General Pershing WWI casualty list

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Front page of Evening Public Ledger, April 3, 1918, with General John Pershing
Rows of headstones line the grounds of Brookwood American Military Cemetery, United Kingdom
District of Columbia War Memorial, West Potomac Park, Washington, DC
US soldiers run past the remains of two German soldiers toward a bunker

The General Pershing WWI casualty list was a list of casualties released to the media by the American military during World War I. Newspapers like the Evening Public Ledger would title the list's summary, General Pershing Reports or Pershing Reports.[1] The name General Pershing refers to General John Pershing who was in command of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) the expeditionary force of the United States Army during World War I. While fighting the Germans on the Western Front the AEF would take daily casualties in the form of those killed in action (KIA), those who died from their wounds, those who died from disease, accidental deaths, soldiers missing in action (MIA) and soldiers wounded in action (WIA). These numbers would be tabulated by the American military and then released to the American news media.[1] Much after the war the real numbers were mined from the military bureaucracy as opposed to the fog of war. During WWI 4,734,991 served in the American military.[2] There were a total of 116,516 deaths with 53,402 of those in battle.[2] Another 63,114 died in accidental deaths but around 45,000 died due to the 1918 Spanish Flu outbreak (30,000 before they even reached France).[3][4] Of those that survived the war 204,002 were wounded in some way.[2]

One of the publications that printed this data along with the names who were reported dead and wounded was the Philadelphia newspaper Evening Public Ledger. The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. Its motto was "Virtue Liberty and Independence". For a time, it was Philadelphia's most popular newspaper, but circulation declined in the mid-1930s. In 1913, Cyrus H. K. Curtis purchased the paper from Ochs for $2 million ($ 49,520,000 in 2018) and hired his step son-in-law John Charles Martin as editor.[5] Under Curtis' ownership, the conservative appearance of the Ledger was increased: it avoided bold headlines and seldom printed photographs on the front page. Its conservative format has been compared by scholars to the Wall Street Journal or New York Times of the twentieth century.[6] Curtis built the Ledger's foreign news service and syndicated it to other papers. From 1918 to 1921, former President William Howard Taft was on staff as an editorial contributor. To broaden the market, and compete against The Evening Bulletin, in 1914 Curtis began publishing the Evening Public Ledger, a bolder paper designed to appeal to a broader public.

The list[edit]

On November 5, 1917, the Evening Public Ledger published a story with the headline "Casualty List In First Action Thrills Nation." In the article it listed the first three American deaths in the war: McLean County, Kentucky's Corporal James Bethel Gresham, Private Merle Hay from Glidden, Iowa and Private Thomas Enright of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[7] They had been killed in a skirmish on November 3, 1917. In addition to the three Americans KIA the casualty list printed that five were WIA and twelve soldiers were MIA.[7] Initially, the casualty lists were published with casualty's name and their address. From March 9, 1918, the list was "denatured" or stripped of home addresses.[8] On April 2, 1918, the American military prevented the publication of all casualty lists from the American War Department decreeing that the only source for casualty lists would be the American command headquarters in France.[9]

April 1919[edit]

March 1919[edit]

February 1919[edit]

January 1919[edit]

December 1918[edit]

November 1918[edit]

October 1918[edit]

September 1918[edit]

August 1918[edit]

July 1918[edit]

June 1918[edit]

May 1918[edit]

April 1918[edit]

March 1918[edit]

February 1918[edit]

January 1918[edit]

December 1917[edit]

November 1917[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger 1918, p. 6
  2. ^ a b c DeBruyne 2017, p. 2
  3. ^ Wevera & van Bergenc 2014
  4. ^ Byerly 2010
  5. ^ TIME 1930
  6. ^ Hepp 2003, p. 130
  7. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger 1917, p. 1
  8. ^ Evening Public Ledger (A) 1918, p. 4
  9. ^ Evening Public Ledger (B) 1918, p. 1
  10. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 30 1919
  11. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 28 1919
  12. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 25 1919
  13. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 24 1919
  14. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 17 1919
  15. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 15 1919
  16. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 11 1919
  17. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 10 1919
  18. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 9 1919
  19. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 4 1919
  20. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 3 1919
  21. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 2 1919
  22. ^ Evening public ledger Apr 1 1919
  23. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 31 1919
  24. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 29 1919
  25. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 28 1919
  26. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 27 1919
  27. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 26 1919
  28. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 25 1919
  29. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 24 1919
  30. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 22 1919
  31. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 21 1919
  32. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 20 1919
  33. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 19 1919
  34. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 18 1919
  35. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 17 1919
  36. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 15 1919
  37. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 14 1919
  38. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 13 1919
  39. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 12 1919
  40. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 11 1919
  41. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 10 1919
  42. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 8 1919
  43. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 7 1919
  44. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 6 1919
  45. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 5 1919
  46. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 4 1919
  47. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 3 1919
  48. ^ Evening public ledger Mar 1 1919
  49. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 28 1919
  50. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 27 1919
  51. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 26 1919
  52. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 25 1919
  53. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 24 1919
  54. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 22 1919
  55. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 21 1919
  56. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 20 1919
  57. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 19 1919
  58. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 18 1919
  59. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 17 1919
  60. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 15 1919
  61. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 14 1919
  62. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 12 1919
  63. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 11 1919
  64. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 10 1919
  65. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 8 1919
  66. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 7 1919
  67. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 6 1919
  68. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 5 1919
  69. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 4 1919
  70. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 3 1919
  71. ^ Evening public ledger Feb 1 1919
  72. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 31 1919
  73. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 30 1919
  74. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 29 1919
  75. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 28 1919
  76. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 27 1919
  77. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 25 1919
  78. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 24 1919
  79. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 23 1919
  80. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 22 1919
  81. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 21 1919
  82. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 20 1919
  83. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 18 1919
  84. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 17 1919
  85. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 16 1919
  86. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 15 1919
  87. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 14 1919
  88. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 13 1919
  89. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 11 1919
  90. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 10 1919
  91. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 9 1919
  92. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 8 1919
  93. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 7 1919
  94. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 6 1919
  95. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 4 1919
  96. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 3 1919
  97. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 2 1919
  98. ^ Evening public ledger Jan 1 1919
  99. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 31 1918
  100. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 30 1918
  101. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 28 1918
  102. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 27 1918
  103. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 26 1918
  104. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 24 1918
  105. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 23 1918
  106. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 21 1918
  107. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 20 1918
  108. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 19 1918
  109. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 18 1918
  110. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 17 1918
  111. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 16 1918
  112. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 14 1918
  113. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 13 1918
  114. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 12 1918
  115. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 11 1918
  116. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 10 1918
  117. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 9 1918
  118. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 7 1918
  119. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 6 1918
  120. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 5 1918
  121. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 4 1918
  122. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 3 1918
  123. ^ Evening public ledger Dec 2 1918
  124. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 30 1918
  125. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 29 1918
  126. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 28 1918
  127. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 27 1918
  128. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 26 1918
  129. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 25 1918
  130. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 23 1918
  131. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 22 1918
  132. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 21 1918
  133. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 20 1918
  134. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 19 1918
  135. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 18 1918
  136. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 16 1918
  137. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 15 1918
  138. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 14 1918
  139. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 13 1918
  140. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 12 1918
  141. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 11 1918
  142. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 9 1918
  143. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 8 1918
  144. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 7 1918
  145. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 6 1918
  146. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 5 1918
  147. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 4 1918
  148. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 2 1918
  149. ^ Evening public ledger Nov 1 1918
  150. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 31 1918
  151. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 30 1918
  152. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 29 1918
  153. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 28 1918
  154. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 26 1918
  155. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 25 1918
  156. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 24 1918
  157. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 23 1918
  158. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 22 1918
  159. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 21 1918
  160. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 19 1918
  161. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 18 1918
  162. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 17 1918
  163. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 16 1918
  164. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 15 1918
  165. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 14 1918
  166. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 12 1918
  167. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 11 1918
  168. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 10 1918
  169. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 9 1918
  170. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 8 1918
  171. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 7 1918
  172. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 5 1918
  173. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 4 1918
  174. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 3 1918
  175. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 2 1918
  176. ^ Evening public ledger Oct 1 1918
  177. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 30 1918
  178. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 28 1918
  179. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 27 1918
  180. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 26 1918
  181. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 25 1918
  182. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 24 1918
  183. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 23 1918
  184. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 21 1918
  185. ^ Evening public ledger Sep 20 1918
  186. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 19 1918
  187. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 18 1918
  188. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 17 1918
  189. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 16 1918
  190. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 14 1918
  191. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 13 1918
  192. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 12 1918
  193. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 11 1918
  194. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 10 1918
  195. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 9 1918
  196. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 7 1918
  197. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 6 1918
  198. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 5 1918
  199. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 4 1918
  200. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 3 1918
  201. ^ Evening Public Ledger Sep 2 1918
  202. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 31 1918
  203. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 30 1918
  204. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 29 1918
  205. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 28 1918
  206. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 27 1918
  207. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 26 1918
  208. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 24 1918
  209. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 23 1918
  210. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 22 1918
  211. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 21 1918
  212. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 20 1918
  213. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 19 1918
  214. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 17 1918
  215. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 16 1918
  216. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 15 1918
  217. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 14 1918
  218. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 13 1918
  219. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 12 1918
  220. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 10 1918
  221. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 9 1918
  222. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 8 1918
  223. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 7 1918
  224. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger Aug 6 1918
  225. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 5 1918
  226. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 3 1918
  227. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 2 1918
  228. ^ Evening Public Ledger Aug 1 1918
  229. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 25 1918
  230. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 25 1918
  231. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 23 1918
  232. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 22 1918
  233. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 17 1918
  234. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 15 1918
  235. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 9 1918
  236. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 8 1918
  237. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jul 5 1918
  238. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 29 1918
  239. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 24 1918
  240. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 21 1918
  241. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 19 1918
  242. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 17 1918
  243. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 13 1918
  244. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 12 1918
  245. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 10 1918
  246. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 8 1918
  247. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 7 1918
  248. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 3 1918
  249. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jun 1 1918
  250. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 30 1918
  251. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 29 1918
  252. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 25 1918
  253. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 23 1918
  254. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger May 18 1918
  255. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 15 1918
  256. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 11 1918
  257. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 10 1918
  258. ^ Evening Public Ledger May 1 1918
  259. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger Apr 30 1918
  260. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 29 1918
  261. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 26 1918
  262. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 24 1918
  263. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 22 1918
  264. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger Apr 20 1918
  265. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 18 1918
  266. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 15 1918
  267. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 11 1918
  268. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 10 1918
  269. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 5 1918
  270. ^ Evening Public Ledger Apr 3 1918
  271. ^ a b Evening Public Ledger Mar 30 1918
  272. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 29 1918
  273. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 26 1918
  274. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 20 1918
  275. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 14 1918
  276. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 13 1918
  277. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 12 1918
  278. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 9 1918
  279. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 7 1918
  280. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 2 1918
  281. ^ Evening Public Ledger Mar 1 1918
  282. ^ Evening Public Ledger Feb 27 1918
  283. ^ Evening Public Ledger Feb 7 1918
  284. ^ New York Times 1918
  285. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jan 29 1918
  286. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jan 25 1918
  287. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jan 23 1918
  288. ^ Evening Public Ledger Jan 22 1918
  289. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 26 1917
  290. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 24 1917
  291. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 17 1917
  292. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 15 1917
  293. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 14 1917
  294. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 13 1917
  295. ^ Evening Public Ledger Dec 10 1917
  296. ^ Evening Public Ledger Nov 30 1917
  297. ^ Evening Public Ledger Nov 21 1917
  298. ^ Evening Public Ledger Nov 19 1917
  299. ^ Evening Public Ledger Nov 15 1917
  300. ^ Evening Public Ledger Nov 3 1917
  301. ^ Evening Public Ledger Nov 2 1917

References