USS Nautilus (SSN-571)
USS Nautilus was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3 August 1958. Sharing names with Captain Nemo's fictional submarine in Jules Verne's classic 1870 science fiction novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, named after another USS Nautilus that served with distinction in World War II, the new nuclear powered Nautilus was authorized in 1951, with laying down for construction in 1952 and launched in January 1954, attended by Mamie Eisenhower, First Lady of the United States, wife of 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower, commissioned the following September into the United States Navy. Final construction was completed in 1955; because her nuclear propulsion allowed her to remain submerged far longer than diesel-electric submarines, she broke many records in her first years of operation, traveled to locations beyond the limits of submarines. In operation, she revealed a number of limitations in her construction.
This information was used to improve subsequent submarines. Nautilus was decommissioned in 1980 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982; the submarine has been preserved as a museum ship at the Submarine Force Library and Museum in Groton, where the vessel receives around 250,000 visitors per year. In July 1951 the United States Congress authorized the construction of a nuclear-powered submarine for the U. S. Navy, planned and supervised by Captain Hyman G. Rickover, USN, known as the "Father of the Nuclear Navy." On 12 December 1951 the US Department of the Navy announced that the submarine would be called Nautilus, the fourth U. S. Navy vessel so named; the boat carried the hull number SSN-571. She benefited from the GUPPY improvements to the American Gato-, Balao-, Tench-class submarines. Nautilus's keel was laid at General Dynamics' Electric Boat Division in Groton, Connecticut by Harry S. Truman on 14 June 1952, she was christened on 21 January 1954 and launched into the Thames River, sponsored by Mamie Eisenhower.
Nautilus was commissioned on 30 September 1954, under the command of Commander Eugene P. Wilkinson, USN. Nautilus was powered by the Submarine Thermal Reactor redesignated the S2W reactor, a pressurized water reactor produced for the US Navy by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, operated by Westinghouse, developed the basic reactor plant design used in Nautilus after being given the assignment on 31 December 1947 to design a nuclear power plant for a submarine. Nuclear power had the crucial advantage in submarine propulsion because it is a zero-emission process that consumes no air; this design is the basis for nearly all of the US nuclear-powered submarine and surface combat ships, was adapted by other countries for naval nuclear propulsion. The first actual prototype was constructed and tested by the Argonne National Laboratory in 1953 at the S1W facility, part of the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. Nautilus' ship's patch was designed by The Walt Disney Company, her wardroom displays a set of tableware made of zirconium, as the reactor core was made of zirconium.
Following her commissioning, Nautilus remained dockside for further testing. On the morning of January 17, 1955, at 11 am EST, Nautilus' first Commanding Officer, Commander Eugene P. Wilkinson, ordered all lines cast off and signaled the memorable and historic message, "Underway On Nuclear Power." On 10 May, she headed south for shakedown. Submerged throughout, she traveled 1,100 nautical miles from New London to San Juan, Puerto Rico and covered 1,200 nautical miles in less than ninety hours. At the time, this was the longest submerged cruise by a submarine and at the highest sustained speed recorded. From 1955 to 1957, Nautilus continued to be used to investigate the effects of increased submerged speeds and endurance; the improvements rendered the progress made in anti-submarine warfare during World War II obsolete. Radar and anti-submarine aircraft, which had proved crucial in defeating submarines during the war, proved ineffective against a vessel able to move out of an area, change depth and stay submerged for long periods.
On 4 February 1957, Nautilus logged her 60,000th nautical mile, matching the endurance of her namesake, the fictional Nautilus described in Jules Verne's novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea. In May, she departed for the Pacific Coast to participate in coastal exercises and the fleet exercise, operation "Home Run," which acquainted units of the Pacific Fleet with the capabilities of nuclear submarines. Nautilus returned to New London, Connecticut, on 21 July and departed again on 19 August for her first voyage of 1,200 nautical miles under polar pack ice. Thereafter, she headed for the Eastern Atlantic to participate in NATO exercises and conduct a tour of various British and French ports where she was inspected by defense personnel of those countries, she arrived back at New London on 28 October, underwent upkeep, conducted coastal operations until the spring. In response to the nuclear ICBM threat posed by Sputnik, President Eisenhower ordered the U. S. Navy to attempt a submarine transit of the North Pole to gain credibility for the soon-to-come SLBM weapons system.
On 25 April 1958, Nautilus was underway again for the West Coast, now commanded by Commander William R. Anderson, USN. Stopping at San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, she began her history-making polar transit, Operation "Sunshine", as she departed the latter port on 9 June. On 19 June she entered the Chukchi Sea, b
Cape Hatteras is a thin, broken strand of islands in North Carolina that arch out into the Atlantic Ocean away from the US mainland back toward the mainland, creating a series of sheltered islands between the Outer Banks and the mainland. For thousands of years these barrier islands have survived onslaughts of sea. Long stretches of beach, sand dunes and maritime forests create a unique environment where wind and waves shape the topography. A large area of the Outer Banks is part of a National Park, called the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, it is the nearest landmass on the US mainland to Bermuda, about 563 nautical miles to the east-southeast. The treacherous waters off the coast of the Outer Banks is known as the Graveyard of the Atlantic, Over 600 ships wrecked here as victims of shallow shoals and war. Diamond Shoals, a bank of shifting sand ridges hidden beneath the turbulent sea off Cape Hatteras, has never promised safe passage for ships. In the past 400 years the graveyard has claimed many lives.
As early as the 1870s, villagers served in the US Life-Saving Service. Others staffed lighthouses built to guide mariners. Few ships wreck today, but storms still uncover the ruins of the old wrecks that lie along the beaches of the Outer Banks. Cape Hatteras National Seashore protects parts of three barrier islands: Bodie Island, Hatteras Island, Ocracoke Island. Beach and sound access ramps, nature trails, lighthouses can be found and explored on all three islands; the community of Buxton lies on the inland side of the Cape itself, at the widest part of Hatteras Island. It is the largest community on the island, is home to the governmental offices and schools for the Island. Cape Hatteras is a bend in Hatteras Island, one of the long thin barrier islands that make up the Outer Banks, it is the site. The cape's shoals are known as Diamond Shoals. Cape Hatteras has a humid subtropical climate, with long hot summers, short cool winters. Most of the area falls into USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 9. Cape Hatteras is surrounded by water, with Pamlico Sound to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
The proximity to water moderates conditions throughout the year, producing cooler summers and warmer winters than inland areas of North Carolina. The cape is the northern limit of tropical fauna. During the summer, average daily highs are in the 85 °F range, occasional intense thundershowers occur; as a result of its proximity to water, temperatures above 90 °F are rare, with an average of only 2.3 days annually above 90 °F. The coolest month, has a daily high of 52 °F, with lows well above freezing; the average window for freezing temperatures is from December 12 to March 11, between which there is an average of 21 nights with lows at or below the freezing mark. Extremes in temperature range from 6 °F on January 21, 1985 up to 97 °F on June 27, 1952. Snowfall is observed only and very light. Precipitation in the form of rain, is over 58 inches per year, making it the wettest coastal location in North Carolina. Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year; however and May represent a drier season, while August to October are the wettest months.
On average, August is the wettest month, owing to high frequencies of both summer thunderstorms and tropical systems that affect the area from August to early October. Due to its exposed position, Cape Hatteras is the highest-risk area for hurricanes and tropical storms along the entire U. S. Eastern seaboard. Cape Hatteras can experience significant wind and/or water damage from tropical systems moving near or over North Carolina's Outer Banks, while other areas experience much less, minimal or no damage; the Cape Hatteras area is infamous for being struck by hurricanes that move up the East Coast of the United States. The strike of Hurricane Isabel in 2003 was devastating for the area. Isabel devastated the entire Outer Banks and split Hatteras Island between the two small towns of Frisco and Hatteras. NC 12, which provides a direct route from Nags Head to Hatteras Island, was washed out when the hurricane created a new inlet. Students had to use a ferry to get to school; the inlet was filled in with sand by the Army Corps of Engineers which took nearly two months to complete.
The road and water lines were rebuilt when the inlet was filled. The name Hatteras is the sixth oldest surviving English place-name in the U. S. An inlet north of the cape was named "Hatrask" in 1585 by Sir Richard Grenville, the admiral leading the Roanoke Colony expedition sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, it was applied to the island and cape as well, modified to "Hatteras." Hatteras is the name of the Hatteras Indians. Because mariners utilize ocean currents to speed their journey, many ships venture close to Cape Hatteras when traveling along the eastern seaboard, risking the perils of sailing close to the shoals amid turbulent water and the frequent storms occurring in the area. So many ships have been lost off Cape Hatteras that the area is known as the "Graveyard of the Atlantic." Cape Hatteras is well known for surfing. The first lighthouse at the cape was built in 1803.
Crescent Shipyard, located in Elizabeth, New Jersey, built a number of ships for the United States Navy and allied nations as well during their production run, which lasted about ten years while under the Crescent name and banner. Production of these ships began before the Spanish–American War and occurred far before the outbreak of World War I. Arthur Leopold Busch, a recent emigre from Great Britain, started the yard with former Navy Lt. Lewis Nixon in January 1895. Both men worked for William Cramp & Sons in Philadelphia. Both Nixon and Busch were regarded to be amongst the best in their respected fields - and what they did at this time - as designers and builders of the latest, most advanced types of ships. Busch, as this shipyard's superintendent, supervised several classes of naval ships, including gunboats and cruisers in addition to the first commissioned submarine of the United States Navy, USS Holland; the Holland is considered technologically revolutionary in several respects. This submarine was considered a historic first, revolutionary in a timeline of naval innovations in world history.
Internationally, many "advanced" industrialized nations around the world took note – immediately – and some acquired the rights to build them soon after the purchase of the Holland VI on 11 April 1900. Busch, as shipyard construction chief and naval architect for Lewis Nixon, went on to supervise the building of the prototype "Fulton", which followed the USS Holland and was used as an example and template in development of America's A-class or Adder-class submarines. Busch reviewed the engineering plans of Fulton with Holland; these pioneering submarines were built for the Holland Torpedo Boat Company named after this company's founder John Philip Holland. Work on these submarines began at this shipyard in the late fall of 1896 with the keel to the Holland VI being laid down by early December of that year. Holland's company evolved into the Electric Boat Company after this company was incorporated on 7 February 1899. Japan's first five submarines were developed under Busch's direction while working at Fore River Ship and Engine Company in Quincy, Massachutsetts for Electric Boat and Admiral Francis T. Bowles, President of the shipyard in 1904.
Electric Boat had subcontracted with the Fore River Shipbuilding yard for some twenty years before moving to their present location in Groton, CT. Nixon, a cofounder of Crescent Shipyard was the lead designer of America's first class of battleships at William Cramp & Sons Shipyard, in Philadelphia. Isaac Rice's Electric Launch Company, started to build electrically propelled launches and small craft began its operations here; the Crescent Shipyard was operated by Nixon until 1904. The yard was closed permanently shortly after the conclusion of World War I. Mitchell, Robert. "Submarine Pioneers". Chief of Naval Operations, Submarine Warfare Division, United States Navy. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2008-02-12. History of the Crescent Shipyard from Shipbuildinghistory.com John Philip Holland and His Submarines Crescent Shipyard information at GlobalSecurity.org Another account of the United States Navy's first commissioned submarine USS Holland SS-1 purchased on 11 April 1900 for $150,000.
More detailed account of Holland's submarines including the proto-type Fulton
Groton is a town in New London County, Connecticut located on the Thames River. It is the home of General Dynamics Electric Boat, the major contractor for submarine work for the United States Navy; the Naval Submarine Base New London is located in Groton, the pharmaceutical company Pfizer is a major employer. Avery Point in Groton is home to a regional campus of the University of Connecticut; the population was 40,115 at the 2010 census. Groton was established in 1705 when it separated from Connecticut; the town was named after Suffolk in England. A hundred years before it was established, the Niantic people settled in the area between the Thames River and Pawcatuck River, but they settled in Westerly, Rhode Island; the newcomers to the land were the Pequots, a branch of the Mohawk people who moved eastward into the Connecticut River Valley. The summer of 1614 was the first time, they started trading furs for the settlers' goods, such as steel knives and boots. In 1633, the Dutch opened a fur trading post.
Meanwhile, the English bought land for settlement from the local tribes. The Dutch had unintentionally killed the Pequots' chief, this prompted revenge by the Pequot tribe, this escalated into the Pequot War. On the night of May 26, 1637, the Colonial forces arrived outside the Pequot village near the Mystic River; the palisade surrounding the village had only two exits, their leader Colonel John Mason gave the order to set the village on fire and block off the exits. Those who tried climbing over the palisade were shot; the land was poor for farming, but access to the region's waterways left room for commerce and trade, Groton became a town of oceangoing settlers. Most of the community began to build ships, soon traders made their way to Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony to trade for food, tools and clothing. John Leeds was the earliest shipbuilder, coming as a sea captain from England, he built a 20-ton brigantine, a two-masted sailing ship with square-rigged sails on the foremast and fore-and-aft sails on the mainmast.
Thomas Starr built a 67-ton square-sterned vessel, Thomas Latham launched a 100-ton brig on the Groton bank with mast standing and rigged. The sturdy ships built in Groton engaged in profitable trade with the islands of the Caribbean. Rough times came to the Connecticut town of Groton when the French and Indian War ended and the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765 were passed. Parliament closed down the port of crippling Groton's commerce. On September 6, 1781, the Battle of Groton Heights was fought between a combined force of state troops and local militia led by William Ledyard and numerous British forces led by Benedict Arnold. No one at Fort Griswold had expected an attack after six years of false alarms. At sunrise, a force of 1,700 British regulars landed on both sides of the mouth of the Thames River; the British fleet had sailed from Long Island the evening before, only a sudden shift in the wind prevented a surprise attack during the night. Across the Thames River in New London, Benedict Arnold was leading an 800-man detachment which destroyed stockpiles of goods and naval stores.
Arnold had been unaware of the orders given to spare most of the town. He was unaware that one of the ships docked in New London was filled with gunpowder. Upon ignition, the ship burst into flames and created an uncontrollable fire which destroyed 143 buildings in New London. Meanwhile, a British force of 800 men moved towards Fort Griswold in Groton, garrisoned by 164 militia and local men; the British sent a flag of surrender to Fort Griswold but William Ledyard refused and returned the flag. The British attacked, opening the bloody Battle of Groton Heights. After an initial repulse, the British succeeded in entering the fort and overpowering the small garrison inside. Lt. Col. William Ledyard realized that his men were overpowered and surrendered to the British—who proceeded to slaughter the Americans and murder Ledyard with his own sword. Jonathan Rathbun described the surrender this way:...the wretch who murdered him, exclaimed, as he came near, "Who commands this fort?" Ledyard handsomely replied, "I did, but you do now," at the same moment handing him his sword, which the unfeeling villain buried in his breast!
Oh, the hellish spite and madness of a man that will murder a reasonable and noble-hearted officer, in the act of submitting and surrendering! A memorial for the Battle of Groton Heights was put up in 1830 for the 88 men and boys who were killed at the fort. Fort Griswold is the only intact memorial in town left from the Revolutionary War; the 135-foot-tall monument is now featured on the Groton town seal. Shortly after the Revolutionary War, Groton started to re-establish its commercial activities. Shipbuilders began to build again. Shipbuilders along the Mystic River were the busiest; these ships went on trips to Florida, the resulting profits made Mystic the most thriving part of the town. Between 1784 and 1800, 32 vessels were built in Groton. 28 more were built from 1800 to 1807. In June 1812, the United States declared war on Great Britain. Most of the United States' small navy was landlocked in the Thames River; this frightened the people in Groton for fear that there would be a repeat of the Groto
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
USS Salmon (SS-182)
USS Salmon was the lead ship of her class of submarine. She was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the salmon, a soft-finned, game fish which inhabits the coasts of America and Europe in northern latitudes and ascends rivers for the purpose of spawning, her keel was laid down on 15 April 1936 by the Electric Boat Company in Connecticut. She was launched on 12 June 1937 sponsored by Miss Hester Laning, daughter of Rear Admiral Harris Laning, Commandant of the 3rd Naval District and New York Navy Yard; the boat was commissioned on 15 March 1938 with Lieutenant M. M. Stephens in command. After shakedown training and trials along the Atlantic coast from the West Indies to Nova Scotia, Salmon joined Submarine Division 15, Squadron 6 of the Submarine Force, U. S. Fleet, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire; as flagship of her division, she operated along the Atlantic coast until she relinquished the flag to sister ship Snapper late in 1939 as the division was shifted to the West Coast at San Diego.
Salmon operated along the West Coast through 1940 and the greater portion of 1941. Late that year, she was transferred with her division and the submarine tender Holland, to the Asiatic station. On 18 November, Holland with Salmon, Swordfish and Skipjack arrived at Manila and formed SubDiv 21 of the Asiatic fleet to bolster defenses in the Philippines as marked tension was growing due to Japanese militarism. Salmon was conducting a patrol from Manila, along the west coast of Luzon at the time of the surprise air raid by the Japanese against the Philippine bases and Pearl Harbor. Having been on defensive deployment since 27 November, in a wait-and-watch posture, she commenced war patrolling upon receiving word of the attacks. On 22 December, while on the surface in the Lingayen Gulf, she encountered two Japanese destroyers and pressed home an attack which seemed to bewilder the reluctant enemy, she succeeded in damaging both targets by delivering a "down the throat" spread of torpedoes which caught them as they veered course in opposite directions.
She was able to avoid further contact by ducking into a rain squall. In January 1942, she moved south to operate in the Gulf of Davao and off the southern tip of Mindanao and thence proceeded to Manipa Strait between Bura and Ceram in the Molucca Islands. In February, she patrolled the Flores Sea from north of Timor to Lombok Strait in the Sunda Islands put into Tjilatjap on the south coast of Java on 13 February; the capture of the airfield on Bali on 18 February 1942 and the losses suffered by American-British-Dutch-Australian Command forces in the battle of Badung Strait on 20 February forced the abandonment of the ABDA base at Surabaya and exposed Tjilatjap to a possible trap. The tender Holland moved her base of operations to Exmouth Gulf, Australia, on 20 February, as Salmon set out on her second war patrol. Salmon spent the next month in the Java Sea on patrol between Sepandjang and the area just west of Bawean, she arrived at Australia, on 23 March to end her second patrol. Beginning her third war patrol, Salmon departed from Fremantle on 3 May and established a barrier patrol along the south coast of Java to intercept Japanese shipping.
On 3 May, she sank the 11,441-ton repair ship, Asahi. On 24 June, Salmon commenced preparations for her next assignment. Salmon departed from Fremantle on 21 July for her fourth war patrol in the South China Sea-Sulu Sea area. Sailing via Lombok Strait and Makassar Strait, the Sibutu Passage, the Balabac Strait, she stationed herself between North Borneo and Palawan, Philippine Islands. During this patrol, Salmon was unable to gain a favorable position for successful attack, but made numerous sightings and reports of shipping movements to sister subs in the vicinity, she returned to Fremantle on 8 September. Salmon's fifth war patrol began on 10 October, her area of operations was off Corregidor and Subic Bay. On the night of 10 November, she challenged a large sampan moving in the vicinity of Subic Bay during the hours of darkness. After ignoring the challenge, the vessel was ordered to stop and shots were fired across its bow. Salmon maneuvered for a closer inspection and saw that the sampan was displaying rising-sun emblems on its deckhouse and that its crew was attempting to jettison objects over the side.
Salmon's crew fired at it with.50 cal machine guns. The vessel stopped and was boarded by Salmon crewmen who found that most of the Japanese sailors had gone over the side, they removed papers, radio equipment, other articles set the sampan afire. As Salmon pulled away, the enemy vessel was seen to sink. On 17 November, off the approach to Manila Bay, Salmon sighted three vessels and maneuvered for attack, she fired torpedoes at each of the ships and succeeded in damaging two and sinking the 5,873-ton, converted salvage vessel, Oregon Maru. Salmon ended her fifth patrol on 7 December at Pearl Harbor, she proceeded to Mare Island Naval Shipyard, the following day, arrived on 13 December. Salmon remained at Mare Island until on 30 March 1943, undergoing alterations including the installation of new radar equipment and two 20 mm mounts to augment her firepower, she returned to Pearl Harbor on 8 April. Salmon departed from Pearl Harbor on 29 April 1943 for her sixth war patrol via Midway Island, she was assigned a special mission which took her to the coast of Honshū, Japan, at Hachijo-jima and Izu Ōshima.
During this mission, she returned to Midway Island on 19 June. Salmon's seventh patrol was conducted in the Kuril Islands to cut
John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland was an Irish-American engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the US Navy, the first Royal Navy submarine, Holland 1. Holland, the second of four siblings, all boys, was born in a coastguard cottage in Liscannor, County Clare, Ireland where his father, John, Sr. was a member of the coastguard service. His mother, a native Irish speaker from Liscannor, Máire Ní Scannláin, was John Holland's second wife, his first, Anne Foley Holland, believed to be a native of Kilkee, died in 1835; the area was Irish-speaking and Holland learned English properly only when he attended the local English-speaking St Macreehy's National School, from 1858, Irish Christian Brothers school in Ennistymon. Holland joined the Irish Christian Brothers in Limerick and taught in Limerick and many other centres in the country including North Monastery CBS in Cork City, St. Mary's CBS, Portlaoise, St Joseph's CBS and as the first Mathematics teacher in Colaiste Ris. Due to ill health, he left the Christian Brothers in 1873.
Holland emigrated to the United States in 1873. Working for an engineering firm, he returned to teaching again for a further six years in St. John's Catholic school in Paterson, New Jersey. While a teacher in Cork, Holland read an account of the battle between the ironclads Monitor and Merrimack during the American Civil War, he realised. He drew a design. After his arrival in the United States, Holland slipped and fell on an icy Boston street and broke a leg. While recuperating from the injury in a hospital, he used his time to refine his submarine designs and was encouraged by Isaac Whelan, a priest. In 1875, his first submarine designs were submitted for consideration by the US Navy, but turned down as unworkable; the Fenians, continued to fund Holland's research and development expenses at a level that allowed him to resign from his teaching post. In 1878 he demonstrated the Holland I prototype. In 1881, Fenian Ram was launched, but soon after and the Fenians parted company on bad terms over the issue of payment within the Fenian organisation, between the Fenians and Holland.
The submarine is now preserved at New Jersey. Holland continued to improve his designs and worked on several experimental boats, prior to his successful efforts with a built type, launched on 17 May 1897; this was the first submarine having power to run submerged for any considerable distance, the first to combine electric motors for submerged travel and gasoline engines for use on the surface. She was purchased by the US Navy, on 11 April 1900, after rigorous tests and was commissioned on 12 October 1900 as USS Holland. Six more of her type were built at the Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth, New Jersey; the company that emerged from under these developments was called The Electric Boat Company, founded on 7 February 1899. Isaac Leopold Rice became the company's first President with Elihu B. Frost acting as vice-president and chief financial officer; this company evolved into the major defence contractor General Dynamics. The USS Holland design was adopted by others, including the Royal Navy in developing the Holland-class submarine.
The Imperial Japanese Navy employed a modified version of the basic design for their first five submarines, although these submarines were at least 10 feet longer at about 63 feet. These submarines were developed at the Fore River Ship and Engine Company in Quincy, Massachusetts. Holland designed the Holland II and Holland III prototypes; the Royal Navy'Holland 1' is on display at the Submarine Museum, England. After spending 56 of his 73 years working with submersibles, John Philip Holland died on 12 August 1914 in Newark, New Jersey, he is interred at the Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in New Jersey. A monument stands at the gates of Drogheda in commemoration of his work, it was unveiled in a ceremony on 14 June 2014 as part of the Irish Maritime Festival. The ceremony was attended by Drogheda Town Council as well as representatives of the US, British and Japanese governments. St. John's Catholic School, where Mr. Holland once taught, has been renamed and operates as John P. Holland Charter School in Paterson, New Jersey.
Holland I – A small unarmed submersible. Now on display at the Paterson Museum. Holland II – Built for Irish revolutionaries. Holland III – Scaled down version of Fenian Ram used for navigation tests. Holland IV – experimental submarine financed by US Army Lieutenant Edmund Zalinski. Holland V – Prototype used to demonstrate potential of submarines for naval warfare. Launched in 1897 and used as an experimental submarine by the US Navy. Returned to the Holland Company in 1903 and scrapped in 1917. Holland VI – First modern submarine in the United States Navy. Launched in 1897. Acquired by US Navy in 1900 and commissioned in 1900 as USS Holland. Decommissioned in 1905. HMS Holland 1 – First modern submarine in the Royal Navy. U. S. Patent 239,046 Screw Propeller U. S. Patent 337,000 Hydrocarbon Engine U. S. Patent 472,670 Submergible U. S. Patent 491,051 Submarine Gun U. S. Patent 492,960 Steering Apparatus U. S. Patent 522,177 Submarine Boat U. S. Patent 537,113 Submerigible Boat U. S. Patent 681,221 Submarine Boat U.
S. Patent 681,222 Submarine Boat U. S. Patent 683,400 Submarine Boat U. S. Patent 684,429 Vi