A showboat, or show boat, was a floating theater that traveled along the waterways of the United States along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, to bring culture and entertainment to the inhabitants of river frontiers. Showboats were a special type of riverboat designed to carry passengers rather than cargo, they had to be pushed by a small towboat known as a pusher, attached to it. Showboats were steam-powered because the steam engine had to be placed right in the auditorium for logistical reasons, therefore making it difficult to have a large theater. During the American frontier era, populations of potential audiences were scattered about the area, now the United States. Actors traveled to America from England, theatre venues as well as touring companies were developed. Noah Ludlow, an early pioneer in travelling theater, purchased a keelboat in 1816 for $200 and named it Noah's Ark. Ludlow and 11 associates, together known as the American Theatrical Commonwealth Company, climbed aboard and traveled down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, stopping to perform whenever they could.
It is not clear whether they performed on the boat, or just used the boat as a means of travel. If they did, in fact, perform on the boat Ludlow's Noah's Ark would have been the first showboat. British-born actor William Chapman, Sr. created the first deliberately-planned showboat, named the Floating Theater in Pittsburgh in 1831. He and his family of nine, along with two other people, lived on this boat and performed plays with added music and dance at stops along the waterways; the price of admission was anywhere from a peck of fresh vegetables to 50 cents a person. After reaching New Orleans, they got rid of the boat and went back to Pittsburgh in a steamboat in order to tour down the river once again the following year. In 1836, the family was able to afford a new equipped steam engine with a stage. In 1837, it was renamed Steamboat Theatre. Many other showboats followed the Floating Theater onto the rivers in the following years, some of them began to do other performances besides theater.
One popular showboat during this period was the Floating Circus Palace of Gilbert R. Spaulding and Charles J. Rogers, built in 1851, that featured large-scale equestrian spectacles. By the middle of the nineteenth century, showboats could seat up to 3,400 and featured wax museums and equestrian shows. Showboats disappeared with the advent of the American Civil War, but began again in 1878. Upon their revival, they tended to focus on vaudeville. Major boats of this period included the New Sensation, New Era, Water Queen, the Princess. New inventions such as the steamer tow and the steam calliope increased both territory and audiences, Stephen Foster’s songs added charm to their simple programs. With the improvement of roads, the rise of the automobile, motion pictures, the maturation of the river culture, the popularity of showboats again began to decline. In order to combat this development, they grew in size and became more colorful and elaborately designed in the 1900s; the Golden Rod seated 1,400 persons.
With the burlesquing of these programs throughout the 1930s to attract sophisticated audiences, showboats ceased to perform their original function. The last showboat to travel the rivers in authentic pattern was the Golden Rod in 1943; the glory days of showboats are recalled by the Majestic, docked on the Ohio River in Downtown Cincinnati. Until 2013, she served as a venue for regular performances. In 1914, circus actors James Adams and his wife launched the James Adams Floating Theatre, a showboat that would tour the Chesapeake Bay and bring theatre to audiences in Maryland and North Carolina. In the process of writing her 1926 novel Show Boat, Edna Ferber stayed on board the James Adams Floating Theatre to gather research material on the showboat, a disappearing American pastime; this novel served as the inspiration for the award-winning Kern and Hammerstein Broadway hit, Show Boat. Since the box-office success of MGM's 1951 motion picture version of the musical Show Boat, in which the boat was inaccurately redesigned as a deluxe, self-propelled steamboat, the image of a showboat as a large twin-stacked vessel with a huge paddle wheel at the rear has taken hold in popular culture.
Two earlier film versions of Show Boat and most stage productions feature a accurate vessel, Edna Ferber's novel on which the musical is based gives a description of the Cotton Blossom that reflects the design of a nineteenth-century showboat. Based on the gaudy look of showboats, the term "showboat" came to mean someone who wants his or her ostentatious behavior to be seen at all costs; this term is applied in sports, where a showboat will do something flashy before achieving his or her goal. The word is used as a verb. British television show Soccer AM has a section appropriately named Showboat, dedicated to flashy tricks from the past week's games. Oft-cited examples of showboating include Leon Lett's grocery-bag-carrying of a recovered football in Super Bowl XXVII.
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music. The creation, performance and the definition of gospel music varies according to culture and social context. Gospel music is composed and performed for many purposes, including aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Gospel music has dominant vocals with Christian lyrics. Gospel music can be traced with roots in the black oral tradition. Hymns and sacred songs were repeated in a call and response fashion. Most of the churches relied on hand clapping and foot stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the first published use of the term "gospel song" appeared in 1874. The original gospel songs were written and composed by authors such as George F. Root, Philip Bliss, Charles H. Gabriel, William Howard Doane, Fanny Crosby. Gospel music publishing houses emerged; the advent of radio in the 1920s increased the audience for gospel music. Following World War II, gospel music moved into major auditoriums, gospel music concerts became quite elaborate.
Gospel blues is a blues-based form of gospel music. Southern gospel used all tenor-lead-baritone-bass quartet make-up. Progressive Southern gospel is an American music genre that has grown out of Southern gospel over the past couple of decades. Christian country music, sometimes referred to as country gospel music, is a subgenre of gospel music with a country flair, it peaked in popularity in the mid-1990s. Bluegrass gospel music is rooted in American mountain music. Celtic gospel music infuses gospel music with a Celtic flair, is quite popular in countries such as Ireland. British black gospel refers to Gospel music of the African diaspora, produced in the UK; some proponents of "standard" hymns dislike gospel music of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, with historical distance, there is a greater acceptance of such gospel songs into official denominational hymnals. Gospel music features Christian lyrics; some modern gospel music, isn't explicitly Christian and just utilizes the sound.
Subgenres include contemporary gospel, urban contemporary gospel, Southern gospel, modern gospel music. Several forms of gospel music utilize choirs, use piano or Hammond organ, drums, bass guitar and electric guitar. In comparison with hymns, which are of a statelier measure, the gospel song is expected to have a refrain and a more syncopated rhythm. Several attempts have been made to describe the style of late 19th and early 20th century gospel songs in general. Christ-Janer said "the music was tuneful and easy to grasp... rudimentary harmonies... use of the chorus... varied metric schemes... motor rhythms were characteristic... The device of letting the lower parts echo rhythmically a motive announced by the sopranos became a mannerism". Patrick and Sydnor emphasize the notion that gospel music is "sentimental", quoting Sankey as saying, "Before I sing I must feel", they call attention to the comparison of the original version of Rowley's "I Will Sing the Wondrous Story" with Sankey's version.
Gold said, "Essentially the gospel songs are songs of testimony, religious exhortation, or warning. The chorus or refrain technique is found." According to Yale University music professor Willie Ruff, the singing of psalms in Gaelic by Presbyterians of the Scottish Hebrides evolved from "lining out" – where one person sang a solo and others followed – into the call and response of gospel music of the American South. Coming out of the African-American religious experience, American gospel music can be traced to the early 17th century, with foundations in the works of Dr. Isaac Watts and others. Gospel music has roots in the black oral tradition, utilizes a great deal of repetition, which allows those who could not read the opportunity to participate in worship. During this time and sacred songs were lined and repeated in a call and response fashion, Negro spirituals and work songs emerged. Repetition and "call and response" are accepted elements in African music, designed to achieve an altered state of consciousness we sometimes refer to as "trance", strengthen communal bonds.
Most of the churches relied on foot-stomping as rhythmic accompaniment. Guitars and tambourines were sometimes available, but not frequently. Church choirs became a norm only after emancipation. Most of the singing was done a cappella; the most famous gospel-based hymns were composed in the 1760s and 1770s by English writers John Newton and Augustus Toplady, members of the Anglican Church. Starting out as lyrics only, it took decades for standardized tunes to be added to them. Although not directly connected with African-American gospel music, they were adopted by African-Americans as well as white Americans, Newton's connection with the abolition movement provided cross-fertilization; the first published use of the term "Gospel Song" appeared in 1874 when Philip Bliss released a songbook entitled Gospel Songs. A Choice Collection of Hymns and Tunes, it was used to describe a new style of church music, songs that were easy to grasp and more singable than the traditional church hymns, which came out of the mass revival movement starting with Dwight L. Moody, whose musician was Ira D. Sankey, as well as the Holiness-Pentecostal movement.
Prior to the meeting of Moody and
Steam is water in the gas phase, formed when water boils or evaporates. Steam is invisible. At lower pressures, such as in the upper atmosphere or at the top of high mountains, water boils at a lower temperature than the nominal 100 °C at standard pressure. If heated further it becomes superheated steam; the enthalpy of vaporization is the energy required to turn water into the gaseous form when it increases in volume by 1,700 times at standard temperature and pressure. Piston type steam engines played a central role to the Industrial Revolution and modern steam turbines are used to generate more than 80% of the world's electricity. If liquid water comes in contact with a hot surface or depressurizes below its vapor pressure, it can create a steam explosion. Steam is traditionally created by heating a boiler via burning coal and other fuels, but it is possible to create steam with solar energy. Water vapor that includes water droplets is described as wet steam; as wet steam is heated further, the droplets evaporate, at a high enough temperature all of the water evaporates and the system is in vapor–liquid equilibrium.
Superheated steam is steam at a temperature higher than its boiling point for the pressure, which only occurs where all liquid water has evaporated or has been removed from the system. Steam tables contain thermodynamic data for water/steam and are used by engineers and scientists in design and operation of equipment where thermodynamic cycles involving steam are used. Additionally, thermodynamic phase diagrams for water/steam, such as a temperature-entropy diagram or a Mollier diagram shown in this article, may be useful. Steam charts are used for analysing thermodynamic cycles. In agriculture, steam is used for soil sterilization to avoid the use of harmful chemical agents and increase soil health. Steam's capacity to transfer heat is used in the home: for cooking vegetables, steam cleaning of fabric and flooring, for heating buildings. In each case, water is heated in a boiler, the steam carries the energy to a target object. Steam is used in ironing clothes to add enough humidity with the heat to take wrinkles out and put intentional creases into the clothing.
As of 2000 around 90% of all electricity was generated using steam as the working fluid, nearly all by steam turbines. In electric generation, steam is condensed at the end of its expansion cycle, returned to the boiler for re-use. However, in cogeneration, steam is piped into buildings through a district heating system to provide heat energy after its use in the electric generation cycle; the world's biggest steam generation system is the New York City steam system, which pumps steam into 100,000 buildings in Manhattan from seven cogeneration plants. In other industrial applications steam is used for energy storage, introduced and extracted by heat transfer through pipes. Steam is a capacious reservoir for thermal energy because of water's high heat of vaporization. Fireless steam locomotives were steam locomotives that operated from a supply of steam stored on board in a large tank resembling a conventional locomotive's boiler; this tank was filled by process steam, as is available in many sorts of large factory, such as paper mills.
The locomotive's propulsion used connecting rods, as for a typical steam locomotive. These locomotives were used in places where there was a risk of fire from a boiler's firebox, but were used in factories that had a plentiful supply of steam to spare. Owing to its low molecular mass, steam is an effective lifting gas, providing 60% as much lift as helium and twice as much as hot air, it is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, is cheap and abundant, unlike helium. The required heat, leads to condensation problems and requires an insulated envelope; these factors have limited its use thus far to demonstration projects. Steam engines and steam turbines use the expansion of steam to drive a piston or turbine to perform mechanical work; the ability to return condensed steam as water-liquid to the boiler at high pressure with little expenditure of pumping power is important. Condensation of steam to water occurs at the low-pressure end of a steam turbine, since this maximizes the energy efficiency, but such wet-steam conditions must be limited to avoid excessive turbine blade erosion.
Engineers use an idealised thermodynamic cycle, the Rankine cycle, to model the behavior of steam engines. Steam turbines are used in the production of electricity. An autoclave, which uses steam under pressure, is used in microbiology laboratories and similar environments for sterilization. Steam dry steam, may be used for antimicrobial cleaning to the levels of sterilization. Steam is a non-toxic antimicrobial agent. Steam is used in piping for utility lines, it is used in jacketing and tracing of piping to maintain the uniform temperature in pipelines and vessels. Steam is used in the process of wood killing insects and increasing plasticity. Steam is used to accentuate drying in prefabricates. Care should be taken since concrete produces heat during hydration and additional heat from the steam could be detrimental to hardening reaction processes of the concrete. Used in cleaning of fibers and other materials, sometimes in preparation for painting. Steam is useful in melting hardened grease and oil resid
CMT (U.S. TV channel)
CMT launched as CMTV, is an American pay television channel, owned by Viacom. Its name is an initialism for "Country Music Television", it was the first nationally available channel devoted to country country music videos. Programming on the channel focused on country music. CMT's current programming now consists of original reality programs and scripted series, off-network syndicated shows, theatrically-released movies; as of January 2018 92 million U. S. homes receive CMT. The channel's headquarters are located in One Astor Plaza in New York City, has additional offices in Nashville, Tennessee. CMTV, an initialism of Country Music Television, was founded by Glenn D. Daniels, the owner of Video World Productions in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Daniels put together the ownership group of Telestar Corporation and the Blinder Robinson & Company investment bank in a three-way split. Daniels served as the program director and the first president of the network; the network launched on March 5, 1983, at 6:19 p.m. CT, beating its chief competitor, TNN, to air by two days.
The first video clip to air on CMT was Faron Young's 1971 hit "It's Four in the Morning". The following summer, MTV filed a trademark infringement lawsuit over the initials CMTV, the network changed its name to CMT. In 1991, Opryland USA and its owner Gaylord Entertainment Company acquired CMT in a $34 million deal; the network was sold by a group led by radio station owner Robert Sillerman, record producer James Guercio and Nyhl L Henson. Opryland USA and owner Gaylord owned CMT's competitor The Nashville Network. In October 1992, CMT launched its first international channel, CMT Europe, as part of the Sky Multichannels package. By 1998, Gaylord reported $10 million in losses from CMT Europe and decided to cease broadcasting the declining network on March 31, 1998. Gaylord had planned to emulate the successful model created by E!, by selling large programming blocks to other European channels, but these plans never occurred. In 1994, Gaylord made its first major format change for CMT by adding several new programs, including Big Ticket, Jammin' Country, CMT Signature Series, The CMT Delivery Room, CMT Saturday Nite Dance Ranch, CMT Top 12 Countdown.
All shows were cancelled by 2001. In 1995, CMT dropped all videos by Canadian artists without U. S. record contracts in response to the network being replaced in Canada by Calgary, Alberta-based New Country Network. By March 1996, CMT had returned the dropped videos to its playlist after reaching an agreement to acquire a 20% ownership of New Country Network, in addition to renaming it CMT. In 1997, both CMT and TNN were sold to then-owner of CBS for a reported $1.5 billion. The acquisition of the two country-themed networks, along with the formation of the ill-fated CBS Eye on People network, two regional sports networks formed the CBS Cable division, based in Nashville at the Grand Ole Opry and a Charlotte office at Lowe's Motor Speedway. In 1999, Viacom acquired CBS, assuming ownership of CMT and TNN and folding them into the MTV Networks stable; the resulting moves in 2000 led to the closing of the CBS Charlotte office, while Viacom moved TNN's operations from Nashville to its own headquarters in New York City and changed its format renaming it The National Network and reformatting it again as Spike.
CMT experienced a migration of its mainline operations from Nashville to New York, experienced a format change. Over time, the number of music videos on the network had decreased with the late May 2006 rebranding of VH1 Country to CMT Pure Country, with music video programming on CMT being relegated to the overnight and morning hours. On January 3, 2006, the original Viacom split into two different companies: One being the legal successor to Viacom, CBS Corporation, the other being the'new' Viacom, with CMT, Spike TV and the MTV family of networks being part of the latter company. Despite the decrease in music videos, CMT has experienced significant ratings gains since its acquisition by MTV Networks in 1999. By 2007, the channel was available in more than 83 million homes; as of 2009, the network now reaches 88 million homes. On April 4, 2012, CMT announced its first cartoon series, Bounty Hunters, featuring the voices of Jeff Foxworthy, Larry the Cable Guy and Bill Engvall who serve as executive producers.
CMT announced that it would air Trinity 911, a 10-episode "workplace docu-comedy" that follows the police force in a small Texas town. Trinity 911 was renamed Big Texas Heat and removed from the schedule after airing four episodes. On June 10, 2016, CMT announced that they would pick up the primetime network series Nashville after ABC's cancellation of the series, renewed the series for a fifth full season of 22 episodes. In 2017, when the network announced a transition into an unscripted programming-oriented schedule, Nashville's sixth season would be its last; as part of its shift back to unscripted progra
Ryman Auditorium is a 2,362-seat live-performance venue located at 116 5th Avenue North, in Nashville, Tennessee. It is best known as the home of the Grand Ole Opry from 1943 to 1974 and is owned and operated by Ryman Hospitality Properties, Inc. Ryman Auditorium was included in the National Register of Historic Places in 1971 and was designated a National Historic Landmark on June 25, 2001, for its pivotal role in the popularization of country music; the auditorium opened as the Union Gospel Tabernacle in 1892. Its construction was spearheaded by Thomas Ryman, a Nashville businessman who owned several saloons and a fleet of riverboats. Ryman conceived the idea of the auditorium as a tabernacle for the influential revivalist Samuel Porter Jones, he had attended one of Jones' 1885 tent revivals with the intent to heckle, but was instead converted into a devout Christian who pledged to build the tabernacle so the people of Nashville could attend large-scale revivals indoors. It took seven years to complete and cost US$100,000.
However, Jones held his first revival at the site on May 25, 1890, with only the building's foundation and six-foot walls standing. Architect Hugh Cathcart Thompson designed the structure. Exceeding its construction budget, the tabernacle opened US$20,000 in debt. Jones sought to name the tabernacle in Ryman's honor; when Ryman died in 1904, his memorial service was held at the tabernacle. During the service, Jones proposed the building be renamed Ryman Auditorium, met with the overwhelming approval of the attendees. Jones died less than two years in 1906; the building was designed to contain a balcony, but a lack of funds delayed its completion. The balcony was built and opened in time for the 1897 gathering of the United Confederate Veterans, with funds provided by members of the group; as a result, the balcony was named the Confederate Gallery. Upon the completion of the balcony, the Ryman's capacity rose to 6,000. A stage was added in 1901 that reduced the capacity to just over 3,000. Though the building was designed to be a house of worship – a purpose it continued to serve throughout most of its early existence – it was leased to promoters for nonreligious events in an effort to pay off its debts and remain open.
In 1904, Lula C. Naff, a widow and mother, working as a stenographer, began to book and promote speaking engagements, boxing matches, other attractions at the Ryman in her free time. In 1914, when her employer went out of business, Naff made booking these events her full-time job, she transitioned into a role as the Ryman's official manager by 1920. She preferred to go by the name "L. C. Naff" in an attempt to avoid initial prejudices as a female executive in a male-dominated industry. Naff gained a reputation for battling local censorship groups, who had threatened to ban various performances deemed too risqué. In 1939, Naff won a landmark lawsuit against the Nashville Board of Censors, planning to arrest the star of the play Tobacco Road due to its provocative nature; the court declared the law creating the censors to be invalid. Naff's ability to book stage shows and world-renowned entertainers in the city's largest indoor gathering place kept the Ryman at the forefront of Nashville's consciousness and enhanced the city's reputation as a cultural center for the performing arts as the building began to age.
W. C. Fields, Will Rogers in 1925, Charlie Chaplin, Bob Hope with Doris Day in'49, Harry Houdini in'24, John Philip Sousa performed at the venue over the years, earning the Ryman the nickname, "The Carnegie Hall of the South"; the Ryman hosted lectures by U. S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft in 1911, respectively. World-famous Italian opera singer Enrico Caruso appeared in concert there in 1919, it hosted the inaugurations of three governors of the state of Tennessee. The Ryman in its early years hosted Marian Anderson in 1932, Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys in'45, Little Jimmy Dickens in'48, Hank Williams in'49, The Carter Sisters with Mother Maybelle Carter in 1950, Elvis in'54, Johnny Cash in'56, trumpeter Louis Armstrong in'57, Patsy Cline in'60, Lester Flatt & Earl Scruggs in'64, Minnie Pearl in'64; the first event to sell out the Ryman was a lecture by Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan Macy in 1913. While being a trailblazer for working women, Naff championed the cause of diversity.
The building was used as a regular venue for the Fisk Jubilee Singers from nearby Fisk University, a black college. Jim Crow laws forced Ryman audiences to be segregated, with some shows designated for "White Audiences Only" and others for "Colored Audiences Only". However, photographs show that Ryman audiences of the time were integrated. Naff retired in 1955 and died in 1960. After debuting in 1925, the local country music radio program known as the Grand Ole Opry became a Nashville institution. Broadcast over clear-channel AM radio station WSM, it could be heard in 30 states across the eastern part of the nation. Although not a stage show, the Opry began to attract listeners from around the region who would go to the WSM studio to see it live; when crowds got too large for the studio, WSM began broadcasting the show from the Hillsboro Theatre in 1934. The Opry moved to East Nashville's Dixie Tabernacle in 1936 and to War Memorial Auditorium in 1939. After four years – and several reports of upholstery damage caused by its rowdy crowds – the
Maritime call sign
Maritime call signs are call signs assigned as unique identifiers to ships and boats. One of the earliest applications of radiotelegraph operation, long predating broadcast radio, were marine radio stations installed aboard ships at sea. In the absence of international standards, early transmitters constructed after Guglielmo Marconi's first trans-Atlantic message in 1901 were issued arbitrary two-letter calls by radio companies, alone or preceded by a one-letter company identifier; these mimicked an earlier railroad telegraph convention where short, two-letter identifiers served as Morse code abbreviations to denote the various individual stations on the line.'N' and two letters would identify US Navy. On April 14, 1912, the RMS Titanic station MGY, busily delivering telegram traffic from ship's passengers to the coastal station at Cape Race, would receive warnings of ice fields from Marconi stations aboard the M. V. Mesaba and the SS Californian, its distress call CQD CQD CQD CQD CQD CQD DE MGY MGY MGY MGY MGY MGY position 41.44N 50.24W would be answered by a station aboard the RMS Carpathia.
That same year, an international conference standardised radio call signs so that the first two letters would uniquely identify a transmitter's country of origin. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities. In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned callsigns beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were given call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters, but as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers; as broadcast stations became commonplace in the 1920s, some original three and four-letter call signs were reassigned as the corresponding ships were removed from U.
S. registry. The WSB call sign had been held by two ships before being assigned to the Atlanta Journal for use by its unsinkable Atlanta, Georgia broadcast radio station in 1922. WEZU, the international radio call sign of the ship SS Lash Atlantico, was assigned in 1997 to a broadcast station. Additional call signs would be reassigned to coastal stations or moved from marine radio to terrestrial broadcast radio when ships were sold for registration to foreign nations, as the new owners would obtain new, local call signs for any existing shipboard radio stations. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US wishing to have a radio licence anyway are under F. C. C. Class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped." Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet.
For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47 foot motor lifeboats. The call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Maritime Mobile Service Identity Pan-pan
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes and artificial waterways. They are equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such as lake or harbour tour boats; as larger water craft all riverboats are designed and constructed, or alternatively, constructed with special-purpose features that optimizes them as riverine or lake service craft, for instance, survey boats, fisheries management craft and law enforcement patrol craft. These vessels are less sturdy than ships built for the open seas, with limited navigational and rescue equipment, as they do not have to survive the high winds or large waves characteristic to large lakes, seas or oceans, they can thus be built from light composite materials. They are limited in size by width and depth of the river as well as the height of bridges spanning the river, they can be designed with shallow drafts, as were the paddle wheel steamers on the Mississippi River that could operate in water under two metres deep.
While a ferry is used to cross a river, a riverboat is used to travel along the course of the river, while carrying passengers and cargo, or both, for revenue.. The significance of riverboats is dependent on the number of navigable rivers and channels as well as the condition of the road and rail network. Speaking, riverboats provide slow but cheap transport suited for bulk cargo and containers; as early as 20,000 BC people started fishing in lakes using rafts and dugouts. Roman sources dated 50 BC mention extensive transportation of people on the river Rhine. Upstream, boats were powered by sails or oars. In the Middle Ages, towpaths were built along most waterways to use working animals or people to pull riverboats. In the 19th century, steamboats became common; the most famous riverboats were on the rivers of the midwestern and central southern United States, on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in the early 19th century. Out west, riverboats were common transportation on the Colorado and Sacramento rivers.
These American riverboats were designed to draw little water, in fact it was said that they could "navigate on a heavy dew". Australia has a history of riverboats. Australia's biggest river, the Murray, has an inland port called Echuca. Many large riverboats were working on the Murray; the Kalgan River in Western Australia has had two main riverboats, the Silver Star, 1918 to 1935, would lower her funnel to get under the low bridge. Today, the Kalgan Queen riverboat takes tourists up the river to taste the local wines, she lowers her roof to get under the same bridge. It is these early steam-driven river craft that come to mind when "steamboat" is mentioned, as these were powered by burning wood, with iron boilers drafted by a pair of tall smokestacks belching smoke and cinders, twin double-acting pistons driving a large paddlewheel at the stern, churning foam; this type of propulsion was an advantage as a rear paddlewheel operates in an area clear of snags, is repaired, is not to suffer damage in a grounding.
By burning wood, the boat could consume fuel provided by woodcutters along the shore of the river. These early boats carried a brow on the bow, so they could head in to an unimproved shore for transfer of cargo and passengers. Modern riverboats are screw -driven, with pairs of diesel engines of several thousand horsepower; the standard reference for the development of the steamboat is Steamboats on Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History by Louis C. Hunter. Many of the riverboats shown below were operating on the Yangtze River; some large riverboats are comparable in accommodation, food service, entertainment to a modern oceanic cruise ship. Tourist boats provide a relaxing trip through the segment they operate in. On the Yangtze River employees have double duties: both as serving staff and as evening-costumed dancers. Tourist riverboats Smaller luxury craft operate on European waterways - both rivers and canals, with some providing bicycle and van side trips to smaller villages. High-speed boats such as those shown here had a special advantage in some operations in the free-running Yangtze.
In several locations within the Three Gorges, one-way travel was enforced through fast narrows. While less maneuverable and deeper draft vessels were obliged to wait for clearance, these high-speed boats were free to zip past waiting traffic by running in the shallows. High-speed planing and hydrofoil riverboats Smaller riverboats are used in urban and suburban areas for sightseeing and public transport. Sightseeing boats can be found in Amsterdam and other touristic cities where historical monuments are located near water; the concept of local waterborn public transport is known as water taxi in English-speaking countries, vaporetto in Venice, water/river tramway in former Soviet Union and Poland. Local waterborne public transport is similar to ferry; the transport craft shown below is used for short-distance carriage of passengers between villages and small cities along the Yangtze, while larger craft are used for low-cost carriage over longer distance, without the fancy food or shows seen on the tourist riverboats.
In some cases, the traveller must provide their own food. As the major rivers in China are east-west, most rail and road transport are nort