Cheltenham Ladies' College
Cheltenham Ladies' College is an independent boarding and day school for girls aged 11 to 18 in Cheltenham, England. The school was founded in 1853 after six individuals, including the Principal and Vice-Principal of Cheltenham College for Boys and four other men, decided to create a girls' school that would be similar to Cheltenham College for Boys. On 13 February 1854, the first 82 pupils began attending the school, with Annie Procter serving as the school's Principal. In 1858, upon Procter resigning from her position, the Principal's post was taken by Dorothea Beale, a prominent suffragist educator who introduced subjects such as maths and science, despite parental opposition, founded St Hilda's College, Oxford, she was commemorated by a Cheltenham Civic Society blue plaque in 2017. The school badge depicts two doves, taken from the Cheltenham town coat of arms, above three stars, which are in turn above a daisy, a school symbol; the school is divided into Lower College, Upper College and Sixth Form College.
The school gives pupils a choice. A range of subject combinations is available to Upper College girls at GCSE, for Sixth Form girls at A Level or International Baccalaureate. Tutors are full-time academic members of staff and advise girls on matters relating to their academic work and progress, while the Professional Guidance Centre gives advice on career options and university applications. Most pupils go on to continue higher education; the school's academic results are high, both compared to the national average and within the independent sector. From 2014 to 2017, the school reported that over two thirds of A Level results and 90% of GCSE results were A* or A grades. Since 2015, the school has been the top girls boarding school in the country for IB results for three consecutive years. Members of an alumnae association of over 9,000 former pupils, across 80 different countries, keep in contact and offer work placements and careers advice. According to Vicky Tuck, the school's Principal in 2011, the school's pupils succeed in "chemistry, physics and maths".
The school is made up of around 20 % day girls. Whether boarders or day girls, pupils are part of a junior or senior house and are supervised by a Housemistress and a team of House Staff. Girls who board live in one of eleven boarding houses. There are six junior houses for 11- to 16-year-olds, five senior houses for sixth form girls; the junior houses are Farnley Lodge, Sidney Lodge, St. Austin's, St. Helen's, St. Margaret's. At Sixth Form, all girls move to a senior house; the senior houses are Beale, Elizabeth, Roderic and St. Hilda's; each house is run by several resident staff. The housemistresses have a lighter teaching load with a full-time commitment supervising their boarders. Junior day girls have their own base in Eversleigh, where the three junior houses, Glengar and St. Clare, are located; the senior day girl house, Bayshill, is situated in the main college site. The House system plays a large role in pastoral care; the pupils are supported by an Academic Tutor and have access to a 24-hour Medical Centre.
In 2015, the school launched a Wellbeing Programme for all pupils. Over 160 co-curricular activities are available; the Music and Drama departments offer concerts each year involving all age groups. Over 1,000 individual instrumental lessons take place each week. In October 2009, Sir Richard Eyre opened The Parabola Arts Centre; the building was built by cost over £ 12.5 million, funded by donations. The school is a major sponsor of the Cheltenham Music, Literature and Science Festivals and events are hosted at the centre annually; the PAC building was awarded the RIBA award. In 2010, Sharman Macdonald was commissioned to write the college's play. In 2016, the school invested in a new recording studio. In 2018, the school opened Fitness Centre. Sports facilities include a 25-metre six-lane ozone swimming-pool with no chlorine, eight netball courts, 24 tennis courts, five squash courts, two AstroTurf fields, four lacrosse pitches, a spin studio, two dance studios and two sports halls, which can be used for Football, Lacrosse, Basketball, Trampolining and Indoor Tennis.
A membership is available to any member of the public at a monthly cost. Over 30 sports are offered, students are encouraged to maintain their fitness and wellbeing through physical exercise; the main sports are Netball and Hockey in the winter, Tennis and Athletics in the Summer. The school has a well-established Rowing Club, Equestrian and Ski teams. There are many annual inter-house competitions for sports and drama. Girls in the Lower and Upper College wear a kilt, with dark blue blazer. Sixth formers wear a green tweed jacket and a choice of a dark blue skirt or trousers, with a light blue shirt. There are occasional days when girls are allowed to wear their own choice of clothes in return for a donation to charity. Girls use their own bags. Entrance to Cheltenham Ladies' College is by examination for girls aged 11+, 13+ and 16+, as well as at 12+ and 14+ where only a few students are admitted. A number of academic, art and sports scholarships are awarded each year and financial assistance with fees is available.
Girls applying to the Sixth Form are required to achieve high grades at GCSE or IGCSE in the subjects they intend to study for A Levels or IB. The school was last inspected by the Independent Schools Inspectorate in October 2014, it achieved the grade'Excellent' in all ar
Institute of Historical Research
The Institute of Historical Research is a British educational organisation providing resources and training for historical researchers. It is part of the School of Advanced Study in the University of London and is located at Senate House; the Institute was founded in 1921 by A. F. Pollard; the IHR was founded in 1921 by British historian Albert Pollard. Appointed Professor of Constitutional History at University College London in 1903, his inaugural address, a year argued for the need for a postgraduate school of historical research. With a generous and anonymous donation of £20,000 from Sir John Cecil Power in 1920 towards the founding of the institute, Pollard's dream was realised; the Institute was formally opened by H. A. L. Fisher on 8 July 1921; the IHR was directly administered by the Senate of the University of London, rather than being part of one of the federal colleges. It was the first organisation to be administered under such an arrangement, as such provided the model for other Institutes, many of which joined the IHR in the University of London's School of Advanced Study.
The IHR's first premises were in "temporary" huts on Malet Street, on a site now occupied by Birkbeck College. Despite the temporary nature of this accommodation, the IHR was not to move until 1947, when it took up residence in the north block of Senate House; the new location was built by architect Charles Holden, along with the rest of the University, at a projected cost of £3,000,000 and duration of 30 years for the whole project. Still occupying this position, many rooms in the IHR overlook the grass lawn in between Senate House and SOAS, where Senate House's unbuilt fourth court would have been. With the start of World War II in September 1939 the Institute's work and construction of its permanent building were disrupted, with the Ministry of Information occupying Senate House, closing the Institute in May 1940; the IHR was struck by a bomb on the night of 22–23 September 1940. The impact resulted in "the destruction of six books and the entire collection of London maps, as well as of furniture".
1921–39: Prof. Albert Frederick Pollard 1939–44: Sir Cyril Thomas Flower 1944–48: Prof. V. H. Galbraith, FBA 1948–60: Prof. Sir John Goronwy Edwards, FBA, FSA 1960–67: Prof. Francis Wormald, CBE, FBA, FSA 1967–77: Prof. Arthur Geoffrey Dickens, CMG, FBA 1977–90: Prof. Francis Michael Longstreth Thompson, FBA 1990–98: Prof. Patrick Karl O'Brien, FBA 1998–2003: Prof. David Nicholas Cannadine, FSA, FRSA, FRSL, FRHistS 2003–08: Prof. David Richard Bates, FSA, FRHistS 2008–14: Prof. Miles Taylor, FRHistS 2014–17: Prof. Lawrence Neil Goldman, FRHistS 2018–: Prof. Jo Fox, FRHistS, FRSA The IHR's role comprises the following: To promote the study of history and an appreciation of the importance of the past among academics and the general public, in London, in Britain and internationally, to provide institutional support and individual leadership for this broad historical community To offer a wide range of services which promote and facilitate excellence in historical research and scholarship in the UK, by means of its library, conferences, fellowships and publications To further high quality research into particular aspects of the past by its research centres – the Centre for Metropolitan History and the Victoria County History of England To provide a welcoming environment where historians at all stages in their careers and from all parts of the world can meet formally and informally to exchange ideas and information, to bring themselves up to date with current developments in historical scholarship In order to fulfill its role as defined above, the IHR maintains different academic institutions, such as a library, the seminar programme as well as several integrated bodies and programmes.
It publishes the results of historical research. From its inception, the founders of the Institute of Historical Research envisaged a combination of scholarship and library; this tradition is continued in. The library itself collects sources for the History of Western Europe and areas affected by the European expansion, it now contains over 190,000 volumes. There are sizable holdings for the British Isles, as well as for Germany, France, the Low Countries, Spain, Latin America, the US and colonial history, ecclesiastical and crusader history as well as small holdings for Eastern Europe and Scandinavia; the library is good for sources on local history both of the British Isles and Europe. It contains the largest collection of Low Countries material outside of the region, the most complete collection of French cartularies outside France as well as collections of poll books for the United Kingdom and a complete run of the Victoria County History books; the collections have been supplemented by donations and bequests from many different scholars, such as the Wright collection.
In its early years the IHR library was built up by seeking donations, much of the collection was formed from bequests and gifts by individuals and organisations. By 1926, three-quarters of the collection had been acquired through private benefactions and presentations by governments from Europe and other parts of the World. Among the IHR’s extensive collection of books on European history are a set of volumes of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and other works donated to the University of London by the Nazi government of Germany in 1937; the presentation was made by Germany's ambassador to Britain. The accessions records highlight the collaborative nature of library collection dev
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the late 1800s, women worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, sought to change voting laws in order to allow them to vote. National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, worked for equal civil rights for women. Women who owned property gained the right to vote in the Isle of Man in 1881, in 1893, the British colony of New Zealand granted all women the right to vote. Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917. Leslie Hume argues that the First World War changed the popular mood: The women's contribution to the war effort challenged the notion of women's physical and mental inferiority and made it more difficult to maintain that women were, both by constitution and temperament, unfit to vote. If women could work in munitions factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth.
But the vote was much more than a reward for war work. Extended political campaigns by women and their supporters have been necessary to gain legislation or constitutional amendments for women's suffrage. In many countries, limited suffrage for women was granted before universal suffrage for men; the United Nations encouraged women's suffrage in the years following World War II, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women identifies it as a basic right with 189 countries being parties to this Convention. In ancient Athens cited as the birthplace of democracy, only adult, male citizens who owned land were permitted to vote. Through subsequent centuries, Europe was ruled by monarchs, though various forms of parliament arose at different times; the high rank ascribed to abbesses within the Catholic Church permitted some women the right to sit and vote at national assemblies – as with various high-ranking abbesses in Medieval Germany, who were ranked among the independent princes of the empire.
Their Protestant successors enjoyed the same privilege into modern times. Marie Guyart, a French nun who worked with the First Nations peoples of Canada during the seventeenth century, wrote in 1654 regarding the suffrage practices of Iroquois women, "These female chieftains are women of standing amongst the savages, they have a deciding vote in the councils, they make decisions there like the men, it is they who delegated the first ambassadors to discuss peace." The Iroquois, like many First Nations peoples in North America, had a matrilineal kinship system. Property and descent were passed through the female line. Women elders could depose them; the emergence of modern democracy began with male citizens obtaining the right to vote in advance of female citizens, except in the Kingdom of Hawai'i, where universal manhood and women's suffrage was introduced in 1840. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was in effect during the Age of Liberty. Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant women suffrage include the Corsican Republic, the Pitcairn Islands, the Isle of Man, Franceville, but some of these operated only as independent states and others were not independent.
In 1756, Lydia Taft became the first legal woman voter in colonial America. This occurred under British rule in the Massachusetts Colony. In a New England town meeting in Uxbridge, she voted on at least three occasions. Unmarried white women who owned property could vote in New Jersey from 1776 to 1807. In the 1792 elections in Sierra Leone a new British colony, all heads of household could vote and one-third were ethnic African women; the female descendants of the Bounty mutineers who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838. This right was transferred; the seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention in the United States in Seneca Falls, New York was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. The conference refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from the U. S. because of their sex. In 1851, Stanton met temperance worker Susan B. Anthony, shortly the two would be joined in the long struggle to secure the vote for women in the U.
S. In 1868 Anthony encouraged working women from the printing and sewing trades in New York, who were excluded from men's trade unions, to form Working Women's Associations; as a delegate to the National Labor Congress in 1868, Anthony persuaded the committee on female labor to call for votes for women and equal pay for equal work. The men at the conference deleted the reference to the vote. In the U. S. women in the Wyoming Territory could vote as of 1869. Subsequent American suffrage groups disagreed on tactics, with the National American Woman Suffrage Association arguing for a state-by-state campaign and the National Woman's Party focusing on an amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In 1881 the Isle of Man, an internally self-governing dependent territory of the British Crown, enfranchised women property owners. With this it provide
Bertha Johnson was the principal of the Association of Home Students, which would become St Anne's College, University of Oxford, a campaigner for women's education. Her parents were Elizabeth and Dr. Robert Bentley Todd FRS and she was born in Charing Cross on 20 January 1846, her father was an enthusiast for nursing and he was a Professor at King's College, London. She was educated at home with her brother and she excelled at music and the arts, she played her work was exhibited at the Royal Academy. She was one of the first women students at the Slade School of Art. In 1873 she married the Reverend Arthur Henry Johnson, a lecturer and they both enjoyed Oxford university life, he was a curate who lectured in history. She founded the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women in Oxford and helped set up Lady Margaret Hall and Somerville Hall. Oxford was catching up on Cambridge; the ambition in Oxford in time overtook Johnson's ambitions and she became a voice arguing against further progress.
From 1894 to 1921 she was the principal of the Association of Home Students, which would become St Anne's College, Oxford
Strand is a major thoroughfare in the City of Westminster, Central London. It runs just over 3⁄4 mile from Trafalgar Square eastwards to Temple Bar, where the road becomes Fleet Street inside the City of London, is part of the A4, a main road running west from inner London; the road's name comes from the Old English strond, meaning the edge of a river, as it ran alongside the north bank of the River Thames. The street was popular with the British upper classes between the 12th and 17th centuries, with many important mansions being built between the Strand and the river; these included Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, Savoy Palace, Durham House and Cecil House. The aristocracy moved to the West End over the 17th century, following which the Strand became well known for coffee shops and taverns; the street was a centre point for theatre and music hall during the 19th century, several venues remain on the Strand. At the east end of the street are two historic churches: St Mary le Strand and St Clement Danes.
This easternmost stretch of the Strand is home to King's College, one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. Several authors and philosophers have lived on or near the Strand, including Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Virginia Woolf; the street has been commemorated in the song "Let's All Go Down the Strand", now recognised as a typical piece of Cockney music hall. The street is the main link between the two cities of London, it runs eastward from Trafalgar Square, parallel to the River Thames, to Temple Bar, the boundary between the two cities at this point. Traffic travelling eastbound follows a short crescent around Aldwych, connected at both ends to the Strand; the road marks the southern boundary of the Covent Garden district and forms part of the Northbank business improvement district. The name was first recorded in 1002 as strondway in 1185 as Stronde and in 1220 as la Stranda, it is formed from the Old English word ` strond'. It referred to the shallow bank of the once much wider Thames, before the construction of the Victoria Embankment.
The name was applied to the road itself. In the 13th century it was known as'Densemanestret' or'street of the Danes', referring to the community of Danes in the area. Two London Underground stations were once named Strand: a Piccadilly line station that operated between 1907 and 1994 and a former Northern line station which today forms part of Charing Cross station.'Strand Bridge' was the name given to Waterloo Bridge during its construction. London Bus routes 6, 23, 139 and 176 all run along the Strand. During Roman Britain, what is now the Strand was part of the route to Silchester, known as "Iter VIII" on the Antonine Itinerary, which became known by the name Akeman Street, it was part of a trading town called Lundenwic that developed around 600 AD, stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great moved the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the area returned to fields. In the Middle Ages, the Strand became the principal route between the separate settlements of the City of London and the royal Palace of Westminster.
In the archaeological record, there is considerable evidence of occupation to the north of Aldwych, but much along the former foreshore has been covered by rubble from the demolition of the Tudor Somerset Place, a former royal residence, to create a large platform for the building of the first Somerset House, in the 17th century. The landmark Eleanor's Cross was built in the 13th century at the western end of the Strand at Charing Cross by Edward I commemorating his wife Eleanor of Castile, it was demolished in 1647 by the request of Parliament during the First English Civil War, but reconstructed in 1865. The west part of the Strand was in the parish of St Martin in the Fields and in the east it extended into the parishes of St Clement Danes and St Mary le Strand. Most of its length was in the Liberty of Westminster, although part of the eastern section in St Clement Danes was in the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex; the Strand was the northern boundary of the precinct of the Savoy, where the approach to Waterloo Bridge is now.
All of these parishes and places became part of the Strand District in 1855, except St Martin in the Fields, governed separately. The Strand District Board of Works was based at No. 22, Tavistock Street. Strand District was abolished in October 1900 and became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. From the 12th century onwards, large mansions lined the Strand including several palaces and townhouses inhabited by bishops and royal courtiers on the south side, with their own river gates and landings directly on the Thames; the road was poorly maintained, with many pits and sloughs, a paving order was issued in 1532 to improve traffic. What became Essex House on the Strand was an Outer Temple of the Knights Templar in the 11th century. In 1313, ownership passed to the Knights of St John. Henry VIII gave the house to William, Baron Paget in the early 16th century. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, rebuilt the house in 1563 calling it Leicester House, it was renamed Essex House after being inherited by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, in 1588.
It was demolished around 1674 and Essex Street, leading up to the Strand, was built o
Eliza Orme called Elizabeth Orme was the first woman to earn a law degree in England, which she did from University College London in 1888. Orme was born into a well-connected middle-class family, she was the seventh of eight children of Charles Orme and Eliza, daughter of Reverend Edward Andrews. Charles Orme was a distiller and her mother had been a governess to Elizabeth Berrett Browning. Eliza was educated at Bedford College for Women, attended lectures at University College London from 1871, her teachers included John Elliot Cairnes, W. Leonard Courtney, W. A. Hunter. Before the passing of the Sex Disqualification Act 1919, women were not permitted to qualify as a barrister or a solicitor in England. Taking the advice of John Stuart Mill, a family friend, Orme worked in the chambers of a barrister, John Savill Vaizey, from 1873, but her aspiration to be recognised as a "conveyancer under the bar" was blocked, she established an office on Chancery Lane in 1875 with a friend Mary Richardson, worked as a "devil", drafting documents for conveyancing counsel and patent agents.
She received the degree of LLB from the University of London in 1888. From the mid-1880s, she worked with Reina Emily Lawrence, continuing to work on legal matters until about 1904, it was only 34 years that Ivy Williams was called to the bar in England as a first, long after Canada had allowed women with their first lawyer being Clara Brett Martin in 1897. Orme was influenced by J. S. Mill, W. A. Hunter, John Elliott Cairnes and Leonard Courtney, all supporters of"laissez-faire" and Benthamite reform, she too became active as a feminist. She was involved with the National Society for Women's Suffrage and the Society for the Promotion of the Employment of Women, assisted the Royal Commission on labour in 1892, she was involved with the Women's Liberal Federation from 1887, leaving to join its rival Women's National Liberal Federation in 1892. She met the late nineteenth century English novelist George Gissing in November 1894, she wrote a biography of its founder Lady Fry of Darlington. In 1902, she wrote the entry for the Dictionary of National Biography for Samuel Plimsoll.
She lived for most of her life with her parents in London until their deaths in the 1890s, with her sister Beatrice at Tulse Hill. She died in Streatham from heart failure. Cornelia Sorabji, first woman to take the Bachelor of Civil Laws exam at Oxford, in 1892 Gwyneth Bebb, died in 1921 before qualifying as a barrister Ivy Williams, first woman called to the English bar in 1922 Eliza Orme - biographical note with only-known portrait
Matron is the job title of a senior or the chief nurse in several countries, including the United Kingdom, its former colonies, such as India, the Republic of Ireland. The chief nurse, in other words the person in charge of nursing in a hospital and the head of the nursing staff, is known as the Senior Nursing Officer, nursing officer, or clinical nurse manager in UK English. In the United Kingdom, matrons today "have powers over budgets and cleaning as well as being in charge of nurses" and "have the powers to withhold payments from catering and cleaning services if they don't think they are giving the best service to the NHS." Matrons supervised the hospital as a whole but today, they are in-charge of supervising two or three wards. The chief nurse is a registered nurse who supervises the care of all the patients at a health care facility; the chief nurse is the senior nursing management position in an organization and holds executive titles like chief nursing officer, chief nurse executive, or vice-president of nursing.
They report to the CEO or COO. The word "matron" is derived from the Latin via French; the matron was once the most senior nurse in a hospital. She was responsible for all the nurses and domestic staff, overseeing all patient care, the efficient running of the hospital, although she never had real power over the strategic running of the hospital. Matrons were invariably female—male nurses were not at all common in senior positions, they were seen as fearsome administrators, but were respected by nurses and doctors alike. The National Health Service matron became memorably associated with the formidable character played by actress Hattie Jacques in the 1959 film Carry On Nurse and the 1967 film Carry On Doctor; the matron had a distinctive uniform, with a dark blue dress and an elaborate headdress. More the British Government announced the return of the matron to the NHS, electing to call this new breed of nurses "modern matrons," in response to various press complaints of dirty, ineffective hospitals with poorly disciplined staff.
They are not intended to have the same level of responsibility as the old matrons, as they oversee just one department but do have budgetary control regarding catering and cleaning contracts. In larger hospitals some will have a group of wards to manage, their managerial powers are more limited, they spend most of their time on administrative work rather than having direct responsibility for patient care. Many areas of the UK now employ Community Matrons; the role of this staff group is predominantly Clinical and these Matrons have a caseload of patients for whom they are clinically responsible. Many of these patients have chronic health conditions such as COPD, and/or palliative conditions which result in multiple hospital admissions, it is the aim of this staff group to treat the patient within the community thereby limiting hospital admissions. This staff group are predominantly Nurses, but there are other Allied Health Professionals in the role such as Paramedics and Occupational Therapists.
The nursing branches of the British Armed Forces have never abandoned the term "Matron", it is used for male as well as female officers holding the rank of Major or above. It was used as an actual rank in the nursing services. In South Africa and its former mandated territory South-West Africa, Matron is the rank of the most senior nurse of a hospital. Long before women were employed as sworn police officers, many police forces employed uniformed women with limited powers to search and attend to female prisoners and deal with matters affecting women and children; these female officers were known as "police matrons". Officers in women's prisons sometimes used the title of "matron". Institutions such as children's homes and workhouses were run by matrons; the matron of a workhouse was often the wife of the master and looked after the domestic affairs of the establishment. This was, in fact, the original meaning of the term, its use in hospitals was borrowed from workhouses. The term was used in boarding schools for the woman in charge of domestic affairs in a boarding house or the school nurse.
In the past, the matron was sometimes the wife of the housemaster. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the female spouse of a temple president or his counselors is referred to as a temple matron