Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Established on June 11,1940, Cumberland Gap National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located at the border between Kentucky and Virginia. The Cumberland Gap is a natural break in the Appalachian Mountains. The park lies in parts of Bell and Harlan counties in Kentucky, Claiborne County in Tennessee, the park contains the Kentucky-Virginia-Tennessee tri-state area, accessible via a short trail. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park covers 20,508 acres, the Cumberland Gap Visitor Center is located on U. S. Highway 25E just southeast of Middlesboro and just northwest of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel and Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The visitor center is open day of the year except Christmas Day. The gap was used by Native Americans, as many species of migratory animals passed through it from north to south each year. It was fertile hunting territory and the only cut through the mountains from the southern wintering grounds of wild deer. Starting around 1775, the Gap became the route of transit for American settlers moving west into Kentucky.
Two families by the name of Hensley and Gibbons moved to Brush Mountain to escape the many changes that were taking place in the early 1900s, more family members followed and a community was begun. A church and school was established under the jurisdiction of the Bell County School System of Bell County, settlers continued their pioneer lifestyle until future generations began accepting employment and marriage partners off the mountain. Sherman Hensley, the founder of the settlement, was the last to leave in 1951, the park preserves the natural beauty of the surrounding area while focusing on historic preservation. The former roadbed of U. S. Highway 25E through the park has been restored to an early 19th-century wagon path and this was made possible with the 1996 completion of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel, which rerouted US 25E under the park
Greek Revival architecture
The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States. A product of Hellenism, it may be looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture, the term was first used by Charles Robert Cockerell in a lecture he gave as Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1842. With a newfound access to Greece, or initially the books produced by the few who had actually been able to visit the sites, archaeologist-architects of the period studied the Doric and Ionic orders. This was especially the case in Britain and the United States, Greek Revival architecture took a different course in a number of countries, lasting until the Civil War in America and even in Scotland. Despite the unbounded prestige of ancient Greece amongst the elite of Europe. The monuments of Greek antiquity were known chiefly from Pausanias and other literary sources, visiting Ottoman Greece was difficult and dangerous business prior to the period of stagnation beginning with the Great Turkish War.
Few Grand Tourists called on Athens during the first half of the 18th century and it would take until the expedition funded by the Society of Dilettanti of 1751 by James Stuart and Nicholas Revett before serious archaeological inquiry began in earnest. Access to the originals in Greece itself only became easier after the Greek War of Independence ended in 1832, Lord Byrons participation, following James Stuarts travels to Greece in the early 1750s, intellectual curiosity quickly led to a desire to emulate. Stuart was commissioned after his return from Greece by George Lyttelton to produce the first Greek building in England, arguably the greatest British exponent of the style was Decimus Burton. In London twenty three Greek Revival Commissioners churches were built between 1817 and 1829, the most notable being St. Pancras church by William and Henry William Inwood. Such was the popularity of the Doric in Edinburgh that the city now enjoys a striking visual uniformity, Greek continued to be in favour in Scotland well into the 1870s in the singular figure of Alexander Thomson, known as Greek Thomson.
In Germany, the Greek revival is predominantly found in two centres and Munich, the earliest Greek building was the Brandenburg Gate by Carl Gotthard Langhans, who modelled it on the Propylaea. Ten years after the death of Frederick the Great, the Berlin Akademie initiated a competition for a monument to the king that would promote morality, similarly, in Munich von Klenzes Glyptothek and Walhalla were the fulfilment of Gillys vision of an orderly and moral German world. The purity and seriousness of the style was intended as an assertion of German national values and partly intended as a riposte to France. By comparison, the Greek revival in France was never popular with either the state or the public, what little there is started with Charles de Waillys crypt in the church of St Leu-St Gilles, and Claude Nicolas Ledouxs Barriere des Bonshommes. It would take until Laboustres Neo-Grec of the Second Empire for the Greek revival to flower briefly in France, the style was especially attractive in Russia, if only because they shared the Eastern Orthodox faith with the Greeks.
The historic centre of Saint Petersburg was rebuilt by Alexander I of Russia, the Saint Petersburg Bourse on Vasilievsky Island has a temple front with 44 Doric columns. Leo von Klenzes expansion of the palace that is now the Hermitage Museum is another example of the style, following the Greek War of Independence, Romantic Nationalist ideology encouraged the use of historically Greek architectural styles in place of Ottoman or pan-European ones
Carrollton is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Carroll County, United States, at the confluence of the Ohio and Kentucky rivers. The population was 3,938 at the 2010 census, Carrollton is located in northern Carroll County at 38°40′38″N 85°10′17″W. The city is situated on the Ohio River at the mouth of the Kentucky River and it is bordered by the city of Prestonville to the west across the Kentucky River. To the north, across the Ohio River, is Switzerland County, U. S. Route 42 passes through the center of the community, leading northeast 54 miles to Cincinnati and southwest 55 miles to Louisville. Interstate 71 runs 4 miles south of the city parallel to US42. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.0 square miles, of which 0.008 square miles. Carrollton was laid out in 1792, and it was known as Port William initially and it served as the county seat of Gallatin County until 1838 when the county was split, creating Carroll County, and Port William was renamed Carrollton and became the seat of the new county.
The Louisville & Nashville Railroad was built near town in 1868, Carrolltons most severe flood was the Ohio River flood of 1937, floodwaters crested at 79.9 feet. It has one of the states largest tobacco markets, and the population has remained steady since being recorded at 3,884 in the 1970 census, in 1988, the Carrollton bus disaster garnered national attention for what was one of the worst bus collisions in United States history. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,846 people,1,598 households, the population density was 1,715.4 people per square mile. There were 1,709 housing units at a density of 762.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78. 99% White,2. 24% Black,0. 13% Native American,0. 18% Asian,2. 03% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 19. 42% of the population. 33. 9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was out with 23. 0% under the age of 18,9. 9% from 18 to 24,27. 3% from 25 to 44,22. 1% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males, the median income for a household in the city was $29,818, and the median income for a family was $41,193. Males had an income of $32,563 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,376, about 13. 9% of families and 20. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31. 5% of those under age 18 and 26. 2% of those age 65 or over
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park
Greenbo Lake State Resort Park in Kentucky is a resort park in the northeastern part of the commonwealth, close to the town of Greenup, Kentucky in Greenup County on Kentucky State Route 1. The lodge contains a 232-seat dining room and it is centered on the 300-acre Greenbo Lake that features a boat dock and marina. There are over 25 miles of hiking and horseback trails, the park hosts a variety of community events each year including a quilt show, murder mystery dinner theaters, and a 5K race. Greenbo Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Greenbo Lake State Resort Park American Byways
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 61st largest in the United States. Known as the Horse Capital of the World, it is the heart of the states Bluegrass region, with a mayor-alderman form of government, it is one of two cities in Kentucky designated by the state as first-class, the other is the states largest city of Louisville. In the 2016 U. S. Census Estimate, the population was 318,449, anchoring a metropolitan area of 506,751 people. Lexington ranks tenth among US cities in college education rate, with 39. 5% of residents having at least a bachelors degree and this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them but settlers did not come in force until the late 18th century, Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia,17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs, upon hearing of the colonists victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, they named their campsite Lexington.
It was the first of what would be many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town, the risk of Indian attacks delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and they built cabins and a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginias newly organized Fayette County, colonists defended it against a British and allied Shawnee attack in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 6,1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly, the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide The Travelling Church, a migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County. It is the oldest black Baptist congregation in Kentucky and the third oldest in the United States, I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses, many of them elegant and three stories high.
The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a state of cultivation. Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as The Athens of the West since Espys poem dedicated to the city, in the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies. London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims, additional cholera outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years. Often the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease, planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked primarily as servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, shippers
Historic house museum
A historic house museum is a house that has been transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way reflects their original placement. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums, houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of writers are frequently turned into writers home museums to support literary tourism. Also known as a ‘memory museum’, which is a used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there. It is often made up of the belongings and objects – this approach is mostly concerned with authenticity. Some museums are organised around the person who lived there or the role the house had. Other historic house museums may be partially or completely reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, and dictates the manner in which it is completed.
In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History, the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History that is solely based on people and their way of living. It became very popular in the century among scholars who were interested in the history of people. Social history remains a branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history, the past is the set of places made by human action. History is a map of these places, following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras and they often occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is used in the resurrection of historic house museums, however.
The notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs and this extended thesis examines the role of people and place, and how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience. It focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, an example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan. It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, the ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of lands and waters set aside to conserve Americas fish, wildlife. National Wildlife Refuges manage a range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas. Among these hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds,220 species of mammals,250 reptile and amphibian species and more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a variety of outdoor recreational activities. The National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year, hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 Waterfowl Production Areas.
Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges, there is at least one wildlife refuge in each of the fifty states. The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and these began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013. The CCCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation, the CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for fifteen years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every fifteen years thereafter. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative. Completed CCPs are available to the public and can be found on the FWS website, equally important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are impacted by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success.
Consideration of these contributes to the success of the Service’s mission to protect wildlife. The Refuge System works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources, according to the Services 2013 Banking on Nature Report, visitors to refuges positively impact the local economies. Prevention and control of fires is a very active part of refuge management. Completion of controlled burns to reduce fuel loading, and participation in the wildland fire suppression efforts, are vital for management of refuge lands. A considerable infrastructure of physical structures is essential to management of refuge lands. As of September 30,2015 there were 13,030 roads and trails,5,284 buildings,8,007 water management structures, the overall facility infrastructure is valued at nearly $30 billion
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms