History of the San Diego Chargers
The Los Angeles Chargers franchise was founded in 1959 as a charter member of the American Football League. The team played the 1960 season in Los Angeles, moving to San Diego in 1961, the Chargers played in San Diego for 56 years. In 2017, the Chargers owner announced a move to Los Angeles, effective with the 2017 season, the Chargers original owner was hotel heir Barron Hilton, son of Hilton Hotels founder Conrad Hilton. Frank Leahy, a former Notre Dame University football coach, was named the teams first general manager, the Chargers initially considered playing at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum. There is a theory about a man named Gerald Courtney of Hollywood who won an all-expenses-paid trip to Mexico City. They played ten years in the AFL before the merging of the league into the older NFL and their only coach for the ten-year life of the AFL was Sid Gillman, former coach of the NFLs Los Angeles Rams, who originally signed a three-year contract as head coach.
Gillman, who was voted to the Hall of Fame, was widely recognized as a great offensive innovator. He took on the role of coach and general manager after Frank Leahy resigned because of poor health. The early AFL years of the San Diego Chargers were highlighted by the play of wide receiver Lance Alworth with 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his 11-AFL/NFL-season career. In addition, he set the pro football record of games with a reception during his career. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the high-scoring Chargers reached the AFL Championship Game five times winning once during that ten-year span. The Chargers spent only one season in L. A. before moving in 1961, on that season, the defense recorded 49 pass interceptions as the AFL played an exciting brand of football featuring strong passing attacks. The Chargers were the originators of the term Fearsome Foursome to describe their all-star defensive line, anchored by Earl Faison, the phrase was appropriated by various NFL teams.
Houston defeated the Chargers 10–3 before 29,556 persons in Balboa Stadium to win the second AFL championship. The next year, the Chargers stumbled to a 4-10 record, as of 2016, this was the last professional sports championship for the city of San Diego. In 1964, the AFL teams signed a television contract with National Broadcasting Company for a record $36 million. The Chargers and New York Jets tied 17-17 before a record AFL crowd of 50,222 fans,46,828 paid in New Yorks Shea Stadium, a Balboa Stadium attendance record of 34,865 was set as Buffalo defeated San Diego 27-24 on Thanksgiving Day. The Chargers defeated the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 persons in Balboa Stadium to clinch their fourth AFL West title in five years, in 1965, San Diego won their fifth AFL West title in six years by defeating Houston on December 12 by the score of 37-26
Guard (American and Canadian football)
In American and Canadian football, a guard is a player who lines up between the center and the tackles on the offensive line of a football team on the line of scrimmage used primarily for blocking. Right guards is the term for the guards on the right of the offensive line, Guards are to the right or left of the center. The guards job is to protect the quarterback from the incoming linemen during pass plays, Guards are automatically considered ineligible receivers, so they cannot intentionally touch a forward pass, unless it is to recover a fumble or is first touched by a defender or eligible receiver. This technique is used in most playbooks for outside runs and on counter plays, vanderbilts Dan McGugin is credited with first pulling guards. Since the Guard is free of responsibility for play-side outside runs and far-side counter plays, pulling is generally a unique responsibility for Guards
The Minnesota Vikings are an American football team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Vikings joined the National Football League as a team in 1960. The team competes in the National Football Conference North division, before that, the Vikings were in the NFC Central, the team has played in four Super Bowl games, but lost each one. The team plays its games at U. S. Bank Stadium in the Downtown East section of Minneapolis, professional football in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area began with the Minneapolis Marines/Red Jackets, an NFL team that played intermittently in the 1920s and 1930s. However, a new team in the area did not surface again until August 1959. Skoglund, and Max Winter were awarded a franchise in the new American Football League. Ole Haugsrud was added to the NFL team ownership because, in the 1920s, when he sold his Duluth Eskimos team back to the league, the agreement allowed him 10 percent of any future Minnesota team. Coincidentally or not, the teams from Ole Haugsruds high school, Central High School in Superior, were called the Vikings.
From the teams first season in 1961 to 1981, the team called Metropolitan Stadium in suburban Bloomington home, the Vikings conducted summer training camp at Bemidji State University from 1961 to 1965. In 1966, the moved to their current training camp at Minnesota State University in Mankato. The Vikings played their games at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis from 1982 to 2013. The Vikings played their last game at the Metrodome on December 29,2013, since the teams first season in 1961, the Vikings have had one of the highest winning percentages in the NFL. As of 2014, they have won at least three games in every season except in 1962, and are one of only six NFL teams to win at least 15 games in a regular season. The Vikings have won one NFL Championship, in 1969, before the merger with the American Football League. Since the league merger in 1970, they have qualified for the playoffs 26 times, the team has played in Super Bowls IV, VIII, IX, and XI, though failing to win any of them.
In addition, they have lost in their last five NFC Championship Game appearances since 1978, the team currently has 13 members in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The team was named the Minnesota Vikings on September 27,1960
The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders currently compete in the NFL as a club of the leagues American Football Conference West division. At the end of the NFLs 2015 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime record of 444 wins,397 losses. The Raiders plan to remain in Oakland through 2018 – and possibly 2019 –, the Raiders off-field fortunes have varied considerably over the years. The teams first three years of operation were marred by poor performance, financial difficulties, and spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders fortunes improved dramatically with the introduction of head coach Al Davis, in 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time. The team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year, in doing so, the Raiders advanced to Super Bowl II, the Raiders run of success intensified during the 1970s. From 1970 to 1977, the team won six division titles, in 1976, the team captured its first NFL Championship with a convincing victory over the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl XI.
In 1982, amidst much controversy, the Raiders relocated to Los Angeles, the team finished with the NFLs best regular season record that year, one year later, the Raiders beat the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII to capture their third Super Bowl championship. The Raiders fortunes declined following the 1985 season, they would win just one division title. In 1995, the Raiders returned to Oakland, after several years of continued mediocrity, the team entered a brief period of pronounced success in the early 2000s. From 2000 to 2002, the Raiders won three division titles and four playoff games, their renaissance culminated with a lopsided 2002 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in Super Bowl XXXVII. The Super Bowl loss marked the beginning of a period of futility for the Raiders, from 2003 through 2015. In 2016, the Raiders finally ended their postseason drought with a victory over the division rival San Diego Chargers. At the end of the 2016 NFL season, the finished with a 12–4 record. The Raiders are known for their fan base and distinctive team culture.
Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, fourteen former members of the team have been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Having enjoyed a successful coaching career at Navy during the 1950s
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference North division. The Browns play their games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea. The Browns official colors are brown and white and they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets and are the only team named after a specific person, original coach Paul Brown. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B, McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference. The Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the four active seasons. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers, from 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl in that period.
In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore, Maryland. The Browns intellectual property, including name, training facility, and history, were kept in trust. A new team would be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation, the Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success and they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, and no playoff wins. The franchise has noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks. To date, the Browns overall win-loss record since 1999 is 88–200, the Browns origins date to 1944, when taxicab magnate Arthur B. Mickey McBride secured the rights to a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. S, early in 1945, McBride named 36-year-old Ohio State Buckeyes coach Paul Brown as the teams head coach and general manager and gave him a share in its profits.
The move surprised and upset Buckeye fans, who had hoped he would resume his successful run at the school after the war, the name of the team was at first left up to Paul Brown, who rejected calls for it to be christened the Browns. The franchise and the Cleveland Plain Dealer held a naming contest to publicize the team, in June 1945, a committee selected Panthers as the new teams name, named after a failed American Football League franchise in Cleveland which only lasted a single season in 1926. It is unclear whether Panthers was the highest vote-getter, or if it was second-highest behind Browns, the owner of the failed AFL Panthers franchise, General C. X. Zimmerman, indicated that he owned the name Cleveland Panthers, at this point, Paul Brown bowed to popular sentiment and agreed to the Browns name
The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football franchise based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Eagles compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference East division. The franchise was established in 1933 as a replacement for the bankrupt Frankford Yellow Jackets, when a group led by Bert Bell secured the rights to an NFL franchise in Philadelphia. Bell, Chuck Bednarik, Bob Brown, Reggie White, Steve Van Buren, Tommy McDonald, Greasy Neale, Pete Pihos, Sonny Jurgensen, the team has an intense rivalry with the New York Giants. This rivalry is the oldest in the NFC East and is among the oldest in the NFL and they have a historic rivalry with the Washington Redskins, as well as their bitter rivalry with the Dallas Cowboys, which has become more high-profile in the last three decades. The team consistently ranks in the top three in attendance and has sold out every game since the 1999 season, in a Sports Illustrated poll of 321 NFL players, Eagles fans were selected the most intimidating fans in the NFL.
Midway through the 1931 season, the Frankford Yellow Jackets went bankrupt, the Bell-Wray group had to pay an entry fee of $3,500 and assumed a total debt of $11,000 that was owed to three other NFL franchises. Neither the Eagles nor the NFL officially regard the two franchises as the same, citing the period of dormancy. Furthermore, almost no Yellow Jackets players were on the Eagles first roster, the Eagles, along with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the now-defunct Cincinnati Reds, joined the NFL as expansion teams. To accommodate football at Shibe Park during the winter, management set up stands in right field, some 20 feet high, these east stands had 22 rows of seats. The goalposts stood along the first base line and in left field, the uncovered east stands enlarged capacity of Shibe Park to over 39,000, but the Eagles rarely drew more than 25 to 30,000. The Eagles struggled over the course of their first decade, enduring repeated losing seasons, soon after and Rooney traded the Eagles franchise to Thompson and moved it to Pittsburgh, while Thompson moved the Steelers franchise to Philadelphia.
By the late 1940s, head coach Earle Greasy Neale and running back Steve Van Buren led the team to three consecutive NFL Championship Games, winning two of them in 1948 and 1949. After the 1957 season, the Eagles moved from Connie Mack Stadium to Franklin Field at the University of Pennsylvania, Franklin Field would seat over 60,000 for the Eagles, whereas Connie Mack had a capacity of 39,000. The stadium switched from grass to AstroTurf in 1969 and it was the first NFL stadium to use artificial turf. In 1960, the Eagles won their third NFL championship, under the leadership of future Pro Football Hall of Famers Norm Van Brocklin and Chuck Bednarik, the head coach was Buck Shaw. The 1960 Eagles, by a score of 17–13, became the team to defeat Vince Lombardi. The Eagles had a good 1961 season and fell on hard times in 1962
It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
Alan Cedric Page is a jurist and former professional American football player. Page first gained fame as a tackle for the Minnesota Vikings in the 1970s. He served as a justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court from 1993 until he reached the courts mandatory retirement age of 70 in 2015. Page is a member of both the College Football Hall of Fame and the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and is considered one of the greatest defensive linemen ever to play the game, Page graduated from Central Catholic High School in 1963. He received a B. A. in political science from the University of Notre Dame in 1967 and he is married to Diane Sims Page and is the father of four children. Page graduated from Canton Central Catholic High School, in Canton, Ohio and he starred in several sports and excelled in football. Page worked on a team that erected the Pro Football Hall of Fame. After high school, Page attended the University of Notre Dame and that same year, Page was named a college football All-American. Page was presented one of the 1992 Silver Anniversary Awards for achieving personal distinction since his graduation.
In 1993 he was inducted into College Football Hall of Fame, in 2005 he was awarded the National Football Foundation Distinguished American Award. In 1967, Page participated in the East-West Shrine Game and 25 years received the Babe Hollingbery Award for his performance as he was inducted to that games Hall of Fame, named to the Academic All-American Hall of Fame in 2001 and as such received the Dick Enberg Award. Also a winner of the Walter Camp Alumni of the Year in 1988, after graduating from Notre Dame, Page was drafted by the Minnesota Vikings, for whom he played from 1967 until 1978. In 1978 Page joined the Chicago Bears, with whom he played through the 1981 season and he is one of 11 players to have played for the Vikings in all four Super Bowls in which they appeared. As a right tackle, he had an unusual 3-point stance. During Page’s 15-year NFL tenure, the Vikings won an impressive four conference titles, Page was a member of the Vikings Purple People Eaters, a defensive line adept at sacking or hurrying the quarterback.
Page played in 218 consecutive games without an absence, during which he recovered 22 fumbles, made 148½ sacks and he had three safeties, the second most in NFL history. He set a high with 18 sacks in 1976 and is unofficially credited with five other seasons of 10 sacks or more. While in the NFL, Page earned All-Pro honors six times and he was voted to nine consecutive Pro Bowls
Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. is the first African-American, intercollegiate Greek-lettered fraternity. It was initially a literary and social club organized in the 1905–1906 school year at Cornell University, in Ithaca. The group evolved into a fraternity with a date of December 4,1906. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza and its aims are Manly deeds and Love For All Mankind, and its motto is First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All. Its archives are preserved at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, chapters were chartered at Howard University and Virginia Union University in 1907. The fraternity has over 290,000 members and has open to men of all races since 1940. Currently, there are more than 730 active chapters in the Americas, Europe, the Caribbean, Alpha Phi Alpha is a social organization with a service organization mission and provided leadership and service during the Great Depression, World Wars, and Civil Rights Movement. The fraternity addresses social issues such as apartheid, AIDS, urban housing, and other economic and political issues of interest to people of color.
National Programs and Initiatives of the Fraternity include A Voteless People Is a Hopeless People, My Brothers Keeper, Go To High School, Go To College, Project Alpha, and the World Policy Council. It conducts philanthropic programming initiatives with the March of Dimes, Head Start, the Boy Scouts of America, members of this prestigious Fraternity include many Historical Civil Rights Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. NAACP Founder W. E. B. Du Bois, Frederick Douglass, and Dick Gregory, Alpha Phi Alpha was directly responsible for the conception and construction of the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial next to the National Mall in Washington D. C. Poindexter organized a group of students for literary discussion and social functions at Cornell University, the group initially consisted of 15 students and included females. The initial study group consisted of 14 students and these students included four from Washington, D. C. - Robert Ogle, Fred Morgan Phillip, Fannie Holland, there were four men and a woman from New York State, George Kelley, Arthur Callis, James Thomas, Gordon Jones, and Paul Ray.
From West Virginia came Eugene Kinckle Jones and Mary Vassar, Vertner Tandy came from Kentucky, and G. H. Chapman was from Florida. The group met every two weeks at 421 North Albany Street, where Poindexter roomed, Poindexter was stated to have a relationship with the other students of the group that was more faculty to student than peer-to-peer, given that he was the secretary of a professor at Cornell. In December 1905, Poindexter organized a meeting of students which included Murray, Phillips, Kelley, Callis and George Tompkins. Robert Ogle had seen an article in the Chicago Defender magazine about a Negro fraternity at Ohio State University called Pi Gamma Omicron, Pi Gamma Omicron inspired Ogle to try to transform the literary society into a fraternity
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft, it straddles the border between California and Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, and its depth is 1,645 ft, making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon. The lake was formed about 2 million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin and it is known for the clarity of its water and the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is referred to as Lake Tahoe. More than 75% of the watershed is national forest land. Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both Nevada and California and it is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, and scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the areas economy, the Nevada side offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area. It is about 22 mi long and 12 mi wide and has 72 mi of shoreline, approximately two-thirds of the shoreline is in California.
Although highways run within sight of the shore for much of Tahoes perimeter. The Lake Tahoe Watershed of 505 sq mi includes the area that drains to the lake. Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries and these drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it. The Truckee River is the only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, Nevada. It accounts for one third of the water leaves the lake. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet, the natural rim is at 6,223 ft above sea level, with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to water, is at 6,229.1 ft. Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno, the Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the east and the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west, down-dropped blocks created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between