955. Cissy sported high-heeled shoes. Barbie was launched by the American toy company Mattel in 1959, inspired by the German Bild Lilli doll. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for fifty years. Many fashion doll lines have been launched as alternatives to Barbie. Tammy was created by the Ideal Toy Company in 1962. Advertised as "The Doll You Love to Dress", Tammy was portrayed as a young American teenager, more "girl next door" than the cosmopolitan image of Barbie. Sindy was created by the British Pedigree Dolls & Toys company in 1963 as a rival to Barbie with a wholesome look.
American Character Doll Company released their "Tressy" fashion doll in 1963 to compete with Barbie. Tressy was first sold as an 11½" fashion doll, after being acquired by the Ideal Toy Company, by the late 60s was sold as a larger pre-teen doll. Tressy featured a long swatch of hair that could be pulled out of the top of the doll's head by pushing a button on the doll's midriff. In the late 1960s and early 1970s Ideal released several other large fashion dolls with hair with adjustable length; the Crissy Doll and friends are 16" and Velvet Doll and friends are 18". British designer Mary Quant's Daisy doll from 1973 had a large selection of contemporary 70s fashion designed by Quant. Integrity Toys released the Fashion Royalty line of 12" dolls conceived and created by Jason Wu in 2000 which included characters such as Dania Zarr and Baroness Agness Von Weiss, marketed to adult collectors. In 2005, Superdoll Collectibles London artists Desmond Lingard and Charles Fegen, created Sybarites, 16" resin artist-dolls as fashion dolls for adult collectors.
Paul Pham creates 16" Numina dolls under the company name Dollcis for adult collectors. Fulla is marketed to children of Middle-Eastern countries as an alternative to Barbie; the concept of her evolved around 1999, she hit stores in late 2003. Bratz were released in 2001, designed by Carter Bryant and manufactured by California toy company MGA Entertainment, they are distinguished by large heads with lush, glossy lips. Mattel introduced the the Flavas line in 2003 to rival Bratz. In 2010 Mattel launched the Monster High doll line, based from horror monsters. In 2014, artist Nickolai Lamm unveiled Lammily, a fashion doll based on Lamm's study comparing Barbie's figure with measurements matching those of an average 19-year-old woman. Asian fashion dolls are made by Asian manufacturers and targeted to an Asian market. Blythe dolls with oversized heads and color changing eyes were made by American company Kenner but are now produced by Japanese company Takara. Another doll with an oversized head, was created in 2003 in Korea.
Japanese fashion dolls marketed to children include Jenny by Takara Tomy. In the mid-1990s dolls like Gene Marshall from Ashton-Drake, Tyler Wentworth from Tonner and Alexandra Fairchild Ford from Madame Alexander appeared, they are between 16 inches larger than other common fashion dolls. Integrity Toys expanded