New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Marquette Golden Eagles
The Marquette Golden Eagles known as the Marquette Warriors and Gold, Gold and Golden Avalanche, are the athletic teams representing Marquette University in Milwaukee, United States. They compete as a member of the NCAA Division I level competing in the Big East Conference for all sports since its establishment in 2013; the Golden Eagles are a founding member of the current Big East, having been one of the seven members of the original Big East that broke away to form a basketball-focused league. They had joined the original Big East in 2005, having competed in Conference USA from 1995–96 to 2004–05, the Great Midwest Conference from 1991–92 to 1994–95 and the Horizon League from 1988–89 to 1990–91, they competed as an independent from 1916–17 to 1987–88. Men's sports include basketball, cross country, lacrosse, soccer and track & field, while women's sports include basketball, cross country, soccer, track & field and volleyball; the men's basketball team won the NCAA national championship in 1977, was a finalist in 1974 and a semifinalist in 2003.
The 1970 team won the National Invitation Tournament. The nickname change to "Golden Eagles" came in May 1994. Eleven years the university added "Gold" to the nickname in May 2005, but it was reversed in about a week after public backlash. On December 15, 2012, Marquette and the other six Catholic, non-FBS Big East schools announced that they were departing the Big East for a new conference. In March 2013, it was confirmed that the "Catholic 7", along with three other schools, would begin operations that July as a new Big East Conference; the men's basketball team is ninth in the NCAA for postseason appearances all-time, including 30 NCAA Tournament appearances. The Warriors, coached by Al McGuire, won the 1977 NCAA Tournament and were runners-up in 1974. Maurice "Bo" Ellis was a member of each of those teams, remains the only Marquette player to appear in two Final Fours; the 2003 team, coached by Tom Crean and led on the court by Dwyane Wade, Robert Jackson, Steve Novak, Travis Diener, upset top-ranked Kentucky to reach the Final Four of the 2003 NCAA Tournament.
In that Midwest regional final in Minneapolis, Wade became the fourth player to record a triple-double in an NCAA tournament game. He was the Conference USA Player of the Year. Marquette has continued to re-emerge as a national power after 2003; the program has made seven straight NCAA tournament appearances dating back to 2006, has made three consecutive NCAA Sweet 16 appearances in 2011, 2012 and 2013. In 2012, Marquette experienced their best season since 2003, tying the single season school record for wins, finishing second place in the Big East for the first time in program history, finishing ranked in the Top 10 of the AP and USA Today/Coaches Poll for the first time since 2003. Jae Crowder was named Big East Player of the Year, the first such conference player of the year honor for a Marquette player since Dwyane Wade in 2003; the team plays in the nearby home of the Milwaukee Bucks, Fiserv Forum, which replaces the Bradley Center, home to both teams for 30 years, for the 2018–19 season and beyond.
Conference affiliations The charter of the current Big East dates only to 2013. However, the settlement between the schools that formed the current Big East and those that remained in the league now known as the American Athletic Conference gave the departing schools the "Big East" name. Additionally, The American recognizes none of the pre-2013 athletic history of the Big East—even in football and women's rowing, the only two sports sponsored by the original Big East that are sponsored by The American but not the current Big East; the women's basketball team is coached by Carolyn Kieger. The program has experienced success in recent years under former coach Terri Mitchell's direction, including a run to the championship game of the WNIT, where the women finished as runners-up in 2006, won the championship in 2008. Most the team made it to the second round of the NCAA tournament in 2011, where they were defeated by top-seeded Tennessee. Marquette women's basketball has qualified for the NCAA tournament seven times since 1994.
The team now plays in the Al McGuire Center, named after the former Marquette men's coach. The team notably hired Tyler Summitt, the 21-year-old son of legendary Tennessee coach Pat Summitt, as an assistant effective with the 2012–13 season, the announcement coming on the same day his mother announced her retirement after 38 years leading the Lady Vols. In 2006, Marquette traveled to St. Thomas to participate in the Paradise Jam Tournament. In the opening round Marquette defeated Western Michigan 74–61. In the second round Marquette defeated Auburn 65–61. On the final day, Marquette beat Xavier 73–53 to finish with a 3–0 record and win the 2006 Paradise Jam Championship; the cross-country and track teams have produced five Olympians, 13 NCAA champions and 27 All-Americans. Except for Dwyane Wade, Marquette's most successful student-athlete was track and field sprinter Ralph Metcalfe, a world-record holder and Olympic gold medalist. Olympic silver medalist Melvin "Bus" Shimek was the longtime coach of both programs.
Shimek set the school record in the mile in 1927 and it held up for over thirty years. Both programs were dropped with football in December 1960, but cross country was reinstated within weeks so
The Orange Tornadoes and Newark Tornadoes were two manifestations of a long-lived professional American football franchise that existed in some form from 1887 to 1941 and from 1958 to 1970, having played in the National Football League from 1929 to 1930, the American Association from 1936 to 1941, the Atlantic Coast Football League from 1963 to 1964 and 1970, the Continental Football League from 1965 to 1969. The team was based for most of its history in Orange, New Jersey, with many of its years in Newark, its last five seasons of existence were as the Orlando Panthers, when the team was based in Orlando, Florida. The NFL franchise was sold back to the league in October 1930; the team had four head coaches in its two years in the NFL – Jack Depler in Orange, Jack Fish, Al McGall and Andy Salata in Newark. The Orange Tornadoes can trace their roots back to the Orange Athletic Club; the Orange A. C. was an amateur football team that began play in 1887. The team's first game was a 36–0 loss to Seton Hall University football team.
By the 1890s the Orange became a semi-pro team. In 1892, the team practiced under electric lights at night to prepare for an October 8 game against Rutgers College; the Orange A. C. would go on to win that game 22–10. In 1893, the team won the American Football Union Championship, after posting an 8–2 record. In 1902, the Orange A. C. played against Philadelphia Phillies and the Philadelphia Athletics of the first National Football League. The team played in World Series of Football in that year, at Madison Square Garden; these games were the first indoor football games. In 1902, Orange lost to All-Syracuse, 36–0. However, the team returned to the World Series of Football in 1903, when they played the Watertown Red & Black and the eventual champion, the Franklin Athletic Club. Orange lost to Watertown, 11–0, to Franklin, 12–0. However, it did manage to defeat the Oreo Athletic Club of Asbury Park, 22–0; the Orange team became an established independent pro team from 1919 until 1928, under the nickname the Orange AC Golden Tornadoes.
During this time, Orange defeated the New York Brickley Giants of the NFL. They played pre-NFL versions of the Frankford Yellow Jackets and the Staten Island Stapletons, they played against the Atlantic City Roses and the Millville Big Blue, two of the top independent teams of the 1920s. By 1928, Orange held the New York Giants and Frankford Yellow Jackets to close scores. On September 16, 1928 Orange held the 1927 NFL Champion New York Giants to just a 7–0 victory. While a week earlier the NFL's previous champions, the Frankford Yellow Jackets, were held to a 12–0 victory. Orange showed that their team could compete in the NFL. While the Golden Tornadoes played in Orange, a separate Newark Bears played in the original American Football League in the 1926 season in Newark, unrelated to the Tornadoes team that would take on that identity; that Newark Bears club was absorbed into the Staten Island Stapletons. In 1929 Ole Haugsrud, the owner of Duluth Eskimos, sold his NFL franchise rights for the Eskimos to Piggy Simandl, a wholesale meat salesman and sports promoter from Orange, who named his franchise the Orange Tornadoes.
The Tornadoes played their home games at Knights of Columbus Stadium. The first game for the new team was a scoreless tie against the New York Giants on September 29, 1929. A week the team recorded its first NFL win by defeating the Boston Bulldogs 7–0; the victory came off a short George Pease pass to Paul Longua. However, the following week, Orange experienced its first NFL loss in a 7–0 defeat to the 1928 NFL Champions, the Providence Steamroller; the team regrouped on October 19, 1929, the Tornandoes held the Frankford Yellow Jackets to a 6–6 tie at Frankford Stadium. A week the team rallied from a 13–0 deficit to defeat the Boston Bulldogs, 19–13. On October 29, 1929, the Bulldogs and Tornadoes met again to play, in Pennsylvania. Prior to 1929, the Bulldogs played as the Pottsville Maroons and the teams played for their still loyal fans at the Maroons' Minersville Park; this time however, the Tornadoes lost 6–0 by way of a 4-yard touchdown run from Boston's Tony Latone. On October 3, the Tornadoes held the Staten Island Stapletons to a scoreless tie at Thompson Stadium.
During that game the Stapletons to no avail. Meanwhile, the Tornadoes only penetrated the Staten Island 20-yard line once; the Orange lost a rematch against the New York Giants, 22–0, a week later. But after a scoreless tie against Frankford, the Orange defeated the Staten Island Stapletons 3–0, due to a Felix McCormick field goal. However, the next game, against the Chicago Cardinals, resulted in a 26–0 Tornadoes loss; the Cardinals, led by Ernie Nevers, put up 20 points in the second quarter of the game. The Tornadoes ended their 1929 season with a 10–0 loss to Frankford, they finished with a 3–5–4 record, scoring 35 points, while giving up 80. The team's fortune in the NFL changed for the worse after it moved to Newark in 1930. During the team's time in Newark, it played its home games at Newark Schools Stadium. Head coach Jack Depler defected to buy the Dayton Triangles, moving that team to Brooklyn and transforming that team into the Brooklyn Dodgers, he took most of the members of the 1929 Tornadoes with him.
Meanwhile, the Tornadoes went through three coaches during the 1930 season, the team's only victory during the 1930 season was against the Frankford Yellow Jackets. The last game for the Newark Tornadoes was against the New York Giants, a 34–7 loss on October 29, 1930; the franchise ended league play after the 1930 season and was sold back to the NFL. The league ordered the franchise sold to the highest bidder prior to the 1931 season, but there were no
Shades of green
Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Green is common in nature in plants. Many plants are green because of a complex chemical known as chlorophyll, involved in photosynthesis. Many shades of green are related to plants. Due to varying ratios of chlorophylls, the plant kingdom exhibits many shades of green in both hue and value; the chlorophylls in living plants have distinctive green colors, while dried or cooked portions of plants are different shades of green due to the chlorophyll molecules losing their inner magnesium ion. Artichoke is a color, a representation of the color of a raw fresh uncooked artichoke. Another name for this color is artichoke green; the first recorded use of "artichoke green" as a color name in English was in 1905.
This is the color called artichoke green in Pantone. The source is Pantone 18-0125 TPX Asparagus is a tone of green, named after the vegetable. Crayola created this color in 1993 as one of the 16 to be named in the Name the Color Contest, it is the color of a wild asparagus plant blowing in the wind of the 1949 classic film Sands of Iwo Jima. Another name for this color is asparagus green; the first recorded use of "asparagus green" as a color name in English was in 1805. Avocado is a color, a representation of the color of the outer surface of an avocado; the color avocado is a dark yellow-green color. Avocado was a common color for metal surfaces, as well as the color harvest gold, during the whole decade of the 1970s, they were both popular colors for shag carpets. Both colors went out of style by the early 1980s. Dark green is a dark shade of green. A different shade of green has been designated as "dark green" for certain computer uses. Fern green is a color. A Crayola crayon named fern was created in 1998, a lighter shade of the top color shown on the right.
The first recorded use of fern green as a color name in English was in 1902. Forest green refers to a green color said to resemble the color of the trees and other plants in a forest; the first recorded use of forest green as the name of a color in the English language was in 1810. Displayed at right is the color green earth. Hooker's green is a dark green color created by mixing Prussian Gamboge, it is displayed on the right. Hooker's green takes its name from botanical artist William Hooker who first created a special pigment for leaves. Displayed at right is the color jungle green. In 1990, Crayola formulated this specific tone of jungle green; the first recorded use of jungle green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1926. Laurel green is a medium light hue of greenish lighter; the first recorded use of laurel green as a name of a color in the English language was in 1705. Light green is a light tint of green. Mantis is a color, a representation of the color of a praying mantis.
The first use of mantis as a color name in English was when it was included as one of the colors on the Xona.com color list, promulgated in 2001. Moss green is a tone of green; the first recorded use of moss green as a color name in English was in 1884. Myrtle green called myrtle, is a color, a representation of the color of the leaves of the myrtle plant; the first recorded use of myrtle green as a color name in English was in 1835. Myrtle is the official designation of the green stripes on Waterloo rugby club's shirts, the green of Hunslet rugby league club, the green stripes of the South Sydney Rabbitohs and the green of the blazers, sports kit and scarf of St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, it is one of the school colors of Lane Technical College Prep High School in Chicago, the other being old gold. The baggy green, the cricket cap worn by Australian Test cricketers since around the turn of the twentieth century, is myrtle green in color. Pine green is a rich shade of spring green, it is an official Crayola color.
The first recorded use of pine tree as a color name in English was in 1923. Reseda green is a shade of greyish green in the classic range of colors of the German RAL colour standard, in which it is named "RAL 6011"; the name derives from the color of the leaves of Reseda odorata known as mignonette. Sap green is a green pigment, traditionally made of ripe buckthorn berries. However, modern colors marketed under this name are a blend of other pigments with a basis of Phthalocyanine Green G. Sap green paint was used on Bob Ross' TV show, The Joy of Painting. Shamrock green is a tone of green that represents the color of a symbol of Ireland; the first recorded use of shamrock as a color name in English was in the 1820s. This green is defined as Irish green Pantone 347; this green is used as the green on the national flag of the Republic of IrelandIt is customary in Ireland, New Zealand and the United States to wear this or any other tone of green on St. Patrick's Day, March 17; the State of California uses this shade of green of the grass under the bear on their state flag.
The Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association use this shade for their uniforms and other memorabilia. Tea g
The Pittsburgh Steelers are a professional American football team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Steelers compete in the National Football League, as a member club of the league's American Football Conference North division. Founded in 1933, the Steelers are the oldest franchise in the AFC. In contrast with their status as perennial also-rans in the pre-merger NFL, where they were the oldest team never to win a league championship, the Steelers of the post-merger era are one of the most successful NFL franchises. Pittsburgh is tied with the New England Patriots for the most Super Bowl titles, has both played in and hosted more conference championship games than any other NFL team; the Steelers have won 8 AFC championships, tied with the Denver Broncos, but behind the Patriots' record 11 AFC championships. The Steelers share the record for second most Super Bowl appearances with the Broncos, Dallas Cowboys; the Steelers lost their most recent championship appearance, Super Bowl XLV, on February 6, 2011.
The Steelers, whose history traces to a regional pro team, established in the early 1920s, joined the NFL as the Pittsburgh Pirates on July 8, 1933, owned by Art Rooney and taking its original name from the baseball team of the same name, as was common practice for NFL teams at the time. To distinguish them from the baseball team, local media took to calling the football team the Rooneymen, an unofficial nickname which persisted for decades after the team adopted its current nickname; the ownership of the Steelers has remained within the Rooney family since its founding. Art's son, Dan Rooney owned the team from 1988 until his death in 2017. Much control of the franchise has been given to Dan's son Art Rooney II; the Steelers enjoy a widespread fanbase nicknamed Steeler Nation. The Steelers play their home games at Heinz Field on Pittsburgh's North Side in the North Shore neighborhood, which hosts the University of Pittsburgh Panthers. Built in 2001, the stadium replaced Three Rivers Stadium.
Prior to Three Rivers, the Steelers had played their games in Forbes Field. The Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL first took to the field as the Pittsburgh Pirates on September 20, 1933, losing 23–2 to the New York Giants. Through the 1930s, the Pirates never finished higher than second place in their division, or with a record better than.500. Pittsburgh did make history in 1938 by signing Byron White, a future Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, to what was at the time the biggest contract in NFL history, but he played only one year with the Pirates before signing with the Detroit Lions. Prior to the 1940 season, the Pirates renamed themselves the Steelers. During World War II, the Steelers experienced player shortages, they twice merged with other NFL franchises to field a team. During the 1943 season, they merged with the Philadelphia Eagles forming the "Phil-Pitt Eagles" and were known as the "Steagles"; this team went 5–4–1. In 1944, they were known as Card-Pitt; this team finished 0–10, marking the only winless team in franchise history.
The Steelers made the playoffs for the first time in 1947, tying for first place in the division at 8–4 with the Philadelphia Eagles. This forced a tie-breaking playoff game at Forbes Field, which the Steelers lost 21–0; that would be Pittsburgh's only playoff game for the next 25 years. In 1970, the year they moved into Three Rivers Stadium and the year of the AFL–NFL merger, the Pittsburgh Steelers were one of three old-guard NFL teams to switch to the newly formed American Football Conference, in order to equalize the number of teams in the two conferences of the newly merged league; the Steelers received a $3 million relocation fee, a windfall for them. The Steelers' history of bad luck changed with the hiring of coach Chuck Noll for the 1969 season. Noll's most remarkable talent was in his draft selections, taking Hall of Famers "Mean" Joe Greene in 1969, Terry Bradshaw and Mel Blount in 1970, Jack Ham in 1971, Franco Harris in 1972, in 1974, pulling off the incredible feat of selecting four Hall of Famers in one draft year, Lynn Swann, Jack Lambert, John Stallworth, Mike Webster.
The Pittsburgh Steelers' 1974 draft was their best ever. The players drafted in the early 1970s formed the base of an NFL dynasty, making the playoffs in eight seasons and becoming the only team in NFL history to win four Super Bowls in six years, as well as the first to win more than two, they enjoyed a regular season streak of 49 consecutive wins against teams that would finish with a losing record that year. The Steelers suffered a rash of injuries in the 1980 season and missed the playoffs with a 9–7 record; the 1981 season was no better, with an 8–8 showing. The team was hit with the retirements of all their key players from the Super Bowl years. "Mean" Joe Greene retired after the 1981 season, Lynn Swann and Jack Ham after 1982's playoff berth, Terry Bradshaw and Mel Blount after 1983's divisional championship, Jack Lambert after 1984's AFC Championship Game appearance. After those retirements, the franchise skidded to its first losing seasons since 1971. Though still competitive, the Steelers would not finish above.500 in 1985, 1986, 1988.
In 1987, the year
Akron is the fifth-largest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Summit County. It is located on the western edge of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau, about 30 miles south of Cleveland; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the city proper had a total population of 197,846, making it the 119th-largest city in the United States. The Greater Akron area, covering Summit and Portage counties, had an estimated population of 703,505; the city was founded in 1825 by Simon Perkins and Paul Williams, along the Little Cuyahoga River at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name is derived from the Greek word signifying high point, it was renamed South Akron after Eliakim Crosby founded nearby North Akron in 1833, until both merged into an incorporated village in 1836. In the 1910s, Akron doubled in population. A long history of rubber and tire manufacturing, carried on today by Goodyear Tire, gave Akron the nickname "Rubber Capital of the World", it was once known as a center of airship development.
Today, its economy includes manufacturing, education and biomedical research. Notable historic events in Akron include the passage of the Akron School Law of 1847, which created the K–12 system. A racially diverse city, it has seen noted racial relations speeches by Sojourner Truth in 1851 — the Ain't I A Woman? Speech. Du Bois in 1920. In 1914, Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Akron. Episodes of major civil unrest in Akron have included the riot of 1900, rubber strike of 1936, the Wooster Avenue riots of 1968. In 1811, Paul Williams settled near the corner of what is now Broadway, he suggested to General Simon Perkins, surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company's Connecticut Western Reserve, that they found a town at the summit of the developing Ohio and Erie Canal. The name is adapted from meaning summit or high point, it was laid out in December 1825, where the south part of the downtown Akron neighborhood sits today. Irish laborers working on the Ohio Canal built about 100 cabins nearby.
After Eliakim Crosby founded "North Akron" in the northern portion of what is now downtown Akron in 1833, "South" was added to Akron's name until about three years when the two were merged and became an incorporated village in 1836. In 1840, Summit County formed from portions of Portage and Stark Counties. Akron replaced Cuyahoga Falls as its county seat a year and opened a canal connecting to Beaver, helping give birth to the stoneware, sewer pipe, fishing tackle, farming equipment industries. In 1844, abolitionist John Brown moved into the John Brown House across the street from business partner Colonel Simon Perkins, who lived in the Perkins Stone Mansion; the Akron School Law of 1847 founded the city's public schools and created the K–12 grade school system, used in every U. S. state. The city's first school is now a museum on Broadway Street near the corner of Exchange; when the Ohio Women's Rights Convention came to Akron in 1851, Sojourner Truth extemporaneously delivered her speech named "Ain't I A Woman?", at the Universalist Old Stone Church.
In 1870, a local businessman associated with the church, John R. Buchtel, founded Buchtel College, which became the University of Akron in 1913. Ferdinand Schumacher bought a mill in 1856, the following decade mass-produced oat bars for the Union Army during the American Civil War. Akron incorporated as a city in 1865. Philanthropist Lewis Miller, Walter Blythe, architect Jacob Snyder designed the used Akron Plan, debuting it on Akron's First Methodist Episcopal Church in 1872. Numerous Congregational and Presbyterian churches built between the 1870s and World War I use it. In 1883, a local journalist began the modern toy industry by founding the Akron Toy Company. A year the first popular toy was mass-produced clay marbles made by Samuel C. Dyke at his shop where Lock 3 Park is now. Other popular inventions include rubber balloons, dolls, baby buggy bumpers, little brown jugs. In 1895, the first long-distance electric railway, the Akron and Cleveland Railroad, began service. On August 25, 1889, the Boston Daily Globe referred to Akron with the nickname "Summit City".
To help local police, the city deployed the first police car in the U. S. that ran on electricity. The Riot of 1900 saw assaults on city officials, two deaths, the destruction by fire of Columbia Hall and the Downtown Fire Station; the American trucking industry was birthed through Akron's Rubber Capital of the World era when the four major tire companies Goodrich Corporation, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, General Tire were headquartered in the city. The numerous jobs the rubber factories provided for deaf people led to Akron being nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Deaf". On Easter Sunday 1913, 9.55 inches of rain fell, causing floods that killed five people and destroyed the Ohio and Erie Canal system. From 1916 to 1920, 10,000 schoolgirls took part in the successful Akron Experiment, testing iodized salt to prevent goiter in what was known as the "Goiter Belt"; the Akron & National Marble Tournament was created in 1923 by Roy W