The General Conference on Weights and Measures is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the inter-governmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards. The CGPM is made up of delegates of the governments of the Member States and observers from the Associates of the CGPM. Under its authority, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (French: Comité international des poids et mesures executes an exclusive direction and supervision of the BIPM; the General Conference receives the report of the CIPM on work accomplished. The CGPM meets in Paris once every four years; the 25th meeting of the CGPM took place from 18 to 20 November 2014, the 26th meeting of the CGPM took place in Versailles from 13 to 16 November 2018. The Metre Convention was only concerned with the kilogram and the metre, but in 1921 the scope of the treaty was extended to accommodate all physical measurements and hence all aspects of the metric system.
In 1960 the 11th CGPM approved the International System of Units known as "SI". On 20 May 1875 an international treaty known as the Convention du Mètre was signed by 17 states; this treaty established an international organisation, the Bureau international des poids et mesures, consisting of: Conférence générale des poids et mesures, an intergovernmental conference of official delegates of member nations and the supreme authority for all actions. The CGPM acts on behalf of the governments of its members. In so doing, it appoints members to the CIPM, receives reports from the CIPM which it passes on to the governments and national laboratories on member states and where appropriate approves proposals from the CIPM in respect of changes to the International System of Units, approves the budget for the BIPM and it decides all major issues concerning the organization and development of the BIPM; the structure is analogous to that of a stock corporation. The BIPM is the organisation, the CGPM is the general meeting of the shareholders, the CIPM is the board of directors appointed by the CGPM, the staff at the site in Saint-Cloud perform the day-to-day work.
The CGPM recognises two classes of membership – full membership for those states that wish to participate in the activities of the BIPM and associate membership for those countries or economies that only wish to participate in the CIPM MRA program. Associate members have observer status at the CGPM. Since all formal liaison between the convention organisations and national governments is handled by the member state's ambassador to France, it is implicit that member states must have diplomatic relations with France, though during both world wars, nations that were at war with France retained their membership of the CGPM. CGPM meetings are chaired by the Président de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris. Of the twenty countries that attended the Conference of the Metre in 1875, representatives of seventeen signed the convention on 20 May 1875. In April 1884 HJ Chaney, Warden of Standards in London unofficially contacted the BIPM inquiring whether the BIPM would calibrate some metre standards, manufactured in the United Kingdom.
Broch, director of the BIPM replied that he was not authorised to perform any such calibrations for non-member states. On 17 September 1884, the British Government signed the convention on behalf of the United Kingdom; this number grew to 21 in 1900, 32 in 1950, 49 in 2001. As of 14 November 2018, there are 59 Member States and 42 Associate States and Economies of the General Conference: At the 21st meeting of the CGPM in October 1999, the category of "associate" was created for states not yet BIPM members and for economic unions; the International Committee for Weights and Measures consists of eighteen persons, each of a different nationality elected by the General Conference on Weights and Measures whose principal task is to promote worldwide uniformity in units of measurement by taking direct action or by submitting proposals to the CGPM. The CIPM meets every year at the Pavillon de Breteuil where, among other matters, it discusses reports presented to it by its Consultative Committees. Reports of the meetings of the CGPM, the CIPM, all the Consultative Committees, are published by the BIPM.
The secretariat is based in Hauts-de-Seine, France. In 1999 the CIPM has established the CIPM Arrangement de reconnaissance mutuelle which serves as the framework for the mutual acceptance of national measurement standards and for recognition of the validity of calibration and measurement certificate
Glynis Leanne Nunn-Cearns, OAM is a former Australian heptathlete, the first Olympic champion in the event. Born in Toowoomba, she began competing in athletics at age 9, when she was a student at Toowoomba South State School, she starred in several events, was thus a natural competitor in the pentathlon. In 1978, she could not compete because of an injury. By the time of the 1982 Commonwealth Games held in Brisbane, she had married decathlete Chris Nunn, that year the couple moved to Adelaide in South Australia where Chris was studying for a physical education degree at the South Australian College of Advanced Education. In the first heptathlon competition at the Games, she upset the English favourite and took the title. At the inaugural World Championships a year she was placed 7th; because of the 1984 Summer Olympics boycott, Nunn was one of the medal candidates for the Olympic title, too. The competition was close, with five athletes fighting for the medals. After the competition, there was confusion about who had won, but when the smoke cleared, Nunn had scored 6390 points, five more than runner-up Jackie Joyner-Kersee.
In addition to her gold medal, Nunn was placed fifth in the 100 m hurdles event, seventh in the long jump. After the Olympics, Nunn abandoned the heptathlon, switched to hurdling, she was hampered by many injuries, but managed to win a bronze medal in the high hurdles event at the 1986 Commonwealth Games. She quit sports in 1990. In 1985, Nunn received a Medal of the Order of Australia and was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame, she received an Australian Sports Medal in 2000. Glynis Nunn at World Athletics Profile
Pony Da Look was a keyboard-based band from Toronto, Canada. The band members were Temple Bates, Amy Bowles, Catherine Stockhausen, Rob Gordon. Former members include Rebecca Mendoza, their music combined heavy drum beats, raw keyboard riffs and forceful vocals with unconventional lyrics. Bates and Mendoza came together as Pony Da Look and released their first self-titled album in 2001. Tara Azzopardi and Megan Dunlop played with them in 2001. With the addition of Stockhausen on keyboard, they followed it up with The Forcefield Weakens in 2003. After Mendoza and Sloan's Chris Murphy celebrated the birth of their child in 2007, Pony Da Look signed to Sloan's label Murderecords and released Shattered Dimensions in 2008. Mendoza was replaced on drums by Rob Gordon. Pony Da Look continued to perform in the Toronto area until 2011. Bowles and Bates are painters who continue to exhibit Mendoza is a modern dancer and choreographer and Stockhausen is a TV producer and photographer. Bowles served. 2001: Pony Da Look 2003: The Forcefield Weakens 2008: Shattered Dimensions Pony Da Look on Myspace
Simon Henshaw is an American diplomat who has served as the United States Ambassador to Guinea. Henshaw earned a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and a Master of Science from the National War College. Henshaw is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, class of Minister-Counselor, has served as an American diplomat since 1985, he served in senior leadership positions at the Department of State, including as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and, starting in 2017, as Acting Assistant Secretary for the Bureau of Population and Migration from 2013 to 2018. From 2011 to 2013, he served as Director of the Office of Andean Affairs, from 2008 to 2011, he served as Deputy Chief of Mission at the United States Embassy in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, he has served at five other overseas diplomatic posts. Prior to his ambassadorship he was a senior advisor to the Health Initiatives Task Force at the Department of State, coordinating efforts to respond to a series of health and security incidents affecting United States diplomats in Cuba and China.
On August 10, 2018, President Trump announced his intent to nominate Henshaw as the next United States Ambassador to Guinea. On August 16, 2018, his nomination was sent the United States Senate. On September 26, 2018, he appeared before the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. On January 2, 2019, his nomination was confirmed in the Senate by voice vote, he presented his credentials to President Alpha Condé on March 4, 2019. Henshaw speaks French, basic Russian, basic Portuguese. List of ambassadors of the United States
Tommy Lasorda Baseball is a baseball game released for the Sega Mega-Tech arcade system and as one of the six launch titles for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis console in the North American region. Tommy Lasorda endorsed this video game; the game is not licensed by any professional baseball league, making all team and player names fictional. Game modes include a 30-game season mode. A pre-game difficulty switch makes the game biased either towards the pitcher, batter, or an equal game of skill between pitcher and batter. Due to an agreement with Sega, this game was never released for any home console other than the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis; this game was released in Japan as Super League. Tommy Lasorda Baseball at MobyGames Tommy Lasorda Baseball at arcade-history
Sun Cheng was a eunuch at the Imperial Chinese court during the Han Dynasty. Contrary to the stereotype of Han eunuchs being corrupt and power-hungry, he was loyal to the imperial family and tried to counter the culture of corruption. During Emperor An's reign, those close to him, including the eunuchs Jiang Jing and Li Run and his wet nurse Wang Sheng, as well as his wife Empress Yan Ji ran the imperial administration, used the opportunity to seize power and wealth for themselves. In 124, Jiang and Empress Yan accused the nine-year-old Crown Prince Liu Bao of crimes and persuaded Emperor An to demote him to Prince of Jiyin. In 125, Emperor An died and though Prince Bao was Emperor An's only son, Empress Yan, evidently wanting someone younger she could control, made Liu Yi, the Marquess of Beixiang, emperor; when the young emperor became gravely ill in the year, a mid-level eunuch, became concerned that Empress Dowager Yan would again bypass Prince Bao, the rightful heir, so he entered into a conspiracy with a number of other eunuchs.
They swore an oath to restore Prince Bao, several days after the former Marquess of Beixiang died, they made a sudden assault on the palace and proclaimed Bao as Emperor Shun. After several days of battling with the empress dowager's faction, the eunuchs led by Sun prevailed, the Yan clan was slaughtered. For their contributions to his restoration, Emperor Shun created Sun and 18 of his fellow eunuchs marquesses. Emperor Shun, whose temperament was weak fell under the control of the officials around him. In 126, when the eunuch Zhang Fang was accused of corruption by the governor of the capital district, Yu Xu, he instead convinced the emperor that the accusations were false and that Yu should be sentenced to death. Sun and Zhang Xian, another eunuch who had helped put the emperor on the throne, interceded at great personal risk. Yu was spared. However, officials who were close to Zhang accused Sun and his fellow eunuch-marquesses of being overly arrogant. Emperor Shun therefore sent them out to their estates.
Sun, angered by this, had his marquess seal and emblems returned to the emperor and secretly stayed in the capital, looking to find another chance to try to guide the emperor onto the right path. He was soon captured, but Emperor Shun, remembering his accomplishments sent him back to his estate without further punishment, but without listening to his advice on stamping out corruption. In 128, Emperor Shun, remembering what Sun and the others had done for him, summoned them back to the capital, but again ignored their advice. In 132, Sun died and was buried with great honors, including the posthumous name Gang