The Decretum Gratiani known as the Concordia discordantium canonum or Concordantia discordantium canonum or as the Decretum, is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian. It forms the first part of the collection of six legal texts, which together became known as the Corpus Juris Canonici, it was used by canonists of the Roman Catholic Church until Pentecost 1918, when a revised Code of Canon Law promulgated by Pope Benedict XV on 27 May 1917 obtained legal force. It was about 1150 that Gratian, teacher of theology at the monastery of Saints Nabor and Felix and sometimes believed to have been a Camaldolese monk, composed the work entitled by himself, Concordia discordantium canonum, but called by others Nova collectio, Corpus juris canonici Decretum Gratiani, the latter being now the accepted name, he did this to obviate the difficulties which beset the study of practical, external theology, i. e. the study of canon law.
In spite of its great reputation and wide diffusion, the Decretum has never been recognized by the Church as an official collection. It is divided into three parts; the first part is divided into 101 distinctions, the first 20 of which form an introduction to the general principles of canon Law. The second part contains 36 causes, divided into questions, treat of ecclesiastical administration and marriage; the third part, entitled "De consecratione", treats of the sacraments and other sacred things and contains 5 distinctions. Each distinction or question contains dicta Gratiani, or maxims of Gratian, canones. Gratian himself raises questions and brings forward difficulties, which he answers by quoting auctoritates, i. e. canons of councils, decretals of the popes, texts of the Scripture or of the Fathers. These are the canones, it is to be noted that many auctoritates have been inserted in the "Decretum" by authors of a date. These are the Paleœ, so called from Paucapalea, the name of the principal commentator on the "Decretum".
The Roman revisers of the 16th century corrected the text of the "Decree" and added many critical notes designated by the words Correctores Romani. The Decretum is quoted by indicating the number of the canon and that of the distinction or of the cause and the question. To differentiate the distinctions of the first part from those of the third, question of the 33rd cause of the second part and those of the third part, the words de Pœn. i. e. de Pœnitentiâ, de Cons. i. e. de Consecratione are added to the latter. For instance, "c. 1. D. XI" indicates the first part of the "Decree". Distinction XI, canon 1. 1. de Pœn. d. VI," refers to the second part, 33rd cause, question 3, distinction VI, canon 1. 8, de Cons. d. II" refers to the third part, distinction II, canon 8. 8, C. XII, q. 3" refers to the second part, cause XII, question 3, canon 8. Sometimes in the case of well-known and much-quoted canons, the first words are indicated, e. g. c. Si quis suadente diabolo, C. XVII, q. 4, i. e. the 29th canon of the second part, cause XVII, question 4.
The first words alone are quoted. In both cases, to find the canon it is necessary to consult the alphabetical tables that contain the first words of every canon. Gratian was a canon lawyer from Bologna, he flourished in the mid 12th century. Little else is known about him, he is sometimes incorrectly referred to as Franciscus Gratianus, Johannes Gratian, or Giovanni Graziano. For a long time he was believed to have been born at the end of the 11th century, at Chiusi in Tuscany, he was said to have become a monk at Camaldoli and he taught at the monastery of St. Felix in Bologna and devoted his life to studying canon law, but contemporary scholarship does not attach credibility to these traditions. Since the 11th century, Bologna had been the centre of the study of canon law, as well as of Roman law, after the Corpus Juris Civilis was rediscovered in western Europe. Gratian's work was an attempt, using early scholastic method, to solve contradictory canons from previous centuries. Gratian quoted a great number of authorities, including the Bible and conciliar legislation, church fathers such as Augustine of Hippo, secular law in his efforts to reconcile the canons.
Gratian found a place in Dante's Paradise among the doctors of the Church: He has long been acclaimed as Pater Juris Canonici, a title he shares with his successor St. Raymond of Penyafort; the vulgate version of Gratian's collection was completed at some point after the Second Lateran Council, which it quotes. Research by Anders Winroth established that some manuscripts of an early version of Gratian's text, which differs from the mainstream textual tradition, have survived. With commentaries and supplements, the work was incorporated into the Corpus Juris Canonici; the Decretum became the standard textbook for students of canon law throughout Europe, but it never received any formal official recognition by the papacy. Only the Codex Juris Canonici of 1917 put it out of use; as late as 1997, scholars set the date of completion at 1140, but this accuracy in dating isn't possible after Anders Winroth's grou
Collectio canonum Wigorniensis
The Collectio canonum Wigorniensis is a medieval canon law collection originating in southern England around the year 1005. It exists in multiple recensions, the earliest of which — "Recension A" — consists of just over 100 canons drawn from a variety of sources, most predominantly the ninth-century Frankish collection of penitential and canon law known as the Collectio canonum quadripartita; the author of Recension A is unknown. Other recensions exist later in date than the first; these recensions are extensions and augmentations of Recension A, are known collectively as "Recension B". These recensions all bear the unmistakable mark of having been created by Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester and archbishop of York sometime around the year 1008, though some of them may have been compiled as late as 1023, the year of Wulfstan's death; the collection treats a range of ecclesiastical and lay subjects, such as clerical discipline, church administration and clerical penance and private penance, as well as a variety of spiritual and catechistic matters.
Several "canons" in the collection verge on the character of sermons or expository texts rather than church canons in the traditional sense. Cross and Hamer's edition, Wulfstan's canon law collection Thorpe's edition in vol. 2 of his Ancient laws and institutes Johnson's English translation in his A collection of all the ecclesiastical laws Spelman's editio princeps in his Concilia, leges, constitutiones Discussion on the Anglo-Saxon canon law Web site A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in Cambridge, Corpus 265 A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in the Oxford manuscript A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in the London manuscript A comprehensive edition of the canonical material in Cambridge, Corpus 190 P. Wormald, The making of English law: King Alfred to the twelfth century. Vol. I: legislation and its limits. Wulfstan’s canon law collection, eds J. E. Cross and A. Hamer, Anglo-Saxon texts 1. A Wulfstan manuscript, containing institutes and homilies, ed. H.
R. Loyn, Early English manuscripts in facsimile 17
Decretales Gregorii IX
The Decretals of Gregory IX collectively called the Liber extra, are an important source of medieval Canon Law. In 1230, Pope Gregory IX ordered his chaplain and confessor, St. Raymond of Penyafort, a Dominican, to form a new canonical collection destined to replace all former collections, it has been said that the pope by this measure wished to emphasize his power over the Universal Church. The papacy had arrived at the zenith of its power. Moreover, a pope less favourably circumstanced would not have thought of so important a measure; the utility of a new collection was so evident that there may be no other motives than those the pope gives in the Bull "Rex pacificus" of 5 September 1234, viz. the inconvenience of recurring to several collections containing decisions most diverse and sometimes contradictory, exhibiting in some cases gaps and in others tedious length. The Quinque compilationes antiquæ was a series of five of these collections of pontifical legislation from the Decretum of Gratian to the pontificate of Honorius III.
Raymond executed the work in about four years, followed in it the method of the Quinque compilationes antiquæ. He borrowed from them the order of the subject-matter, the division into five books, of the books into titles and of the titles into chapters. Of the 1971 chapters the Decretals of Gregory IX contain, 1771 are from the Quinque compilationes antiquæ, 191 are from Gregory IX himself, seven from decretals of Innocent III not inserted in the former collections, two are of unknown origin, they are arranged according to the order of the ancient collections, i.e. each title opens with the chapters of the first collection, followed by those of the second, so on in regular order. Next come those of Innocent III, those of Gregory IX. All the rubrics, or headings of the titles, have been borrowed from these collections, but several have been modified as regards detail; this method lightened St. Raymond's task. However, he did more than compile the documents of former collections, he left out 383 decisions, modified several others, omitted parts when he considered it prudent to do so, filled up the gaps, to render his collection complete and concordant, cleared up doubtful points of the ancient ecclesiastical law by adding some new decretals.
He indicated by infra the passages excised by him in the former collections. They are called partes decisae; the new compilation bore no special title, but was called "Decretales Gregorii IX" or sometimes "Compilatio sexta", i. e. the sixth collection with reference to the "Quinque compilationes antiquæ". It was called "Collectio seu liber extra", i. e. the collection of the laws not contained in the "Decretum" of Gratian. Hence the custom of denoting this collection by the letter X. Quotations from this collection are made by indicating the number of the chapter, the name the work goes by, the number of the book, that of the title; the heading of the title and sometimes the first words of the chapter are quoted. 3, X, III, 23", or "c. Odoardus, X, De solutionibus, HI, 23", refers to the third chapter, commencing with the word Odoardus, in the Decretals of Gregory IX, book III, title 23, entitled "De solutionibus". If the number of the chapter or of the title is not indicated it will be learned on consulting the alphabetical indexes of the rubrics and of the introductory words of the chapters, which are to be found in all editions of the "Corpus Juris Canonici".
Gregory IX sent this new collection to the Universities of Bologna and Paris, declared, by the Bull "Rex pacificus" of 5 September 1234, that this compilation was the official code of the canon law. All its decisions had the force of canon law whether they were authentic or not, whatever the juridical value of the texts considered in themselves, whatsoever the original text, it is a unique collection. In this peculiar case it is not possible to overcome the difficulty by recourse to the principle that a law of date abrogates that of an earlier period, it is an exclusive collection, i.e. it abrogates all the collections the official ones, of a date than the "Decretum" of Gratian. Some authors maintain that Gregory IX abrogated those laws prior to Gratian's time that the latter had not included in his "Decretum", but others contest this opinion; the Decretals of Gregory IX differ from modern codes. Instead of containing in one concise statement a legislative decision, they start with an account of a controversy, the allegations of the parties in dispute, a demand or the solution of the question.
The enacting part of the chapter alone has the force of law. The rubrics of the titles have the force of law when their sense is complete, as for instance, Ne sede vacante aliquid innovetur, because the headings form an integral part of the official code of the laws. However, they ought always to be interpreted according to the decisions contained in the chapters; the historical indications concerning each chapter are far from being exact since they were corrected in the Roman edition of 1582. It may be regretted that St. Raymond did not ha
The title canon Episcopi is conventionally given to a certain passage found in medieval canon law. The text originates in an early 10th-century penitential, recorded by Regino of Prüm, it is an important source on folk belief and surviving pagan customs in Francia on the eve of the formation of the Holy Roman Empire. The folk beliefs described in the text reflect the residue of pre-Christian beliefs at about one century after the Carolingian Empire had been Christianized, its condemnation of the belief in witchcraft was an important argument used by the opponents of the witch trials during the 16th century, such as Johann Weyer. The conventional title "canon Episcopi" is based on the text's incipit, was current from at least the 17th century, it is first attested in the Libri de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis composed by Regino of Prüm around 906. It was included in Burchard of an early attempt at collecting all of Canon law; the text was adopted in the Decretum of Ivo of Chartres and in Gratian's authoritative Corpus juris canonici of c.
1140. Because it was included in Gratian's compilation the text was treated as canon law for the remaining part of the High Middle Ages, until Roman Catholic views on European witchcraft began to change in the late medieval period; the text of Gratian is not the same as the one used by Burchard, the distinctive features of the Corrector text were thus not transmitted to times. The text of Regino of Prüm was edited in Patrologia Latina, volume 132; the text of Burchard's Corrector has been separately edited by Wasserschleben, again by Schmitz. The incipit of Gratian's text, which gave rise to the title of "canon Episcopi" reads: Episcopi, eorumque ministri omnibus modis elaborare studeant, ut perniciosam et a diabolo inventam sortilegam et magicam artem ex parochiis suis penitus eradicent, et si aliquem virum aut mulierem hujuscemodi sceleris sectatorem invenerint, turpiter dehonestatum de parochiis suis ejiciant. "The bishops and their ministers should by all means make great effort so that they may eradicate the pernicious art of divination and magic, invented by the devil, from their parishes, if they find any man or woman adhering to such a crime, they should eject them, turpidly dishonoured, from their parishes."This condemnation the "pernicious art of divination and magic" is justified by a reference to Titus 3:10-11 on heresy.
Follows a description of the errors of "certain wicked women", who deceived by Satan believe themselves to join the train of the pagan goddess Diana during the hours of the night, to cover great distances within a multitude of women riding on beasts, during certain nights to be called to the service of their mistress. Those holding such beliefs are condemned by the text in no uncertain terms, deploring the great number of people who "relapse into pagan error" by holding such beliefs; because of this, the text instructs that all priests should teach at every possible instant that such beliefs are phantasms inspired by an evil spirit. The following paragraph presents an account of the means by which Satan takes possession of the minds of these women by appearing to them in numerous forms, how once he holds captive their minds, deludes them by means of dreams; the text emphasizes that the heretic belief is to hold that these transformations occur in the body, while they are in reality dream visions inspired in the mind.
The text proposes that it is normal to have nightly visions in which one sees things that are never seen while awake, but that it is a great stupidity to believe that the events experienced in the dream vision have taken place in the body. Examples are adduced, of Ezechiel having his prophetic visions in spirit, not in body, of the Apocalypse of John, seen in spirit, not in body, of Paul of Tarsus, who describes the events at Damascus as a vision, not as a bodily encounter; the text concludes by repeating that it should be publicly preached that all those holding such beliefs have lost their faith, believing not in God but in the devil, whosoever believes that it is possible to transform themselves into a different kind of creature, is far more wavering than an infidel. The Canon Episcopi has received a great deal of attention from historians of the witch craze period as early documentation of the Catholic church's theological position on the question of witchcraft; the position taken by the author is that these "rides of Diana" did not exist, that they are deceptions, dreams or phantasms.
It is the belief in the reality of such deceptions, considered a heresy worthy of excommunication. The position here is that the devil is real, creating delusions in the mind, but that the delusions do not have bodily reality; this s
Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches, it thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world". Pastor bonus laid out in considerable detail the organization of the Roman Curia, specifying the names and composition of each dicastery, enumerating which competencies, or responsibilities, each dicastery was charged with overseeing, it replaced the previous governing document, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, released by Paul VI in 1967. It delineated the roles of the Secretariat of State, Tribunals, Pontifical Councils, Administrative Services and Pontifical Commissions of the Roman Curia.
It established the norms for the ad limina visits of bishops to Rome and the relationship between the Holy See and the particular Churches and episcopal conferences. Among the changes formulated in the constitution was the re-integration of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church into the Secretariat of State as the Section for Relations with States; the Council for Public Affairs of the Church had been a section of the Secretariat of State, but was made an independent dicastery by Pope Paul VI in 1967. The constitution opened membership in dicasteries to priests, deacons and lay persons. For centuries, only cardinals were eligible for membership in the organs of the Holy See, but Pope Paul VI allowed diocesan bishops to be members following calls for collegiality at the Second Vatican Council. Pastor bonus continued the opening of the central government of the church by allowing representatives of all the faithful to have a role in the Roman Curia; as of March 2016, Pastor bonus has been amended by Quaerit semper in 2011, Ministrorum institutio and Fides per doctrinam in 2013, Confermando una tradizione in 2014.
In the Apostolic Letter Ministrorum institutio of 16 January 2013, Pope Benedict XVI transferred the governance of seminaries from the Congregation for Catholic Education to the Congregation for the Clergy. On the same day the Apostolic Letter Fides per doctrinam transferred the competence of catechesis from the Congregation for Clergy to the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization. In October 2013, Pope Francis and his Council of Cardinals were reviewing Pastor bonus for possible further revisions. On 24 February 2014, Francis issued the Apostolic Letter Fidelis dispensator et prudens establishing the Council for the Economy to oversee the administrative and financial structures and activities of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the institutions linked to the Holy See, the Vatican City State, it established the Secretariat for the Economy as a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Original text Full text, translated to English by Francis C. C. F. Kelly, James H. Provost, Michel Thériault and revised by Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State, authorized by the Secretariat of State.
Wooden, Cindy. "Changing needs, changing names: Reform of Curia is Vatican tradition", Catholic New Service, 13 July 2014 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
Second Vatican Council
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965. Several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons". Other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum, as well as ad orientem, modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. Of those who took part in the council's opening session, four have become popes: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding John XXIII took the name Pope Paul VI. In the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council; this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal. At the same time, the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social and technological change; some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958; this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. In various discussions before the Council convened, John XXIII said that it was time to "open the windows and let in some fresh air".
He invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIII's announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise to the cardinals present; the Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon, he had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini, who gave enthusiastic support to the idea. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea, they were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. Attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. What is needed at the present t
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture. By undercutting imperial power, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. According to historian Norman Cantor, the investiture controversy was "the turning-point in medieval civilization", marking the end of the Early Middle Ages with the Germanic peoples' "final and decisive" acceptance of Christianity. More it set the stage for the religious and political system of the High Middle Ages, it began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV in 1076. There was a brief but significant investiture struggle between Pope Paschal II and King Henry I of England from 1103 to 1107; the conflict ended in 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed on the Concordat of Worms, which differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops.
The outcome was a papal victory, but the Emperor still retained considerable power. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies about who had the authority to appoint local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, investiture was performed by members of the ruling nobility despite theoretically being a task of the church. Many bishops and abbots were themselves part of the ruling nobility. Given that most members of the European nobility practiced primogeniture, willed their titles of nobility to the eldest surviving male heir, surplus male siblings sought careers in the upper levels of the church hierarchy; this was true where the family may have established a proprietary church or abbey on their estate. Since Otto the Great the bishops had been princes of the empire, had secured many privileges, had become to a great extent feudal lords over great districts of the imperial territory.
The control of these great units of economic and military power was for the king a question of primary importance due to its effect on imperial authority. It was essential for a nobleman to appoint someone who would remain loyal. Since a substantial amount of wealth and land was associated with the office of a bishop or abbot, the sale of church offices—a practice known as "simony"—was an important source of income for leaders among the nobility, who themselves owned the land and by charity allowed the building of churches; the crisis began when supporters of the Gregorian Reform decided to rebel against simony by forcefully taking the power of investiture from the ruling secular power, the Holy Roman Emperor, placing that power wholly within control of the church. The Gregorian reformers knew this would not be possible so long as the emperor maintained the ability to appoint the pope, so their first step was to forcibly gain the papacy from the control of the emperor; when Emperor Henry IV became a six-year-old German king in 1056, the reformers seized the papacy while the king was still a child.
In 1059, a church council in Rome declared, with In Nomine Domini, that leaders of the nobility would have no part in the selection of popes and created the College of Cardinals as a body of electors made up of church officials. Having regained control of the election of the pope, the church was now ready to tackle investiture and simony. In 1075, Pope Gregory VII composed the Dictatus Papae. One clause asserted, it declared that the Roman church was founded by God alone – that the papal power was the sole universal power. By this time, Henry IV was no longer a child, he continued to appoint his own bishops, he reacted to this declaration by sending Gregory VII a letter in which he withdrew his imperial support of Gregory as pope in no uncertain terms: the letter was headed "Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false monk". It called for the election of a new pope, his letter ends, "I, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, come down!", is quoted with "and to be damned throughout the ages", a addition.
The situation was made more dire when Henry IV installed his chaplain, Tedald, a Milanese priest, as Bishop of Milan, when another priest of Milan, had been chosen in Rome by the pope for candidacy. In 1076 Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry, deposed him as German king, releasing all Christians from their oath of allegiance. Enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage came to be on the side of Gregory VII. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the king's deposition, they used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, for seizure of royal holdings. Aristocrats claimed local lordships over peasants and property, built forts, outlawed, built up localized fiefdoms to secure their autonomy from the empire. Thus, because of these combining factors, Henry IV had no choice but to back down, needing time to marshal his forces to fight the rebellion. In 1077, he traveled to Canossa in northern Italy to apologize in person.
As penance for his sins, echoing his own punishment of the Saxons after the First Battle of Langensalza, he wore a hair sh