2nd Confederate States Congress
The 2nd Confederate States Congress, consisting of the Confederate States Senate and the Confederate States House of Representatives, met from May 2, 1864, to March 18, 1865, during the last year of Jefferson Davis's presidency, at the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia. Its members were elected in the 1863 congressional elections. Held May 2, 1864, through March 18, 1865, at the Virginia State Capital in Richmond, Virginia; the term of the Second Congress was due to end on February 18, 1866. However, due to the defeat and dissolution of the Confederacy prior to that time, the Congress did not function after the end of its second and final session. 1st Session – May 2, 1864 to June 14, 1864 2nd Session – November 7, 1864 to March 18, 1865 President: Alexander H. Stephens President pro tempore: R. M. T. Hunter President pro tempore: William Alexander Graham — session 2 Speaker: Thomas S. Bocock Speaker pro tempore: William Parish Chilton, Sr. Secretary: James H. Nash, South Carolina Recording Clerk: John W. Anderson, Alabama Sergeant-at-Arms: Lafayette H. Fitzhugh, Kentucky Doorkeeper: James Page, North Carolina Assistant Doorkeeper: John Wadsworth, Georgia Clerk: Albert Reese Lamar, Georgia Assistant Clerk: David Louis Dalton, Alabama — sessions 3 and 4 Doorkeeper: Robert Harrison Wynne, Alabama X: served in the Senate of the First Congress.
Confederate States Senators were elected by the state legislatures, or appointed by state Governors to fill casual vacancies until the legislature elected a new Senator. It was intended that one-third of the Senate would begin new six-year terms with each Congress after the first. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their terms. Senators of Class 1 were intended to serve a six-year term, starting with this Congress and expiring in 1870. Class 2 Senators served what was intended to be a four-year term, due to end on the expiry of this Congress in 1866. Class 3 Senators were meant to serve a six-year term, due to expire in 1868. Alabama 3. Robert Jemison, Jr. X 1. Richard Wilde WalkerArkansas 1. Robert Ward Johnson X 3. Charles Burton Mitchel X Augustus Hill Garland Florida 1. James McNair Baker X 2. Augustus Emmet Maxwell XGeorgia 3. Benjamin Harvey Hill X 1. Herschel Vespasian Johnson XKentucky 3. Henry Cornelius Burnett X 1. William Emmet Simms XLouisiana 2.
Thomas Jenkins Semmes X 3. Edward Sparrow XMississippi 2. Albert Gallatin Brown X 1. John William Clark WatsonMissouri 2. Waldo Porter Johnson X 1. George Graham Vest North Carolina 2. William Theophilus Dortch X 1. William Alexander GrahamSouth Carolina 2. Robert Woodward Barnwell X 3. James Lawrence Orr XTennessee 3. Landon Carter Haynes X 2. Gustavus Adolphus Henry, Sr. XTexas 3. William Simpson Oldham, Sr. X 2. Louis Trezevant Wigfall XVirginia 3. R. M. T. Hunter X 2. Allen Taylor Caperton X The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. X: reelected Alabama 1. Thomas Jefferson Foster X 2. William Russell Smith X 3. Congress refused to an avowed Unionist. Marcus Henderson Cruikshank 5. Francis Strother Lyon X 6. William Parish Chilton, Sr. X 7. David Clopton X 8. James L. Pugh X 9. James Shelton DickinsonArkansas 1. Felix Ives Batson X 2. Rufus King Garland, Jr. 3. Augustus Hill Garland X David Williamson Carroll 4. Thomas Burton Hanly XFlorida 1. Samuel St. George Rogers 2.
Robert Benjamin Hilton XGeorgia 1. Julian Hartridge X 2. William Ephraim Smith 3. Mark Harden Blandford 4. Clifford Anderson 5. John Troup Shewmake 6. Joseph Hubbard Echols 7. James Milton Smith 8. George Nelson Lester 9. Hiram Parks Bell 10. Warren Akin, Sr. Kentucky 1. Willis Benson Machen X 2. George Washington Triplett 3. Henry English Read X 4. George Washington Ewing X 5. James Chrisman X 6. Theodore Legrand Burnett X 7. Horatio Washington Bruce X 8. Humphrey Marshall 9. Eli Metcalfe Bruce X 10. James William Moore X 11. Benjamin Franklin Bradley 12. John Milton Elliott XLouisiana 1. Charles Jacques Villeré X 2. Charles Magill Conrad X 3. Duncan Farrar Kenner X 4. Lucius Jacques Dupré X 5. Benjamin Lewis Hodge Henry Gray 6. John Perkins, Jr. XMississippi 1. Jehu Amaziah Orr 2. William Dunbar Holder X 3. Israel Victor Welch X 4. Henry Cousins Chambers X 5. Otho Robards Singleton X 6. Ethelbert Barksdale X 7. John Tillman LamkinMissouri In Confederate law, the people of Missouri were entitled to elect thirteen representatives.
The state never implemented the reapportionment and continued to use its existing seven districts.1. Thomas Lowndes Snead 2. Nimrod Lindsay Norton 3. John Bullock Clark, Sr. 4. Aaron H. Conrow X 5. George Graham Vest X 6. Peter Singleton Wilkes 7. Robert Anthony HatcherNorth Carolina 1. William Nathan Harrell Smith X 2. Robert Rufus Bridgers X 3. James Thomas Leach 4. Thomas Charles Fuller 5. Josiah Turner 6. John Adams Gilmer 7. James Madison Leach 8. James Graham Ramsay 9. Burgess Sidney Gaither 10. George Washington LoganSouth Carolina 1. James Hervey Witherspoon, Jr. 2. William Porcher Miles X 3. Lewis Malone Ayer, Jr. X 4. William Dunlap Simpson X 5. James Farrow X 6. William Waters Boyce
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
Henry Wager Halleck was a United States Army officer and lawyer. A noted expert in military studies, he was known by a nickname that became derogatory: "Old Brains." He was an important participant in the admission of California as a state and became a successful lawyer and land developer. Halleck served as General-in-Chief of all Union armies during the American Civil War. Early in the Civil War, Halleck was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater, he commanded operations in the Western Theater from 1861 until 1862, during which time, while the Union armies in the east were defeated and held back, the troops under Halleck's command won many important victories. However, Halleck was not present at the battles, his subordinates earned most of the recognition; the only operation in which Halleck exercised field command was the Siege of Corinth in the spring of 1862, a Union victory which he conducted with extreme caution. Halleck developed rivalries with many of his subordinate generals, such as Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell.
In July 1862, following Major General George B. McClellan's failed Peninsula Campaign in the Eastern Theater, Halleck was promoted to general-in-chief of all U. S. armies. Halleck served in this capacity for a half. Halleck was a cautious general who believed in thorough preparations for battle and in the value of defensive fortifications over quick, aggressive action, he was a master of administration and the politics necessary at the top of the military hierarchy, but exerted little effective control over field operations from his post in Washington, D. C, his subordinates criticized him and at times ignored his instructions. President Abraham Lincoln once described him as "little more than a first rate clerk." In March 1864, Grant was promoted to general-in-chief, Halleck was relegated to chief-of-staff. Without the pressure of having to control the movements of the armies, Halleck performed capably in this task, ensuring that the Union armies were well-equipped. Halleck was born on a farm in Westernville, Oneida County, New York, third child of 14 of Joseph Halleck, a lieutenant who served in the War of 1812, Catherine Wager Halleck.
Young Henry detested the thought of an agricultural life and ran away from home at an early age to be raised by an uncle, David Wager of Utica. He attended Hudson Academy and Union College the United States Military Academy, he became a favorite of military theorist Dennis Hart Mahan and was allowed to teach classes while still a cadet. He graduated in 1839, third in his class of 31 cadets, as a second lieutenant of engineers. After spending a few years improving the defenses of New York Harbor, he wrote a report for the United States Senate on seacoast defenses, Report on the Means of National Defence, which pleased General Winfield Scott, who rewarded Halleck with a trip to Europe in 1844 to study European fortifications and the French military. Returning home a first lieutenant, Halleck gave a series of twelve lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston that were subsequently published in 1846 as Elements of Military Art and Science, his work, one of the first expressions of American military professionalism, was well received by his colleagues and was considered one of the definitive tactical treatises used by officers in the coming Civil War.
His scholarly pursuits earned him the nickname "Old Brains." During the Mexican–American War, Halleck was assigned to duty in California. During his seven-month journey on the transport USS Lexington around Cape Horn, assigned as aide-de-camp to Commodore William Shubrick, he translated Henri Jomini's Vie politique et militaire de Napoleon, which further enhanced his reputation for scholarship, he spent several months in California constructing fortifications was first exposed to combat on November 11, 1847, during Shubrick's capture of the port of Mazatlán. He was awarded a brevet promotion to captain in 1847 for his "gallant and meritorious service" in California and Mexico, he was transferred north to serve under General Bennet Riley, the governor general of the California Territory. Halleck was soon appointed military secretary of state, a position which made him the governor's representative at the 1849 convention in Monterey where the California state constitution was written. Halleck became one of the principal authors of the document.
The California State Military Museum writes that Halleck "was and in a lone measure its brains because he had given more studious thought to the subject than any other, General Riley had instructed him to help frame the new constitution." He was nominated during the convention to be one of two men to represent the new state in the United States Senate, but received only enough votes for third place. During his political activities, he found time to join a law firm in San Francisco, Peachy & Billings, which became so successful that he resigned his commission in 1854; the following year, he married Elizabeth Hamilton, granddaughter of Alexander Hamilton and sister of Union general Schuyler Hamilton. Their only child, Henry Wager Halleck, Jr. was born in 1856, died in 1882. Halleck became a wealthy man as a lawyer and land speculator, a noted collector of "Californiana." He obtained thousands of pages of official documents on the Spanish missions and colonization of California, which were copied and are now maintained by the Bancroft Library of the University of California, the originals having been destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.
He built the Montgomery Block, San Francisco's first fireproof bu
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Raúl Isaías Baduel is a Venezuelan politician, retired general, former Defense Minister under President Hugo Chávez. He was a member of Chavez' MBR-200, joining in December 1982. Baduel was instrumental in restoring Chávez to power after the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, was described by the BBC as "one of a small group of officers'co-governing' Venezuela with Mr Chavez", he was commander-in-chief of the Venezuelan Army from 2004 until July 2007. In 2007 Baduel left his position as Defense Minister. Chávez said that he had removed Baduel from office because he had been unable to explain a string of irregularities. After retiring as Defense Minister, he emerged in 2007 as an opposition leader, when he publicly broke with Chavez and announced his opposition to the constitutional changes proposed in the 2007 constitutional referendum that would have strengthened the powers of the presidency and removed the restriction on public officials being re-elected. Baduel "emerged as a prominent voice of dissent" concerned that Chavez was taking Venezuela down a "road to ruin" and becoming authoritarian.
He became the highest-ranking military person opposed to Chavez's constitutional changes that would "concentrate power in the executive". In July 2007, he said, "A socialist regime is not incompatible with a democratic system of checks and balances and division of powers. We must separate ourselves from Marxist orthodoxy." In October 2008, a "military prosecutor said he was responsible for about $14 million that disappeared during his tenure as defense minister" in a transaction involving the purchase of military equipment. According to The New York Times, "Chávez has moved against a wide range of domestic critics, his efforts in recent weeks to strengthen his grip on the armed forces have led to high-profile arrests and a wave of reassignments". On 2 April 2009, Baduel was arrested at gunpoint. Baduel was placed in Ramo Verde Prison. According to The Guardian, he says "his crime was to realise – and declare – that the president was a tyrant"; the 2009 Human Rights Watch report mentions Baduel as an example of political persecution.
Former U. S. President Jimmy Carter expressed concern about the case, Steve Ellner, a Venezuelan historian and analyst, noted that "courts overwhelmingly targeted opposition figures.'Chávez's case would be much stronger if he went after corruption within his own government.' Arresting Baduel neutralised an opponent who could stir trouble in the army.'Obviously throwing Baduel in jail had a political motivation.'" In April 2010, Amnesty International accused "the Venezuelan government of deliberately targeting opposition leaders and sympathizers". In May 2010, Baduel was convicted by a military court of corruption and sentenced to seven years and eleven months in prison; the military court declared that US$3.9 million was misappropriated, according to interviews with members of various military units. From Ramo Verde Prison, Baduel sent a Twitter message to family members, saying, "God is with us and divine justice is always active", he was released six years in 2015. On 12 January 2017, Baduel was once again arrested following allegations from the Venezuelan government that he was plotting to overthrow the government.
Multiple other opposition politicians were detained in what opposition politicians called trumped charges. Family members of Baduel have denounced that he is being kept in solitary isolation at an underground facility known as La Tumba since late January, 2018
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States
The General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States, or General in Chief, was the senior-most officer in the Confederate States Army in 1865. The C. S. A. was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War On January 31, 1865, the 2nd Confederate States Congress provided “for the appointment of a General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States.” On February 6, General Robert E. Lee, Confederate States Army, was appointed to the position and served in that capacity until the end of the American Civil War. Lee retained command of the Army of Northern Virginia, serving in both assignments de facto until he surrendered at Appomattox on April 9, 1865 and de jure until he was paroled as a POW of the Union Army on April 12, 1865; the appointment of a General in Chief had been debated as early as February 27, 1862. President Jefferson Davis voiced his rejection of creating this position to the 1st Confederate States Congress on March 14, 1862, believing that such a general could "command an army or armies without the will of the President."
Davis performed many of the responsibilities of a general in chief himself throughout the war, acting as both a military operations manager and commander-in-chief. Lee and General Braxton Bragg performed related duties, as they were military advisers to Davis, or "charged with the conduct of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy." List of Confederate States Army generals Cooper, S. General Orders No. 3, C. S. War Department, Virginia Eicher, John H.. Simon, California: Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3, LCCN 2001020194, OCLC 704488651 U. S. War Department, War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, series III, volume V, Washington: Government Printing Office, p. 688, LCCN 03003452, OCLC 427057, retrieved September 22, 2018 – via Internet ArchiveCS1 maint: Date format