General (United States)

In the United States Armed Forces, a general is a four-star general officer in the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Space Force. A general ranks above a lieutenant general and below the special wartime ranks of General of the Army or General of the Air Force; the pay grade of general is O-10. It is equivalent to the rank of admiral in the other United States uniformed services which use naval ranks, it is abbreviated as GEN in the Army and Gen in the Marine Corps, Air Force, Space Force. Since the ranks of General of the Army and General of the Air Force are reserved for wartime use only, the rank of general is the highest general officer rank in peacetime. Formally, the term "General" is always used. However, a number of different terms may be used to refer to them informally, since lower-ranking generals may be referred to as “General”; the United States Code explicitly limits the total number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army, 62 for the Marine Corps, 198 for the Air Force, 162 for the Navy.

No more than about 25% of a service's active duty general or flag officers may have more than two stars, statute sets the total number of four-star officers allowed in each service. This is set at 7 Army generals, 2 Marine generals, 8 Air Force generals, 1 Space Force general, 2 Coast Guard admirals. Several of these slots are reserved by statute. For example, the two highest-ranking members of each service are designated as generals. For the Army the Chief of Staff and the Vice Chief of Staff are generals. In addition, for the National Guard, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau is a general under active duty in the Army or Air Force. There are several exceptions to these limits allowing more than allotted within the statute. An officer serving as Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. All statutory limits may be waived at the President's discretion during time of war or national emergency. Four-star grades go hand-in-hand with the positions of office to which they are linked, so the rank is temporary.

Their active rank expires with the expiration of their term of office, set by statute. Generals are nominated for the appointment by the President from any eligible officers holding the rank of brigadier general or above who meet the requirements for the position, with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, service secretary, if applicable the Joint Chiefs of Staff. For some positions, statute allows the President to waive those requirements for a nominee deemed to serve national interests; the nominee must be confirmed by the United States Senate before the appointee can take office and assume the rank. General ranks may be given by act of Congress but this is rare; the standard tour for most general positions is three years, bundled as a two-year term plus a one-year extension, with the following exceptions: Service chiefs serve for four years in one four-year term. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau serves a nominal four years. Extensions of the standard tour length can be approved, within statutory limits, by their respective service secretaries, the Secretary of Defense, the President, or Congress but these are rare, as they block other officers from being promoted.

Some statutory limits can be waived in times of national war. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement. A general must retire after 40 years of service unless she is reappointed to serve longer. Otherwise all general officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday. However, the Secretary of Defense can defer a general's retirement until the officer's 66th birthday and the President can defer it until the officer's 68th birthday. To retire at four-star grade, an officer must accumulate at least three years of satisfactory active duty service in that grade, as certified by the Secretary of Defense. List of active duty United States four-star officers List of United States Army four-star generals List of United States Marine Corps four-star generals List of United States Air Force four-star generals List of United States military leaders by rank Staff Title 10 of the United States Code United States Army officer rank insignia United States Marine Corps officer rank insignia United States Air Force officer rank insignia

List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain (V–Z)

The following is a list of pilots and other aircrew who flew during the Battle of Britain, were awarded the Battle of Britain Clasp to the 1939–45 Star by flying at least one authorised operational sortie with an eligible unit of the Royal Air Force or Fleet Air Arm during the period from 0001 hours on 10 July to 2359 hours 31 October 1940. In 1942, the Air Ministry made the decision to compile a list from records of the names of pilots who had lost their lives as a result of the fighting during the Battle of Britain for the purpose of building a national memorial; this became the Battle of Britain Chapel at Westminster Abbey, unveiled by King George VI on 10 July 1947. The Roll of Honour within the Chapel contains the names of 1,497 pilots and aircrew killed or mortally wounded during the Battle. Nothing was done however, to define the qualifications for the classification of a Battle of Britain airman until 9 November 1960. AMO N850, published by the Air Ministry, stated for the first time the requirements for the awarding of the Battle of Britain Star, listed the 71 units which were deemed to have been under the control of RAF Fighter Command.

In 1955 Flt Lt John Holloway, a serving RAF officer, began a personal challenge to compile a complete list of "The Few". After fourteen years of research Flt Lt Holloway had 2,946 names on the list. Of these airmen, 537 were killed during the Battle or died of wounds received; the Battle of Britain Memorial Trust, founded by Geoffrey Page, raised funds for the construction of the Battle of Britain Memorial at Capel-le-Ferne near Folkestone in Kent. The Memorial, unveiled by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother on 9 July 1993, shares the site with the Christopher Foxley-Norris Memorial Wall on which a complete list of "The Few" is engraved. More the Battle of Britain Monument on the Victoria Embankment in London was unveiled on 18 September 2005 by Their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall; the idea for the monument was conceived by the Battle of Britain Historical Society which set about raising funds for its construction. The outside of the monument is lined with bronze plaques listing all the Allied airmen who took part in the Battle.

Ranks given are those held during the Battle of Britain, although a higher rank may have been achieved after the Battle. All individuals listed in bold and highlighted in silver are believed to be still alive. Aircrew listed as KIA, MIA, WIA or KIFA during the Battle of Britain are highlighted in blue; the awards listed include those made during the Battle of Britain and during the remainder of World War II, as well as any made post-war. In order to limit the numbers of footnotes which would otherwise be required, the symbol ‡ under "Notes" indicates several entries in the text of Ramsay 1989, while the symbol † indicates that information on the circumstances under which an airman became a casualty during the Battle is included in the text of the book. Where more than one crew member of a multi place aircraft was involved this is included as a cross-reference under "Notes" In addition to 2,353 British aircrew, the RAF Roll of Honour recognises 574 personnel from other countries. After "Sqn" denotes Commanding Officer of that squadron, as per the RAF Fighter Command Order of Battle on 15 September 1940, unless otherwise indicated.

After a rank denotes a member of the Fleet Air Arm rather than the RAF. "KIA" - "killed in action" "KIFA" - "killed in flying accident", i.e. not during combat "MIA" - "missing in action". "WIA" - "wounded in action" leading to death which, in some cases, may have occurred months later. "POW" - "prisoner of war". For details of RAF rank abbreviations, see RAF Commissioned Officer Ranks and RAF Non-Commissioned Officer Ranks. For details of FAA rank abbreviations, see FAA Commissioned Officer Ranks. Non-British personnel in the RAF during the Battle of Britain List of World War II aces from the United Kingdom List of World War II flying aces by country List of World War II flying aces List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain List of RAF aircrew in the Battle of Britain Notes Citations Remembering the Battle of Britain Robert Dixon,'607 Squadron: A Shade Of Blue'.

The History Press 2008. ISBN 978-0-7524-4531-1 Robert Dixon,'A Gathering Of Eagles' PublishBritannica 2004, ISBN 1-4137-3498-7


Invavita piratica is an extinct, parasitic species of tongue worm, provisionally assigned to the order Cephalobaenida, from Ludlow-aged England. Despite the common name, tongue worms are highly modified crustacean arthropods related to barnacles and copepods, not worms, it possessed a head, a worm-like body, two pairs of limbs. The 425-million-year-old Silurian fossil holotype specimen was found still attached to its fossilised host, a specimen of the ostracod Nymphatelina gravida, at an undisclosed location in England, it is now in Oxford University Museum of Natural History. It was first described in the journal Current Biology in 2015; the generic name is a New Latin compound word combining "invasor" and "avitus," and translates as "ancient intruder." The specific name refers to piracy.